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Med Term Mod18

Ab. Norm. Cond., Path., Labs & Clinical Procedures

acromegaly chronic metabolic disorder involving gradual enlargement of bones-face, jaw, & extremities
Addison disease hypofunctioning of adrenal cortex; deficiency of all three adrenal steroids
adenectomy removal of gland
adrenal virilism excessive secretion of adrenal androgens
adrenalectomy excision of one or both adrenal glands
adrenopathy disease of adrenal glands
cretinism congenital condition associated with severe hypothyroidism
Cushing syndrome complex of caused by hypersecretion of cortisol from adrenal cortex
diabetes insipidus hyposecretion of ADH; kidney fails to reabsorb needed salts and water
diabetes mellitus lack of insulin secretion or improper utilization of insulin by cells leading to chronic disorder of carbohydrate, fat & protein metabolism in cells
dwarfism congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone from anterior pituitary gland
endemic goiter enlargement of thyroid gland due to lack of iodine in diet
endrocrinologist medical specialist in diagnosis & treatment of endocrine gland disorders
exophthalmometry measures the forward displacement of the eyes
exophthalmos protrusion of eyeball, or proptosis
symptom of hypothyroidism exophthalmos
fasting blood sugar measure that assesses blood glucose levels after an 8- to 10-hour period of fasting
test for diabetes mellitus fasting blood sugar
gastroparesis loss of motility of stomach muscles
long-term secondary complication of diabete mellitus gatroparesis
giantism hypersecretion of growth hormaone from anterior pituitary before puberty
glucose tolerance test measures glucose levels in blood sample taken at various intervals from patient who previously ingested glucose
glycosuria sugar in urine
goiter enlargement of thyroid gland
Graves disease hyperfunctioning of thyroid gland
can cause thryotoxicosis Graves disease
Graves disease is the most common form of hyperthyroidism
hirutism excessive hair growth
hypercalcemia high levels of calcium in bloodstream
often due to hyperparathyroidism hypercalcemia
hypercalciuria high levels of calcium in urine
hyperglycemia high levels of sugar in blood
hyperinsulinism hypersecretion of insulin by the pancreas, resulting in hypoglycemia
hyperparathyroidism hypersecretion of parathormone from parathyroid gland
hyperthyroidism secretion by thryoid gland of greater than normal amount of thyroxine
thyroid hormone thryroxine / T4
hypocalcemia low levels of calcium in blood
hyperglycemia low levels of calcium in blood
hypogonadism deficient functioning of gonads
hypoinsulinism deficient production of insulin
hypokalemia low levels of potassium in blood
hyponatremia low levels of sodium in blood
hypoparathyroidism hyposecretion of parathormone from parathyroid gland leading to hypocalcemia
hypophysectomy removal of pituitary gland
hypopituitarism deficient secretion of hormones from pituitary gland
hypothyroidism decreased secretion of thyroid hormones from thyroid gland
ketoacidosis high levels of ketones in blood
myxedema hypofunctioning of thyroid gland in adults causing accumulation of mucus-like substance under skin
nodular goiter enlargement of thryoid gland due to growth of adenomas on thyroid gland
adenomas nodules on a gland
pancreatectomy excision of pancreas
panhypopituitarism generalized deficiency of all pituitary hormones
parathyroidectomy removal of parathyroid glands
pheochromocytoma benign vascular tumor cusing hypersecretion of epinephrine & norepinephrine
polydypsia excessive thirst
radioactive iodine uptake involves administering iodine and assessing the amount absorbed by the gland
indicator of thyroid gland function radioactive iodine uptake
sympathomimetic pertaining to mimicking/copying effect of sympathetic nervous system
norepinephrine & adrenaline are sympathomimetic hormones
syndrome of inappropriate ADH excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone from the posterior lobe of pituitary
tetany constant muscle contractions
associated with hypocalcemia & hypoparathyroidism tetany
thyroid carcinoma malignant tumor of thyroid gland
thyroid function test measure the levels of thyroid hormones in the blood
thyroid scan administration of radioactive compound & visualization of thyroid gland with scanning device
thyroiditis inflammation of thyroid gland
thyrotoxicosis hyperthyroidism, overactivity of thyroid gland
A1c blood test that measures glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) to assess glucose control
measures ability to respond to a glucose load; test for diabetes glucose tolerance test
HbA1c glycolsylated hemoglobin test test for presence of glucose attached to hemoglobin
high level indicated poor glucose control in diabetes patients glycolsylated hemoglobin test HbA1c
Type 1 diabetes insulin-dependent diabetes-mellitus
multiple endocrine neoplasia hereditary hormonal disorder marked by adenomas & carcinomas
Type 2 diabetes non-insulin-dependent diabetes-mellitus
treatment for Graves disease radioactive oidine
radioimmunoassay a laboratory measure that assesses hormone levels in plasma
mucosal lining of the gastrointestinal tract has cells that produce hormones gastrin, secretin, and cholecystokinin
hormones gastrin, secretin, and cholecystokinin all help to regulate digestion
Specific cells in the wall of the heart secrete a hormone that causes the kidneys to excrete sodium
prostaglandins hormone-like substance produced body's tissues
stimulate contraction of smooth muscle, influence inflammatory response & involved in gastrointestinal & vascular function, including lowering blood pressure prostoglandins
hypersecretion excessive production of hormones
hyposecretion underproduction of hormones
condition characterized by excessive size & stature giantism
if hypersecretion of GH occurs during adulthood this may result acromegaly
condition is acromegaly, not giantism, if hyper sercretion occurs after the epiphyseal discs of the long bones have been sealed
caused by adenomas of the pituitary gigantism and acromegaly
diagnosis of gigantism and acromegaly involve CT scan & MRI to evaluate the tumor
treatment for gigantism and acromegaly ivolves irradiation or excision of neoplasm
hyposecretion of growth hormone produces pituitary dwarfism
pituitary dwarfism body is properly proportioned, but growth stunted
height does not typically exceed 4 feet in a patient with pituitary dwarfism
pituitary dwarfism is usually diagnosed in early childhood with radioimmunoassay
Administering growth hormone to the patient treats pituitary dwarfism
radiographic examination of bones is done with a radioimmunoassay
prepubertal panhypopituitarism rare disorder associated with infections, autoimmune disorders, tumors, vascular diseases, & destruction of pituitary
characterized by dwarfism with normal body proportions, subnormal sexual development, & diminished thyroid/adrenal gland functioning prepubertal panhypopituitarism
postpubertal panhypopituitarism may result from thrombosis of the pituitary circulation
signs/symptoms of postpubertal panhypopituitarism weakness, fatigue, & intolerance of cold; progression to premature wrinkling of skin & atrophy of thyroid/adrenal glands
leads to abnormal retention of water, due to excessive secretion of ADH syndrome of inapproriate ADH
signs of SIADH include weight gain, vomiting, nausea, muscle weakness, & irritability
may develop secondary to tumors, infectious diseases, pathologic reactions to drugs, or trauma SIADH
treatment of SIADH, as secondary, commonly involves water intake restrictions, along with diagnosis of underlying disease
excessive thirst & large quanities of urine excreted due to this condition diabetes insipidus
causes of diabetes insipidus can include brian tumors, CNS infections/disease, & closed head trauma
depending on etiology, treatment of diabetes insipidus can include fluid replacement & ADH injection/inhalation
excision of gland, decreased hormones affecting gland, atrophy of gland & endemic goiter causes of hypothyroidism
characteristics include dwarfism & mental retardation cretinism
treatment for cretinism with thyroid hormone may promote normal physical growth but may not be able to reverse intellectual deficits
most severe form of hypothyroidism myxedema
Persons with myxedema experience swelling of hands, face & feet
due to deficiency of thyroid hormone allowing increase of lipid/fat in bloodstream patients suffereing from myxedema may also develop atherosclerosis
Myxedema can be successfully treated with administration of thyroid hormone
untreated myxedema can lead to coma & death
goiter, may occur in conjunction with increased, decreased, or normal levels of hormone function
Endemic goiter occurs in certain geographic areas among populations of people who lack sufficient dietary iodine
enlargement results from collection of colloid, a jelly-like substance, within gland goiter
may occur in the presence of hyperthyroidism nodular goiter
nodular goiter is also called adenomatous goiter
Graves disease is believed to involve dysfunction of immune system & influenced by genetics & environment
most prominent features of Graves disease
exophthalmos is caused by increased deposits of fat in tissues at back of eye socket
absorption of iodine is increased in hypothyroidism
uptake is visualized in an image produced by a thyroid scan radioactive iodine uptake
measures the forward displacement of the eyes in patients with Graves disease exophthalmometry
treatment for Graves disease may involve partial/total removal of thyroid or drugs to suppress thyroid hyperactivity
Radioactive iodine uptake & thyroid scan can help to diagnose thyrocarcinoma
cancerous thyroid neoplasms are called thyrocarinomas
cancerous thyroid neoplasms are rare
grow more slowly than other malignancies cancerous thyroid neoplasms
hard painless nodule in an enlarged thyroid characterizes cancerous thyroid neoplasms
in a thyroid scan nodules that absorb radioactive iodine show up as "hot"
"hot" nodules in a thyroid scan are usually benign
don't take up radioactive iodine, during thyroid scan, showing up as "cold" are normally tumors & likely to be malignant
surgical removal & high-doce radioactive iodine therapy destroying any remaining cells treatment for tumors of thyroid
results in high levels of circulating PTN leading to hypercalcemia hyperparathyroidism
osteitis fibrosa cystica hypersecretion of PTH causing hypercalcemia leads to fragile bones
condition subject to development of cysts osteitis fibrosa cystica
osteitis fibrosa cystica & kideny stones are secondary conditions of hyperparathyroidism
hyperparathyroidism is usually caused by adenoma of one of parathyroid glands
adenoma of one of parathyroid glands is treated by excision of the tumor
muscles & nerves weaken, leading to constant tetany hypoparathyroidism
tetany, related to hypoparathyroidism, is due to calcium remaining in bone & is unable to enter blood, to reach muscles & nerves
adrenal virilism excess secretions of androgens by inner layer of adrenal cortex
females express secondary sex characteristics, including hiruitism & deepening of voice adrenal virilism
adrenal virilism is usually caused by tumor of adrenal gland
adrenal virilism is managed by suppressing hormone overproduction with medication or surgical excision of adrenal gland
Cushing syndrome may reflect the effect of excessive levels of ACTH on adrenal gland, or tumor of adrenal cortex
treatment of arthritis/lupus with glucocorticoids may also cause Cushing syndrome
display obesity, round/moon-like face, fatty deposits on chest, abdomen, & upper back patients with Cushing syndrome
Cushing syndrome can also cause muscular atrophy, osteoporosis, and hypertension
treatment of Cushing syndrome involves reduction of amout of cortisol secretion pharmacologically/surgically
deficiency of mineralcorticoids, glucocorticoids & androgens are seen in Addison disease
Addison disease is believed to be a dysfunction of immune system; antibodies produced destroying own adrenal tissue
Addison disease symptoms include weakness, fatigue, bronzed pigmentation of skin & mucous membranes
bronzed pigmentation of skin/mucous membranes, occuring in Addison disease, caused by increased levels of MSH & anorexia
treatment of Addison disease includes adrenal hormone replacement & management of underlying cause of illness
in pheochromocytoma, chromaffin cells are effected and with chromium salts the cells stain dark/dusky color
signs of pheochromocytoma include severe headache, palpitations, sweating, nervousness, nausea, vomiting, & persistent/intermittent hypertension
surgical excision of the benign vasculat tumor is the usual treatment for pheochromocytoma
symptoms of insulin shock & hypoglycemia include shakiness, sweating, headache, weakness, and loss of consciousness
can result from excessive exercise, too little food or overdose of insulin insulin shock or severe hypoglycemia
insulin shock hypoglycemic reaction to overdosage of insulin
hyperinsulinism may be caused by insulin-secreting tumor in islets of Langerhans/by exceeding prescribed dose of the hormone
administering glucose reverses the condition hyperinsulinism
A deficient supply of insulin in the blood allows for accumulation of potentially life-threatening amounts of glucose
glucose is not properly transported to cells nor is it properly converted within cells as a source of energy when there are abnormally low levels of insulin
High levels of glucose in the bloodstream will draw water out of cells, causing frequent urination as in diabetes mellitus
patients with diabetes mellitus may have increased appetite & food intake due to glucose being unavailable, cells will seek alternate sources of energy
diagnosis of diabetes is confirmed with fasting blood sugar test & glycoslyated hemoglobin test
capable of measuring glucose control over several months glycosylated hemoglobin test
oral glucose tolerance test if used to diagnose gestational diabetes
ketoacids a carboxylic acid that also contains a carbonyl (CO) group
ketoacids are produced because cells are forced to burn protein & fat instead of glucose
buildup of ketoacids alters the body's metabolic balance
diabetic ketoacidosis is a result of inadequate control of diabetes
signs of ketoacidosis include abdominal pain, nausea, vomitting, & fruity odor of the breath
coma and death will result if this is left untreated ketoacidosis
accumulation of fatty materials in the blood vessels, from hyperglycemia, can cause atherosclerosis, heart attack, and stroke to impaired blood supply to the extremities
diabetic nephropathy kidney disease as result of hyperglycemia
diabetic neuropathy destruction of nerves in the extremities
if left untreated hyperglycemia can also cause diabetic neuropathy & diabetic nephropathy
diabetic retinopathy retinal blood vessel manifestations, including tiny aneurysms and exudation
diabetic retinopathy can lead to vision loss & blindness
diabetics are more likely to develop cataracts & glaucoma
plays an important role in both types of diabetes heriditary
in Type1 diabetes little or no insulin is produced because beta cells of islets of Langerhans have been decreased in number by abnormal autoimmune process
usually has its onset during childhood Type 1 diabetes
More than 70% of individuals in whom Type 2 diabetes develops are obese
insulin production is variable; its levels may be decreased, normal, or elevated Type 2 diabetes
Type2 diabetes results from tissue unresponsiveness/resistance to insulin, caused by hormone receptor defects or too few receptors on surface of target cell membranes
gestational diabetes sometimes develops during pregnancy because of overall hormonal changes at that time
gestational diabetes typically resolves after childbirth but may recur years later as Type 2 diabetes
thyroiditis inflammation of thyroid
dystocia pertaining to pathologic/difficult childbirth
endocrinopathy any disease of endocrine system
polyuria condition of excessive urine