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Med Term Mod18

Terms, Abbreviations & Meanings

A1c blood test the measures HbA1c
ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone
ADH antidiuretic hormone
BGM blood glucose monitoringBMR
BMR basal metabolic rate
DI diabetes insipidus
DM diabetes mellitus
FBG fasting blood glucose
FBS fasting blood sugar
FSH follicle-stimulating hormone
GH growth hormone
GTT gulcose tolerance test
HbA1c glycolsylated hemoglobin test
hCG homan chrorionic gonadotropin
ICSH interstitial cell-stimulating hormone
IDDM insulin-dependent diabetes-mellitus
IGF unsulin-like growth factor
K+ potasium
LH luteinizing hormone
MEN multiple endocrine neoplasia
Na+ sodium
NIDDM non-insulin-dependent diabetes-mellitus
17-OH 17-hydroxycorticosteriods
OT oxytoxin
PRL prolactin
PTH parathyroid hormone
RAI radioactive iodine
RIA radioimmunoassay
SIADH syndrome of inapproriate ADH
STH somatotropin
T3 triidothyronine
T4 thyroxine - tetraiodothyronine
TFT thyroid function test
TSH thyroid stimulating hormone
adenohypophysis anterior lobe of pituitary gland consisting of glandular tissue
adrenal cortex outer section of each adrenal gland
adrenal medulla inner section of each adrenal gland
adrenaline hormone secreted by adrenal medulla; epinephrine
adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulate adrenal cortex growth & secretion of three steroid hormones, particularly cortisol
andrenocorticotropin adrenocorticotropic hormone
aldosterone secreted by adrenal cortex; increases amount of sodium & decreases amount of potasium in blood by targeting kidneys
androgen male hormone responsible for devloping & maintaining male secondary characteristics
antidiuretic hormone decreases production of urine; causes kidney tubules to reabsorb water & return to blood
calcitonin lowers calcium levels in blood; secreted by thyroid
catecholamines any of a group of sympathomimetic amines whose molecule has an aromatic portion of catechol
epinephrine is an example of catecholamines
corticosteroid hormone secreted by adrenal cortes
cortisol & aldosterone are examples of corticosteroids
cortisol regulates use of sugars, fats & proteins in cells, secreted by adrenal medulla
this hormone raises blood sugar cortisol
electrolyte substance that, in solution, carries an electric charges
sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca++) & chloride (Cl-) are examples of electrolytes
epinephrine increases heart rate & blood pressure in response to "fight/flight" reaction
estradiol one of the estrogens hormones secreted by ovaries
estrogens female hormones secreted by ovaries & to lesser extent adrenal cortex in male/female
euthyroid normal functioning thyroid
follicle stimulating hormone secretion of anterior love of pituitary gland; timulates ovarian follicles to produce egg cells
glucagon when blood sugar low stimulates conversion of glycogen to glucose
hormone secrete by alph islet cells of pancreas glucagon
glucocorticoid steroid hormone secreted by middle layer of adrenal cortex
cortisol is an example of glucocorticoid
glycemic pertaining to blood sugar
glycogen animal starch; glycogen broken down througgh glycogenolysis to produce glucose
gonadotropic hormones FSH & LH; secreted by inner layer of adrenal cortex
growth hormone secreted by anterior lobe of pituitary; stimulates growth of bones/soft tissues
somatotropin is an example of growth hormone
homeostasis tendency in an organism to return to a state of constancy & stability
hormonal pertaining to a hormone
hormone chemical substance secreted by an endocrine gland
insulin helps sugar leave blood & enter cells by stimulating cells to burn glucose for energy
luteinizing hormone secreted by anterior love of pituitary; stimulate ovaries to ovulate & produce hormones
mineralcorticoid secreted by adrenal cortes; regulates electrolytes & water balance in body
aldosterone in an example of a mineralcorticoid
neurohypophysis posterior lobe of pituitary composed of nervous tissue
secretes oxytoxin & vasopressin nerohypophysis
norepinephrine increases blood pressure as part of "fight/flight" reaction
hormone secretes by adrenal medulla & is a sympathomimetic norepinephrine
oxytocin stimulates the smooth muscles of the uterus to contract during labor & delivery
hormone secreted by posterior lobe of pituitary; used during childbirth oxytocin
pancreas endocrine (islet cells) & exocrine (enzyme producing cells) gland behind stomach
parathormone regulates calcium in blood
parathyroid glands four small endocrine glands attached to posterior side of thyroid gland
pineal gland cone-shaped gland in center of brain
secretes melatonin pineal gland
pituitary gland small pea-shaped gland attached to undersurface of hypothalamus
anterior & posterior lobes secrete hormones pituitary glands
progesterone hormone secreted by ovaries
prolactin promotes mammary glands to produce milk after childbirth
receptor cellular/nuclear protein that binds to a hormone to elicit response by targeted tissue
sella turcica cavoty in base of skull; contain pituitary
somatotropin hormone secreted by anterior lobe of pituitary
steriod complex substance related to fat
target tissue cells of an organ that are affected/stimulated by specific hormones
testosterone hormone secretes by testes
tetraiodothyronine hormone secreted by thyroid that increases body metabolism; thyroxine (T4)
thyroid gland endocrine gland in anterior neck on front & sides of trachea, just below thyroid cartilage
thyrotropin control the release of thyroid hormone & stimulates growth & function of thyroid
thyrotropin is also called thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH
vasopressin hormone secreted by posterior lobe of pituitary; stimulates kidneys to reabsorb water
also called ADH vasopressin
triiodothyronine hormone secreted by thyroid containing 3 atoms of iodine; stimulates body metabolism (T3)
chemical messengers of the endocrine system travel through the bloodstream
effects of the endocrine system tend to appear more slowly and to last longer
metabolic processes activities involving distribution of nutrients, generate energy & eliminate waste
play an important role in growth, development, and reproduction endocrine glands
endocrine glands regulate metabolic processes
Endocrine glands help to maintain homeostasis
endocrine glands are ductless glands
endocrine glands secrete chemicals through the glandular membrane
exocrine glands deliver their secretetions through a duct
The word "hormone" is from the Greek hormaein, meaning to excite, arouse, or set in motion
chemically hormones are either proteins formed from amino acids or steroids made from lipid cholesterol
sex glands & outer region of adrenal cortes secrete steroid hormones
protein hormones bind with receptors on plasma membrane of target tissue's cells
steroid hormones pass through plasma membrane & bind with receptors inside the cell
erythropoeitin stimulates production of red blood cells
"the master gland" pituitary gland
anterior lobe of pituitary is under the control of the hypothalamus
growth hormone stimulating skeletal muscles & long bones of body somatotropin
growth hormone also promotes the synthesis of proteins, performs cell repair & helps maintain blood glucose levels
endocrine gland located in sella tucica the pituitary gland
the anterior lobe of pituitary is an upward extension of the pharynx
the posterior lobe of pituitary is a downward projection of the brain
the pituitary gland is the target organ for the hypothalamus
by secreting releasing and release-inhibiting hormones, the hypothalamus controls secretions of anterior pituitary lobe
hypothalamus produces hormones that are transported to the posterior pituitary lobe where they are stored until needed
lactogenic hormone prolactin; secreted by anterior lobe of pituitary
hormone secreted by anterior lobe of pituitary thyrotropin, or thyroid stimulating hormone TSH
adrenocorticotropic hormone is secreted by the pituitary anterior lobe
anterior pituitary secretes two gonadotropic hormones
melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) affects skin pigment-producing cells; secretes by anterior lobe of pituitary
pigmentation of the skin is increased when an excessive amount of MSH is secreted
stimulated by nerve impulses from hypothalamus to release stored hormones posterior lobe of pituitary
hormones secreted by posterior lobe of pituitary antidiuretic hormone & oxytocin
insufficient secretion of ADH can increase urine production
vasopressin is capable of causing smooth muscles of blood vessels to contract & elevate blood pressure
also responsible for release/let down of milk from mammary glands in response to infant suckling oxytocin
melatonin believed to act on specific receptors to influence body biological clock
regulates sleep/wake cycle melatonin
thyroid gland consists of a right & left lobe
the isthmus is narrow strip, in the middle, connecting R&L lobe of thyroid gland
dependent of both hypothalamus & pituitary gland for its regulation thyroid gland
thyroid tissues consist of follicles
follicles tiny structural units with walls lined with follicular cells
follicular cells cube-shaped cells lining walls of follicles in thyroid gland
colloid clear, thick substance filling follicles of thyroid tissues
parafollicular cells are located between the thyroid follicles
parafollicular cells of thyroid secrete the hormone calcitonin
calcitonin is not under the control of thyroid-releasing/stimulating hormones
calcitonin induces calcium to leave the blood and enter bone tissue for increased bone formation
follicular cells of the thyroid gland secrete triiodothyronine (T3) & tetraiodothyronine, also called thyroxine, or T4
triiodothyronine (T3) & tetraiodothyronine, also called thyroxine, or T4 are both synthesized from iodine
parathyroid glands have three target organs on which to act bone, kidneys & digestive tract
parathormone stimulates release of calcium from bones, kidneys to reabsorb calcium from urine & increases absorption of calcium in digestive tract
PTH has an effect on blood calcium levels that is opposite to that of calcitonin
calcitonin & PTH help to maintain correct balance of calcium in blood
correct balance of calcium in blood, by calcitonin & PTH, is accomplished by negative feedback; info about effect of hormone, is supplied to gland that secretes it
thymus lies in mediastinum beneath sternum
endocrine function of thymus secrete thymosin
thymosin stimulate development of immune system & production of lymphocytes
adrenal glands are also called suprarenal
adrenal glands two small secretory organs, each of which sits on top of a kidney
the two regions of adrenal glands secrete different hormones
hormones secreted by adrenal medulla epinephrine & norepinephrine
epinephrine & norepinephrine are released into blood stream in response to stimulation by the sympatheric nervous system
glucocorticoids, secreted by adrenal cortex, respond to stress by increasing blood glucose
adrenal cortexs releases mineralocorticoids that maintain electrolyte balance by the kidneys
innermost layer of adrenal cortex secrete small amounts of sex hormones, resembling testosterone
consists of three distinct layers, each secretes specific class of cortical hormones
adrenal cortex secretes three types of steroid hormones know as corticosteroids
mineralocorticoids maintain electrolyte balance by regulating amount of mineral salts in blood
maintain normal blood glucose & blood pressure glucocorticoids
cortisol is also known as hydrocortisone
release of hydrocortisone occurs in response to secretion of ACTH by the anterior pituitary, under direction of hypothalamus
cortisol exerts an anti-inflammatory effect
secreted in greater amounts during times of physiological stress cortisol/hydrocortisone
cortisol & cortison can be prepared synthetically & are prescribed for inflammation
responsible for secondary sex characteristics & required for reproduction gonadocorticoids in the form of andogrens
adrenal cortex secretes two non-steroidal hormones called catecholamines
catecholamines play an important role in the body's physiological response to stress
sympathomimetic hormones epinephrine & norepinephrine
sympathomimetic hormones exert effects similar to the sympathetic nervous system
long gland that stretches across the posterior wall of the upper abdomen the pancreas
as an exocrine the pancreas aids in the digestion of food
islets of Langerhans clusters of cells, scattered throughout pancreas, forming endocrine portion
islets of Langerhans consist of two types of cells alpha & beta cells
alpha cells secrete the hormone glucagon
beta cells secrete the hormone insulin
promotes conversion of glucose to glycogen insulin
insulin is antagonized by glucagon, which opposes its effects
when blood sugar levels are low, glucagon also triggers the transformation of fatty acids and amino acids into glucose
estrogens include estradiol & estrone
ovaries secrete two female sex hormone which are estrogens & progesterone
estradiol & estrone are responsible for expression of female sex characteristics & maintaining proper sequence in female reproductive cycle
prepares the uterine lining for, & maintains it during, pregnancy progesterone
testes are located in the scrotum
testosterone is responsible for maturation of secondary sex characteristics in men
these control both male & female hormones releasing hormones of hypothalamus & gonadotropins of anterior pituitary
hormones who target organs are the gonads gonadotropins
lactogenic pertaining to production of milk
gonadotropin substance that stimulates the sex organs