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AL 101-Chapter 10


heart muscular cone-shaped organ the size of a fist, located behind the sternum (breast bone) & between the lungs. The pumping action of the heart circulates blood throughout the body. (See StudyStack "notes" for more info on this term.)
tricuspid valve located between the right atrium & right ventricle
mitral valve located between the left atrium & left ventricle
semilunar valves pulmonary & aortic valves located between the right ventricle & the pulmonary artery & between the left ventricle & the aorta
pericardium two-layer sac consisting of an external fibrous & and internal serous layer. The serous layer secretes a fluid that facilitates movement of the heart. This layer also covers the heart & is called the epicardium.
blood vessels tubelike structures that carry blood throughout the body
arteries blood vessels that carry blood away from heart. All arteries, with exception of the pulmonary artery, carry oxygen & nutrients from the heart to the body cells. The Pulmonary Artery carries carbon dioxide & other waste products from the heart to lungs.
arterioles smallest arteries
aorta largest artery in the body, originating at the left ventricle & descending through the thorax & abdomen
veins blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart. All veins, with the exception of the pulmonary veins, carry blood containing carbon dioxide & other waste products. The pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.
venules smallest veins
venae cavae largest veins in the body. The Inferior Vena Cava carries blood to the heart from body parts below the diaphragm, & the Superior Vena Cava returns the blood to the heart from the upper part of the body.
capillaries microscopic blood vessels that connect arterioles with venules. Materials are passed between the blood & tissue through the capillary walls.
blood composed of Plasma & Formed Elements, such as erythrocytes, leukocytes, & thrombocytes (platelets)
plasma clear, straw-colored, liquid portion of blood in which cells are suspended. Plasma is approximately 90% water & comprises approximately 55% of the total blood volume.
erythrocytes red blood cells that carry oxygen. Erythrocytes develop in bone marrow.
leukocytes white blood cells that combat infection & respond to inflammation. There are five types of white blood cells.
platelets (thrombocytes) one of the formed elements in the blood that is responsible for aiding in the clotting process
serum clear, watery fluid portion of the blood that remains after a clot has formed
lymph transparent, colorless, tissue fluid that, on entering the lymphatic system, is called lymph. Lymph contains lymphocytes & monocytes & flows in a one-way direction to the heart. Lymph is similar to blood plasma.
lymphatic vessels like veins, lymph vessels transport lymph from body tissues to the chest, where it enters the cardiovascular system. Vessels begin as capillaries spread through the body then merge into larger tubes that become ducts in chest. (See notes for more info.)
lymph nodes small, spherical bodies composed of lymphoid tissue. -May be singular/grouped together along the path of the lymph vessels. The nodes filter lymph to keep substances like bacteria & other foreign agents from entering blood. They also produce lymphocytes.
spleen located in left side of abdominal cavity b/w stomach & diaphragm. In adulthood, it is the largest lymphatic organ. Blood, not lymph, flows through spleen. Blood is cleansed of microorganisms in spleen. It stores blood & destroys worn out red blood cells.
thymus gland one of the primary lymphatic organs, it's located anterior to the ascending aorta & posterior to sternum b/w lungs. It's important to development of immune system, esp. infancy to puberty. Around puberty it atrophies so most of it is connective tissue.
angi/o vessel (usually refers to blood vessel)
aort/o aorta
arteri/o artery
atri/o atrium
cardi/o heart
lymphaden/o lymph node
lymph/o lymph, lymph tissue
myel/o bone marrow
phleb/o, ven/o vein
plasm/o plasma
splen/o spleen
thym/o thymus gland
valv/o, valvul/o valve
ventricul/o ventricle
ather/o yellowish, fatty plaque
ech/o sound
electr/o electricity, electrical activity
isch/o deficiency, blockage
therm/o heat
thromb/o clot
brady- slow
-ac pertaining to
-apheresis removal
-graph instrument used to record; record
-odynia pain
-penia abnormal reduction in number
-poiesis formation
-sclerosis hardening
angioma tumor composed of blood vessels
angiostenosis narrowing of a blood vessel
aortic stenosis narrowing pertaining to aorta (narrowing of the aortic valve)
arteriosclerosis hardening of the arteries
atherosclerosis hardening of fatty plaque (deposited on the arterial wall)
bradycardia condition of a slow heart (rate less than 60 beats per minute)
cardiodynia pain in the heart
cardiomegaly enlargement of the heart
cardiomyopathy disease of the heart muscle
cardiovalvulitis inflammation of the valves of the heart (also referred to as Valvulitis)
endocarditis inflammation of the inner (lining) of the heart (particularly heart valves)
ischemia deficiency of blood (flow)
myocarditis inflammation of the muscle of the heart
pericarditis inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart
phlebitis inflammation of a vein
polyarteritis inflammation of many (sites in the) arteries
tachycardia abnormal state of rapid heart (rate of more than 100 beats per minute)
thrombophlebitis inflammation of a vein associated with a clot
hematoma tumor of blood (collection of blood resulting from a broken blood vessel)
multiple myeloma tumors of the bone marrow
pancytopenia abnormal reduction of all (blood) cells
thrombosis abnormal condition of a (blood) clot
thrombus (blood) clot (attached to the interior wall of an artery or vein)
lymphadenitis inflammation of the lymph nodes
lymphadenopathy disease of the lymph nodes (characterized by abnormal enlargement of the lymph nodes associated with an infection or malignancy)
lymphoma tumor of lymphatic tissue (malignant)
splenomegaly enlargement of the spleen
thymoma tumor of the thymus gland
acute coronary syndrome (ACS) sudden symptoms of insufficient blood supply to the heart indicating unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction
aneurysm ballooning of a weakened portion of an arterial wall
angina pectoris chest pain, which may radiate to the left arm & jaw, that occurs when there is an insufficient supply of blood to the heart muscle
arrhythmia any disturbance or abnormality in the heart's normal rhythmic pattern
atrial fibrillation (AFib) arrhythmia-chaotic, rapid electrical impulses in atria. Atria quiver instead of contracting, causes irregular ventricular response & ejection of reduced blood. Blood that remains becomes static, increasing clot risk, & may lead to stroke. (See notes)
cardiac arrest sudden cessation of cardiac output & effective circulation, which requires cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
cardiac tamponade acute compression of the heart caused by fluid accumulation in the pericardial cavity
coarctation of the aorta congenital cardiac condition characterized by a narrowing of the aorta
congenital heart disease heart abnormality present at birth
congestive heart failure (CHF) inability of the heart to pump enough blood through the body to supply the tissues & organs with nutrients & oxygen
coronary artery disease (CAD) a condition that reduces the flow of blood through the coronary arteries to the myocardium, denying the myocardial tissue of sufficient oxygen & nutrients to function fully; most often caused by coronary atherosclerosis (also called Heart Failure [HF])
coronary occlusion obstruction of an artery of the heart, usually from atherosclerosis. Coronary occlusion can lead to acute myocardial infarction.
deep vein thrombosis (DVT) condition of thrombus in a deep vein of the body. Most often occurs in the lower extremities. A clot can break off & travel to the lungs, causing a pulmonary embolism.
hypertensive heart disease (HHD) disorder of the heart brought about by persistent high blood pressure
intermittent claudication pain & discomfort in calf muscles while walking; a condition seen in occlusive artery disease.
mitral valve stenosis a narrowing of the mitral valve from scarring, usually caused by episodes of rheumatic fever
myocardial infarction (MI) death (necrosis) of a portion of the myocardium caused by lack of oxygen resulting from an interrupted blood supply (also called a Heart Attack)
peripheral arterial disease (PAD) disease of the arteries, other than those of the heart & brain, that affects blood circulation, such as atherosclerosis & Raynaud disease. The most common symptom of peripheral atherosclerosis is intermittent claudication.
rheumatic heart disease damage to the heart muscle or heart valves caused by one or more episodes of Rheumatic Fever
varicose veins distended or tortuous veins usually found in the lower extremities
anemia reduction in the amount of hemoglobin in the red blood cells. Anemia may be caused by blood loss or decrease in the production or increase in the destruction of red blood cells.
embolus (pl. emboli) blood clot or foreign material, such as air or fat, that enters the bloodstream & moves until it lodges at another point in the circulation
hemophilia inherited bleeding disease most commonly caused by a deficiency of the coagulation factor VIII
leukemia malignant disease characterized by excessive increase in abnormal white blood cells formed in the bone marrow
Hodgkin disease malignant disorder of the lymphatic tissue characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, usually beginning in the cervical nodes
infectious mononucleosis an acute infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus characterized by swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, fatigue, & fever. The disease affects mostly young people & is usually transmitted by saliva.
angioplasty surgical repair of a blood vessel
atherectomy excision of fatty plaque (from a blocked artery using a specialized catheter & a rotary cutter)
endarterectomy excision within the artery (excision of plaque from the arterial wall). This procedure is usually named for the artery to be cleaned out, such as carotid endarterectomy, which means removal of plaque from the wall of the carotid artery.
pericardiocentesis surgical puncture to aspirate fluid from the outer layer (pericardial sac) used to treat cardiac tamponade)
phlebectomy excision of a vein
phlebotomy incision into a vein (to remove blood or to give blood or intravenous fluids) (Also called Venipuncture)
valvuloplasty surgical repair of a valve (cardiac or venous)
splenectomy excision of the spleen
splenopexy surgical fixation of the spleen
thymectomy excision of the thymus gland
aneurysmectomy surgical excision of an aneurysm
atrial fibrillation ablation a procedure in which abnormal cells that trigger atrial fibrillation are destroyed by using radiofrequency energy
cardiac pacemaker battery-powered apparatus implanted under the skin with leads placed on the heart or in the chamber of the heart
coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgical technique to bring a new blood supply to heart muscle by detouring around blocked arteries
coronary stent a supportive scaffold device implanted in the coronary artery; used to prevent closure of the artery after angioplasty or atherectomy
embloectomy surgical removal of an embolus or clot (usually with a balloon catheter, inflating the balloon beyond the clot, then pulling the balloon back to the incision and bringing the clot with it)
femoropopliteal bypass surgery to establish an alternate route from femoral artery to popliteal artery to bypass an obstruction
implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) device implanted in the body that continuously monitors the heart rhythm. If life-threatening arrhythmias occur, the device delivers an electric shock to convert the arrhythmia back to a normal rhythm.
intracoronary thrombolytic therapy an injection of an intravenous medication to dissolve blood clots in coronary (blood) vessels
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) Also called Balloon Angioplasty procedure where a balloon is passed through blood vessel into coronary artery to area where plaque is. Inflation of the balloon compresses plaque against vessel wall, expanding inner diameter of blood vessel, which allows blood to circulate more freely.
bone marrow aspiration a syringe is used to aspirate a sample of the liquid portion of the bone marrow, usually from the ilium, for study; used to diagnose, stage, & monitor disease & condition of the blood cells
bone marrow biopsy a needle puncture to obtain a sample of bone marrow, usually from the ilium, for study; used to diagnose, stage, & monitor disease & condition of the blood cells
bone marrow transplant infusion of normal bone marrow cells from a donor with matching cells & tissue to a recipient with a certain type of leukemia or anemia
angiography radiographic imaging of blood vessels (the procedure is named for the vessel to be studied, e.g., Femoral Angiography or Coronary Angiography
angioscope instrument used for visual examination of a blood vessel
angioscopy visual examination of a blood vessel
aortogram radiographic image of the aorta (after an injection of contrast media)
arteriogram radiographic image of an artery (after an injection of contrast media)
venogram radiographic image of a vein (after an injection of contrast media)
venography radiographic imaging of a vein (after an injection of contrast media)
echocardiogram (ECHO) record of the heart (structure & motion) using sound (used to detect valvular disease & evaluate heart function)
electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG) record of the electrical activity of the heart
electrocardiograph instrument used to record the electrical activity of the heart
electrocardiography process of recording the electrical activity of the heart
digital subtraction angiography (DSA) a process of digital radiographic imaging of the blood vessels that "subtracts" or removes structures not being studied
Doppler ultrasound a study that uses sound for detection of blood flow within the vessels; used to assess intermittent claudication, deep vein thrombosis, & other blood flow abnormalities.
exercise stress test study evaluates cardiac function during physical stress by riding bike/ walking treadmill. Electrocardiography, echocardiography, & nuclear medicine scanning are 3 types of cardiac function. Echocardiography is becoming the preferred choice of testing.
single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) nuclear med scan that visualizes the heart from several angles. A tracer substance (sestamibi or thallium) is injected intravenously. The SPECT scanner creates images from the tracer absorbed by the body tissues. Used to assess damage to cardiac tissue.
thallium test nuclear med test used to diagnose coronary artery disease & assess revascularization after bypass surgery. Thallium, a radioactive isotope, is injected intravenously; a radiation detector is placed over the heart & images recorded. (See notes)
transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) an ultrasound test that examines cardiac function & structure by using an ultrasound probe placed in the esophagus, which provides views of the heart structures
cardiac catheterization exam to determine condition of heart/ surrounding blood vessels. A catheter is passed into heart through a blood vessel & used to record pressures & inject contrast medium, enabling visualization of c. arteries, great vessels, heart chambers. (See notes)
impedance plethysmography (IPG) measures venous flow of the extremities with a plethysmograph to detect clots by measuring changes in blood volume & resistance (impedance) in the vein; used to detect deep vein thrombosis
auscultation hearing sounds within the body through a stethoscope
blood pressure (BP) pressure exerted by the blood against the blood vessel walls. A blood pressure measurement written as systolic pressure (120) & diastolic pressure (80) is commonly recorded as 120/80.
percussion tapping of a body surface with the fingers to determine the density of the part beneath
pulse the number of times per minute the heartbeat is felt on the arterial wall. The pulse rate is most commonly felt over the radial artery; however, the pulsations can be felt over a number of sites, including the femoral & carotid arteries.
sphygmomanometer device used for measuring blood pressure
stethoscope an instrument used to hear internal body sounds; used for performing auscultation & blood pressure measurement
C-reactive protein (CRP) blood test to measure the amount of C-reactive protein in the blood, which, when elevated, indicates inflammation in the body. It is sometimes used in assessing the risk of cardiovascular disease.
creatine phosphokinase (CPK) a blood test used to measure the level of creatine phosphokinase, an enzyme of heart & skeletal muscle released into the blood after muscle injury or necrosis. The test is useful in evaluating patients with acute myocardial infarction.
homocysteine a blood test used to measure the amount of homocysteine in the blood. Homocysteine is an amino acid that, if elevated, may indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
lipid profile blood test to measure the amount of lipids in a blood sample. It's used to evaluate risk of developing cardiovascular disease & to monitor therapy of existing disease. Results provide levels of total cholesterol, (HDL), (LDL), (VLDL), & triglycerides.
troponin blood test that measures troponin, a heart muscle enzyme. Troponins are released into the blood approximately 3 hours after necrosis of the heart muscle & may remain elevated from 7-10 days. The test is useful in the diagnosis of a myocardial infarction.
coagulation time blood test to determine the time it takes for blood to form a clot
complete blood count (CBC) & differential count (Diff) basic screening measures hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell number & morphology (size & shape), leukocyte count, & white blood cells) & platelet count. The test is automated, done easily & rapidly, & provides a great amount of info about the blood.
hematocrit (HCT) a blood test to measure the volume & number of red blood cells. It is used in the diagnosis & evaluation of anemic patients.
hemoglobin (Hgb) blood test used to determine the concentration of oxygen-carrying components (hemoglobin) in red blood cells
prothrombin time (PT) test determines coagulation activity defects & monitors anticoagulation therapy for patients on Coumadin, (oral anticoagulant med). (Activated partial thromboplastin time [PTT] monitors anticoag. therapy for patients on heparin (IV anticoagulant med).
atrioventricular (AV) pertaining to the atrium & ventricle
cardiac pertaining to the heart
cardiogenic originating in the heart
cardiologist physician who studies & treats diseases of the heart
cardiology study of the heart (a branch of medicine that deals with diseases of the heart & blood vessels)
hypothermia condition of (body) temperature that is below normal (sometimes induced for various surgical procedures, such as bypass surgery)
intravenous (IV) pertaining to within the vein
phlebologist physician who studies & treats diseases of the veins
phlebology study of veins (a branch of medicine that deals with diseases of the veins)
hematologist physician who studies & treats diseases of the blood
hematology study of the blood (a branch of medicine that deals with diseases of the blood)
hematopoiesis formation of blood (cells)
hemolysis dissolution of (red) blood (cells)
hemostasis stoppage of bleeding
myelopoiesis formation of bone marrow
plasmapheresis removal of plasma (from withdrawn blood)
thrombolysis dissolution of a clot
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) emergency procedure consisting of artificial ventilation & external cardiac massage
defibrillation application of an electric shock to the myocardium through the chest wall to restore normal cardiac rhythm
diastole phase in the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles relax between contractions (diastolic is the lower number of a blood pressure reading)
extracorporeal occurring outside the body. During open-heart surgery extracorporeal circulation occurs when blood is diverted outside the body to a heart-lung machine.
extravasation escape of blood from the blood vessel into the tissue
fibrillation rapid, quivering, noncoordinated contractions of the atria & ventricles
heart murmur a short-duration humming sound of cardiac or vascular origin
hypercholesterolemia excessive amount of cholesterol in the blood; associated with heightened risk of cardiovascular disease
hyperlipidemia excessive amount of fats (triglycerides & cholesterol) in the blood
hypertension blood pressure that is above normal (greater than 140/90)
hypertriglyceridemia excessive amount of triglycerides in the blood; associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease
hypotension blood pressure that is below normal (less that 90/60)
lipids fat & fatlike substances that serve as a source of fuel in the body & are an important constituent of cell structure
lumen space within a tubular part or organ, such as the space within a blood vessel
occlude to close tightly, to block
systole phase in the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles contract (systolic is the upper number of a blood pressure reading)
vasoconstrictor agent or nerve that narrows the blood vessels
vasodilator agent or nerve that enlarges the blood vessels
venipuncture puncture of a vein to remove blood, instill a medication, or start an intravenous infusion
anticoagulant agent that slows the clotting process
dyscrasia abnormal or pathologic condition of the blood
hemorrhage rapid loss of blood, as in bleeding
allergen an environmental substance capable of producing an immediate hypersensitivity in the body (allergy). Common allergens are house dust, pollen, animal dander, & various foods.
allergist a physician who studies & treats allergic conditions
anaphylaxis also called Anaphylactic Shock exaggerated/life-threatening reaction to previously encountered antigen(e.g., bee venom, peanuts, latex). Symptoms range from mild (experiencing hives/sneezing), to severe (drop in BP & blockage of the airway, can lead to death within minutes).
antibiotic a drug that targets microorganisms to kill or halt growth or replication
antibodies a substance produced by lymphocytes that inactivates or destroys antigens (also called Immunoglobulins)
antigen a substance that triggers an immune response when introduced into the body. Examples of antigens are transplanted tissue, toxins, & infectious organisms.
autoimmune disease a disease caused by the body's inability to distinguish its own cells from foreign bodies, thus producing antibodies that attack its own tissue. Rheumatoid Arthritis & Systemic Lupus Erythematosus are examples of autoimmune diseases.
immune being resistant to specific invading pathogens
immunodeficiency deficient immune response caused by the immune system dysfunction brought on by disease (HIV infection) or immuno-suppressive drugs (prednisone)
immunologist a physician who studies & treats immune system disorders
immunology the branch of medicine dealing with immune system disorders
infection invasion of pathogens. May stay localized if body's defense mechanisms are effective. If it persists-may become acute, subacute, or chronic. Systemic infection occurs when local infection accesses the vascular/lymphatic system & disseminates through body.
phagocytosis a process in which some of the white blood cells destroy the invading microorganism & old cells
vaccine a suspension of inactivated microorganisms administered by injection, mouth, or nasal spray to prevent infectious diseases by inducing immunity
CCU coronary care unit
RBC red blood cell(erythrocyte)
WBC white blood cell (leukocyte)
Created by: Ann Callies Ann Callies