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Intro to ID

CH3 vocab

Transmissible Can be passed from individual to individual. Transmissible = communicable = contagious
Communicable disease (CD) Transmissible type, due to a pathogen.
Noncommunicable disease (NCD) Nontransmissible type, i.e., remains confined to one individual, may or may not be due to a pathogen. EX: Diabetes mellitus, Cardiovascular diseases, Cancer, Food poisoning by Staphylococcus aureus, Tetanus
Reservoirs Environment within which the pathogen lives and multiplies. Also known as the source.
Types of Reservoirs? Humans, animals, plants, arthro-pods, soil, water, food, organic matter or combinations thereof.
Human reservoirs May be free of signs and symptoms (carrier), be subclinically ill or clinically ill.
Contributing factors to Transmission? Portals of exit, close proximity, crowding, using or sharing contaminated objects, blood transfusion, transplantation, human behavior, sexual contact, site and conditions of living.
Three ways of transmission? Contact transmission, Transmission by vehicles, Transmission by vectors
what are Fomites? Inanimate,man-made, nonedible, object. EX: bar of soap, towel, catheter, coins, door knob
Transmission by vehicles: what is a vehicle? Any nonliving carrier of a pathogenic microbe from a source to a susceptible host. Includes waterborne, airborne and foodborne transmission, and indirect fecal-oral transmission. EX: soil, water ,air, dust, saliva, blood, urine, food
what is Contact transmission? Involves a form of physical contact. The contact may be direct or indirect.
Direct contact transmission and its two types Requires the physical contact of one individual with another. (a) Horizontal contact transmission – Person to person, person to self. (b) Vertical contact transmission - Mother to fetus, mother to breastfed baby.
Indirect contact transmission Requires the physical contact of the individual with either a vehicle or a fomite.
Vector Living carriers of disease other than humans or animals. Take pathogens from their reservoirs to a human or an animal host. Most commonly represented by arthropods (ticks, flies, mosquitoes, flea, lice).
Mechanical vectors Those that carry microbe on some part of their body, e.g., feet, body, wings.
Biological vectors Those that harbor a microbe for some time to allow the microbe to complete a part of their life cycle within them prior to carrying it to a host. Commonly seen with zoonoses.
What is Zoonoses? A disease of animals that can be transmitted to humans directly, indirectly or by vectors. EX: rabies
Transmission by droplets Occurs when a person coughs, sneezes, or speaks loudly near others.
Droplet nucleus A particle made up of dried mucus around a microbe. Particles can be inhaled directly, can collect on the floor or surfaces together with dust, or can become airborne particles.
Airborne droplets Particles traveling in space to a distance greater than 1 meter.
in Disease transmission carriers are... Carriers are often difficult to identify. Carriers themselves are unaware that they harbor the pathogen. Carriers can transmit disease by direct or indirect physical contact or after discharging contaminated organic matter into water, soil, air or food.
Created by: xmishy