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E-Stim Review for NPTE

Why use larger electrodes? 1) Use over large muscle groups. 2) Use to lower charge density.
Why use smaller electrodes? 1) Use over small muscle groups. 2) Use to increase charge density. 3) Use smaller electrode for active electrode to elicit strong reaction from specific muscle.
Contraindications for E-Stim 1) Cancer 2) Pacemakers 3)Areas of active bleeding/fractures 4)Superficial metal implants 5)Neck muscles.
Maximum current density for Ionto? Max current density is 1.0 mA/cm2 for cathode (-) and 0.5 mA/cm2 for the anode(+)
How do you calculate dose for ionto? Amplitude x Treatment time. We want a dosage of 40-80mAmin.
Lidocaine Positively Charged Analgesic
Zinc Positively Charged, for dermal ulcers
Hydrocortisone Positively Charged, for Musculoskeletal inflammation.
Acetate Negatively Charged, for Calcium deposits.
Hyaluronidase Positively charged, for Edema reduction.
Dexamethasone Negatively Charged, for Musculoskeletal inflammation.
Xylocaine Positively charged analgesic.
Salicylate Negatively charged analgesic
When would you keep electrodes far apart? 1) To have deeper current. 2) To decrease current density in SUPERFICIAL skin, which prevents burns. RISK IS TO CAUSE CONTRACTION OF UNDESIRED MUSCLES.
How to get continuous (tetanic) contraction with ES Intermittent contraction with 20-80 pulses per second @ pulse duration of 100-600microseconds. LOW INTENSITY contraction at 20-50pps and HIGH INTENSITY at 50-80pps.
What is pulse duration? Recommended pulse durations for sensory and motor level ES? Pulse duration is how long a current will activate for a single pulse. For sensory level ES, pulse duration of 20-100 microseconds is recommended. For MOTOR level ES, 100-600 microseconds is recommended.
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