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Earth & Space


photosphere 1st layer of suns atmosphere
vent opening of a volcano
plate tectonics the theory that continates drift on the lithosphere
biosphere zone of life extends from ocean floor to high atmosphere
Equinox noon sun overhead at the equator
pangea supercontinate; Alfred Wegener - came up with the theory. Was whole 250 million years ago, 200 million years ago : Laurasia and Gondwanaland
sea-floor spreading mid ocean ridge is a huge crack running through the Atlantic Ocean. Lava is pushed upward creating new crust
Eclips planet passes between sun and another body causing a shadow
umbra shadow zone where light is completly blocked
penumbra partial shadow where some light is blocked
monocline one bend, one side of bend is higher that the other
shear stress the pushing of rocks in different horizontal directions
tension stretching or pulling apart of rocks
compression squeezing together of rocks
tsunami earthquake moves ocean floor move causing a big wave
Lateral Fault shear stress, little to no up and down movement
Light year distance light travles in 1 year
syncline downward buldge
lithosphere outer zone, cool and rigid
seismic waves durring an earthquake potential energy turns to kinetic energy
anticline fold produce upward buldge
volcano opening in crust that has released lava and molten rock
asthenosphere hot and semi liquid (earth)
Moho sudden increase in volosity of a seismic wave
geologic time the war to measure time for earth because it has been around so long
weathering rock is broken into smaller particals
Erosion small particals are taken away by wind water ice and gravity
zenith highest point of the sky
deposition building up of eroded particals / sedimates
fossils past organisms that have left evidence of existence in rock
solstice noon sun is overhead at the tropics
crust outermost layer of Earth
mantle middle layer of Earth
Lava magma that reaches earths surface
Earth quake movement of earth's crust occurs when plates shift and releases stored or potential energy
Epicenter Point on earths surface directly above focus
core center layer of earth
control factor that is the same in an experiment
normal fault hanging wall moves downward in relation to the footwall
reverse fault stress from compression hanging wall moves upward in relation to footwall
composite volcanoes contains alternate layers of volcanic debris and lava
galaxy collection of stars, nebulae, gases, dust and planets
supernova explosion of a star
nebula cloud of gas and dust where stars are boorn
magnitude the brightness of a star
shild volcanoes flat top runny lava
cinder cone volcanoes forms from explosivove eruptions
Doppler Effect the apparent change in wavelength due to objects movement
latitude Lat-fat same direction as equator
Electromagnetic Spectrum all types of electromatic wave energy from low to high frequency
bioms 6 major life zones
crater hollowed out area surrounding the vent
comet chunck of ice travles around sun, elliptical orbit
orbit The path a body follows as it revolves around another
revolution movement of one body around another
solar system earth and other planets
parallax the apparent change in the position of an object caused by change in position of the observer
convection the circular flow due to the heating and coolin in earths mantle
asteroids small irregular shaped solid bodies, revolve around sun
corona outer layer of suns atmosphere
equator equidistant from poles
focus area along a fault where rocks first bread and move where earthquake starts
crater circular indentation in the moon created by meteorites
axis the lene that extends through earth north and south pole
rotation spinnein of earth on its axis
deformation changes in the shape and structure of earths crust
fault fracture in the earths crust where movement has occured
chromosphere 2nd layer of suns atmosphere
kilogram SI unit of mass
density measure how much matter in a given volure
meteor the light resulting from entry of atmosphere - shooting star-
meteoride chunk of rock or metal smaller than asteroid
meteorite when a meteoroid does not completley burn up in atmosphere hitting earth
Scientific Method Steps:Observe, Hypothesis, Record, Analyze, Repeat
Mesosphere/Mantle Solid and rigid iron and magnesium; makes up 82 % volume and 68% of earths mass
Outer Core liquid, molten iron, source of magnetic field
Inner Core High pressure, high density, high temp.
Time Zones divides Earth into 24 time zones, each time zone is 15 degrees wide. Starts at the prime meridian @ Greenwich england. there are 4 time zones on continental U.S. Latest is Eastern Time, then central, then Mountain and Pacific time.
What is the Latitude of the North Pole, Equator and South Pole North pole - 90 degrees north, Equator 0 degrees Lat. and the South Pole is 90 degrees South Lat.
Convergent Boundaries where two plate boundaries collide
divergent boundaries where two plates move away from each other
transformant boundaries where two plates slide in opposite directions beside each other
thrust fault where the hanging wall rides up and over the footwall as a result of compression
daughter theory piece of Earth split off to form the moon
sister theory the Earth and the moon formed from gas and dust during the formation of the solar system
Capture Theory moon formed elsewhere and was captured by Earth's gravity as it passed
Impact theory Most accepted, large impact knocked a large quantity of material from Earth
perigee the moon's closest point to Earth
apogee the farthest point away from the earth the moon is
What are the phases of the Moon? New Moon, Waxing Crescent, First Quarter, Waxing gibbous, Full moon, Waning gibbous, Last Quarter, Waning crescent
Lunar Eclips Sun - Earth - Moon
Solar Elcips Sun - Moon - Earth (only in certain places)
Nuclear Fusion sun's energy maker, hydrogen turns to helium, biproduct energy
inertia the tendency of an object to remain at rest or in motion until acted upon by an external force
What are 3 things that prove continental drift Fossil Evidence, rock evidence, Glacier evidence
Isostasy the balance of gravity and buoyancy in the earth's crust
What's the difference between Richter scale and Mercalli scale? Richter is more scientific - amt. of ground movement. Mercalli - more on visual effects of the quake
Subduction the process of one plate moving under another
What are the 9 planets in order from sun out? Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune ; My Very Energetic Mother Just Served Us Nachoes
Maria regions of bright and dark - broad flat plains on the moon
Rilles long narrow valleys - on the moon
highlands mountainous terrain on the surface
core of the sun 140,000 km thick, hottest part of the sun, lots of pressure
Created by: shannon