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Acid/Base Solutions

Acids/Bases, Colligative Props., Intermolec. Forces, Concentration

Dipole-Dipole Bonding occurs between polar molecules; (+) end of 1 molecule is attracted to the (-) end of another molecule; 1-2% of the strength of an ionic bond; larger molecule = higher boiling point
Hydrogen Bonding special type of dipole-dipole (stronger than regular); between hydrogen and "highly electronegative elements" (usually F, N, O); larger molecule = higher boiling point
London Dispersion Forces occurs between nonpolar molecules; size of molecule and strength of force are directionally proportional (larger molecule= higher boiling point)
Surface Tension resistance of liquid to increase its surface area; large intermolecular forces = high surface tension
Capillary Action the spontaneous rising of a liquid in a narrow tube (forming meniscus); when substance is polar, meniscus is concave, when substance is nonpolar, its convex
Cohesive Forces forces among the molecules that can cause capillary action
Adhesive Forces forces between the molecules and the container that can cause capillary action
Viscosity measure of a liquid's resistance to flow; large intermolecular forces = highly viscous
Crystalline Solids solids with a highly regular arrangement of their components
Amorphous Solids solids with considerable disorder in their structures
Ionic Solids type of crystalline solid; ions are at the points of the lattice
Molecular Solids type of cyrstalline solid; have covalently bonded molecules at each lattice point
Atomic Solids type of crystalline solid; have atoms at the lattice points
Metallic Solids subgroup of atomic solids; a special type of delocalized nondirectiona covalent bonding occurs
Network Solids subgroup of atomic solids; atoms bond to each other with strong directional covalent bonds that lead to networks of other atoms
Group 8A Solids subgroup of atomic solids; noble gases are attracted to each other with weak London dispersion forces
Hydration process by which ionic substances dissociate into ions. cations are attracted to the (-) end of H2O (O) and anions are attracted to the (+) end (H2)
Properties of Electrolytes dissociate in solution; solution conducts electricity
Strong Electrolytes completely dissociate in H2O
Weak Electrolytes dissociate to a small degree in H2O
Non-Electrolytes may dissolve in H2O, but do not dissociate at all
Strong Acids HCl, H2SO4, HNO3, HClO4, HBr, HI
Strong Bases NaOH, KOH, LiOH, Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2
Weak Acids HC2H3O2, H3PO4, HNO2, HOCl, C6H5COOH
Weak Bases NH3
Molarity moles of solute / liters of solution
Molality moles of solute / kg of solvent
Mole Fraction moles of solute / moles of solution
Mass Percent ( g solute / g solution ) x 100
Acids releases H+ into solution; proton donor; electron acceptor
Bases releases OH- into solution; proton acceptor; electron donor
Properties of Acids dissociate into ions in solution; solution conducts electricity; low pH (below 7); litmus turns red; phenolphthalein remains colorless; if reacted w/ active metal, produces H2 gas; if reacted with carbonates, will form CO2
Equilibrium equal rates of reaction; lies far to the right for strong acids, far to the left for weak acids
Ka equilibrium expression; [concentration of products] / [concentration of reactants]
Amphoteric can act as both an acid and as a base, e.g., water
Evaporation the process by which molecules go from liquid to gaseous state; endothermic because gas has more energy than liquid, so energy must go into the system
Boiling gas is able to come up from the bottom; occurs throughout entire liquid
Vapor Pressure ability of molecules to enter vapor stage
Boiling Point temperature at which vapor pressure of liquid is equal to the atmospheric pressure
Normal Boiling Point temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the normal atomospheric pressure
Temperature a measure of the average kinetic energy
Relationship Between Temperature and Vapor Pressure as temperature increases, energy of molecules increase. higher energy means less energy has to be added to become gaseous, so it is easier to become gaseous. higher ability to become gaseous = higher vapor pressure.as temp increases so does vapor pressure
Why does evaporation lower a liquid's temperature? evaporation is endothermic, so energy enters the system and increases the molecules' energy. the energetic molecules evaporate, leaving low-energy molecules (not enough energy to become gas). lower energy is reflected in a lower temperature.
Melting Point point where the liquid and solid have identical vapor pressures
Normal Melting Point temperature at which the solid and liquid states have the same vapor pressure under conditions where the total pressure is one atmosphere
Raolt's Law (Vapor Pressure of Solution Formula) P(soln) = X(solv)P(solv) (vapor pressure of solution = (mole fraction of solvent)(vapor pressure of pure solvent)
Sublimation process by which molecules of a solid become gaseous without passing through the liquid state
Colloids suspension of tiny particles in some medium; particles are single large molecules or aggreates of molecules/ions; also called colloidal dispersions
Tyndall Effect suspended particles scatter light, making the beam of light visible from the side; can be used to distinguish between a suspension and a true solution
Coagulation destruction of a colloid; can be caused by heating or adding an electrolyte
Van't Hoff Factor (i) i = ( moles of particles in solution / moles of solute dissolved ); number of particles a substance dissociates into when in solution
Ion Pairing some ions remain paired instead of dissociating; leads to deviation from expected value of "i"
Osmotic Pressure (formula) osmotic pressure = iMRT
Gas Law Constant (R) 0.0826
Change in Freezing Point (formula) Tf = imTf ; Tf = temperature of pure solvent in K
Change in Boiling Point Tb = imTb ; Tb = boiling point of pure solvent in K
Triple Point only point at which all three phases can coexist
Critical Point end of the line between vapor and liquid phases; shows the critical temperature and critical pressure
Critical Temperature highest temperature at which vapor can be liquified
Critical Pressure the pressure needed to liquify vapor at the critical temperature
Ion Dipole ionic bonding; occurs between two polar ionic molecules; strongest type of intermolecular bond
Mixture two or more elements physically sharing the same space; the elements' appearances may change, but their chemical properties won't; a mixture can be separated into its component parts with relative ease
Compound two or more elements chemically combined; a new substance is formed and the individual elements lose their original properties
Homogenous consistent throughout; components are evenly dispersed
Solution a homogenous mixture
Solubility the ability to dissolve
Temperature's Effect on Solubility increases solubililty in solids and liquids; decreases solubility in gases
Pressure's Effect on Solubility increases solubility in gases; no effect in solids/liquids
Why is it beneficial to have measures of concentration that are Temperature Independent? temperature affects volume, but not mass. molality, mole fraction, & mass percent are mass-based, but molarity is volume-based. M of a solution may change as the temp. changes, but m, x, and m% won't change
Explain nature of solute and solvent in relation to (delta)T. (delta)T doesn't depend on the nature of the solute, just on the number of solute particles (i); it does however depend on the nature of the solvent, because Kb and Kf are specific to each individual solvent.
Colligative Properties properties that change when a solute dissolves in a solvent; vapor pressure, osmotic pressure, freezing point, boiling point
Enthalpy of Vaporization (delta)Hvap; energy required to vaporize one mole of molecules at standard atmospheric pressure
Enthalpy of Fusion (delta)Hfus; energy required to melt one mole of molecules at standard atmospheric pressure
Conjugate Base everything that remains of the acid molecule after a proton is lost
Conjugate Acid formed when the proton is transferred to the base; essentially base + H+
Conjugate Acid-Base Pair two substances related to each other by the donating and accepting of a single proton; two substances that differ only by the presence or lack of H+; e.g., acid and conjugate base
Acid-Base Reaction H+ and OH- combine to form H2O; also called neutralization reaction; enough base is added to react exactly with the acid in a solution
Precipitation Reaction a reaction in which an insoluble substance forms and separates from the solution
Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reaction a reaction in which one or more electrons are transferred
Equivalence Point point in titration where enough titrant has been added to neutralize the base
Endpoint point where indicator changes color
Created by: nickyvee