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Integumentary Study

Chapter 12

sebaceous glands secrete oil that lubricates the skin and discourages the growth of bacteria
sweat glands help regulate body temperature and water content by secreting sweat
heparin which is released in response to an injury. it is an anticoagulant prevents blood clotting
histamine is released in response to allergens, causes the signs of an allergic response, including itching and increased mucus secretion
hidrosis is the production of excretion of sweat
unguis is known as fingernail or toenail
lunula is a pale half-moon-shaped region at the nail root. most easily seen in the thumbnail.
cuticle is a narrow band of epidermis attached to the surface of the nail just in front of the root it protects keratin cells as they form
nail root fastens the nail to the finger or toe by fitting into a groove in the skin
acne vulgaris known as acne caused by an over production of sebum (oil)it can be triggered by hormones. it can occur in adult
comedo noninflected lesion formed by the buildup of sebum and keratin in a hair follicle known as a blackhead
sebaceous cyst closed sac associated with a sebaceous gland that is found just under the skin; cyst contain yellow fatty material found on the neck and face or trunk
seborrhea over-activity of sebaceous gland that results in the production of excessive amount of sebum(oil)
seborrheic dermatitis is an inflammation that causes scaling and itching of the upper layers of skin or scalp known as dandruff
seborrheic keratosis is a benign skin growth that has a waxy or pasted on look; can vary in color from tan to black occur mostly in the elderly
anhidrosis abnormal condition of lacking sweat in response to heat
diaphoresis is profuse sweating
heperhidrosis is a condition of sweating in one area or over the whole body
miliaria is heat rash or prickly heat; intensely itchy rash caused by blockage of sweat glands by bacteria or dead cells
hirsutism is the presence of excessive body and facial hair in women, usually occurring in a male pattern; hereditary or hormonal balance
alopecia known as baldness is the partial or complete loss of hair most commonly on the scalp
alopecia areata is an autoimmune disorder that attacks the hair follicles, causing a well defined on the scalp or body (( areata means occurring in patches
alopecia capitis totalis uncommon condition characterized by the loss of hair on the scalp
alopecia universalis is the total loss of hair on all parts of the body
koilonychia known as spoon nail; malformation of the nail
onychia inflammation of the matrix; nail which results in the loss of nail also known as onychitis
onychocryptosis is known as ingrown toe nail
onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nail; depending on the infection it can make the nail turn white, green or black nail becomes thick and brittle
onychophagia means nail biting
paronychia is a acute or chronic infection of the skin fold around a nail
albinism is a genetic condition characterized by a deficiency or the absence of pigment in the skin or hair and irises of eye; result of missing enzyme for the production of melanin
melanosis any condition of unusual deposits of black pigment in different parts of the body
vitiligo is irregular patches of white skin/ hair growing in the affected areas is also white (reason is the destruction of the mealancytes)
contusion is an injury to underlying tissues without breaking the skin (bruise) discoloration of skin and causes pain
ecchymosis known as a bruise due to bleeding under the skin
pupura is the appearance of multiple purple discolorations on the skin caused by bleeding underneath the skin
petechiae very small pinpoint hemorrhages that are less than 2 mm in diameter
hematoma usually caused by an injury is a swelling of clotted blood trapped in tissue and then reabsorbs back into the body
crust is a collection of dried serum and cellular debris
macule freckle , flat moles known as a macula is a discolored flat spot that is less than 1 cm in diameter
papule is a small raided red lesion that is then 0.5 cm in dia. does not contain pus .. insect bite
plaque is a scaly raised area of closely spaced papules psoriasis lesions would be an example of plaque
verrucae hard skin lesions; warts caused by the papilloma virus
wheal known as a welt small bump that itches
abscess is a closed pocket containing pus; that is caused by a bacterial infection
cyst is an abnormal sac containing gas,fluid or semisolid material
pustule known as a pimple; they can be caused by acne vulgaris impetigo other infections
vesicle small blister less than 0.5 diameter containing watery fluid
bulla is a large blister more than 0.5 diameter
abrasion injury in which superficial layer of skin are scraped or rubbed away
fissure is a groove or crack-like break in skin example; athlete's foot,
laceration is a torn or jagged wound or accidental cut
strawberry hemangioma is a soft raised dark reddish purple birthmark
eczema persistent or recurring dermatitis; characterized by redness, itching, dryness with possible blistering cracking oozing or bleeding chronic condition appears to be a response of the body's immune system
pruritus known as itching associated with forms of dermatitis
ichthyosis is a group of hereditary disorders characterized by dry, thickened and scaly skin
lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disorder characterized by red,scaly rash on face and upper truck; the condition also attacks the connective tissue in the other body systems
psoriasis skin disorder characterized by flare-ups in which red papules covered with silvery scales occure on the elbows, knees, scalp, back, buttocks
xeroderma excessively dry skin
carbuncle is a cluster of connected furuncles (boils)
furuncles are boils caused by staphylococcal infection around hair follicles
gangrene which is tissue necrosis (death) caused by loss of circulation to the affected tissues. this is followed by bacterial invasion that caused putrefaction (decay that smells bad) if the infection inters the blood stream it can be fatal
tinea fungal infection that can grow on the skin, hair, or nails; known as wring worm
tinea capitis is found on the scalps of children (capitis mean head)
tinea corporis fungal infection of the skin on the body (corporis means body)
tinea sruis jock itch found in the genital area
tinea pedis athlete's foot (pedis means foot)
tinea versicolor is a fungal infection that causes painless discolored areas on the skin
pediculosis is an infestation of lice
keloid abnormally raised or thickened scar beyond the boundaries of the incision; a tendency to form keloids is often inherited common among dark pigmented skin
keratosis is any skin growth such as a wart or callus; which there is over growth and thickening of the skin
lipoma is benign, slow growing fatty tumor loicated between the skin and muscle layer
skin tage small flesh-colored light brown polyps that hang from the body by fine stalks they are benign
actinic keratosis is a precancerous skin growth that occurs on sun damaged skin; red scaly patch and feels like sandpaper
malignant melanoma Skin cancer that occurs in the melanocytes; this is the most serious type of skin cancer; first signs are change is the size shape or color of a mole
first degree burn no blister, superficial damage to the epidermis
second degree burn blister, damage to the epidermis and dermis
third degree burn damage to the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous layers and possibly the muscle
cryosrugery is the destruction or elimination of abnormal tissue cells, such as warts, tumors, us of extreme cold by using liquid nitrogen
curettage removal of material from the surface by scraping; one use is to remove basal cell tumors
dermatoplasty known as skin grafts replacement of damaged skin with healthy skin; taken from a donor or on the site of a patient's body
rhytidectomy known as a face lift; removal of excess skin and fat around the face to eliminate wrinkles
Created by: cameronslc