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understanding Reading

Academic English The language required for achievement in context-reduced situations, such as classroom lectures and textbook reading assignments. This is sometimes referred to as Cognitive/Academic Language Proficiency (CALP).
Accuracy The ability to recognize words correctly.
Adequate yearly progress An individual state's measure of yearly progress toward achieving state academic standards. The minimum level of improvement that states, school districts and schools must achieve each year.
Affixes Word parts that are "fixed to" either the beginnings of words (prefixes) or the endings of words (suffixes). The word disrespectful has two affixes, a prefix (dis-) and a suffix (-ful).
Alphabetic principle The basic idea that written language is a code in which letters represent the sounds in spoken words.
Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Gives civil rights protections to individuals with disabilities; guarantees equal opportunity for individuals with disabilities in public accommodations, employment, transportation, state and local government services, and telecommunications.
Attention deficit disorder (ADD) The inability to use skills of attention effectively.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) The inability to use skills of attention effectively. Studies suggest that five to ten percent of children, adolescents, and adults may have ADHD.
Automaticity Skilled & complex behavior performed easily with little attention, effort, or conscious awareness. With practice & good instruction, students retrieve words from memory, & focus attention understanding the text, rather than decoding.
Base words Words from which many other words are formed. For example, many words can be formed from the base word migrate: migration, migrant, immigration, immigrant, migrating, migratory.
Bilingual education A program in which two languages are used to provide content matter instruction may vary in their length of time, and in the amount each language is used.
Blend A consonant sequence before or after a vowel within a syllable, such as cl, br, or st.
Central auditory processing disorder/deficit (CAPD) Disorder when the ear & the brain do not coordinate fully.. Affects the system beyond the ear, where meaningful message is separated from non-essential background sound & delivers information with good clarity to the brain
Cognates Words in different languages related to the same root, e.g. education (English) and educación (Spanish)..
Comprehension strategies Techniques to teach reading comprehension, including summarization, prediction, and inferring word meanings from context.
Comprehension strategy instruction The explicit teaching of techniques that are particularly effective for comprehending text. Includes direct explanation, teacher modeling ("think aloud"), guided practice, and application.
Context clues The information outside words that readers may use to predict the identities & meanings of new words; from the immediate sentence, from text already read, from pictures accompanying the text, or from descriptions in the text.
Cooperative learning Involves students working together as partners or in small groups on clearly defined tasks, successfully to teach comprehension strategies in content-area subjects.
Decoding The ability to translate a word from print to speech, usually by employing knowledge of sound-symbol correspondences and to decipher a new word by sounding it out.
Direct vocabulary learning When students learn vocabulary through explicit instruction in both the meanings of individual words and word-learning strategies.
Dyslexia A language-based disability that affects both oral and written language. It may also be referred to as reading disability, reading difference, or reading disorder.
English language learner (ELL) Students whose first language is not English and who are in the process of learning English.
ESL A common acronym for English as a Second Language, an educational approach in which English language learners are instructed in the use of the English language.
Fluency The ability to read a text accurately, quickly, and with proper expression and comprehension. When readers do not have to concentrate on decoding words, they can focus their attention on what the text means.
Grapheme A letter or letter combination that spells a single phoneme. In English, a grapheme may be one, two, three, or four letters, such as e, ei, igh, or eigh.
Graphic and semantic organizers Summarize and illustrate concepts and interrelationships among concepts in a text, by using diagrams or other pictorial devices: such as maps, webs, graphs, charts, frames, or clusters.
Indirect vocabulary learning Refers to students learning the meaning of words indirectly when they hear or see the words used in many different contexts – for example, through conversations with adults, through being read to, and through reading extensively on their own.
Individualized Education Program (IEP) A form that describes the special education and related services specifically designed to meet the unique educational needs of a student with a disability.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) The law that guarantees all children with disabilities access to a free and appropriate public education.
Language learning disability (LLD) A disorder that may affect the comprehension and use of spoken or written language as well as nonverbal language, such as eye contact and tone of speech, in both adults and children.
Learning disability (LD) A disorder that affects people's ability to either interpret what they see and hear or to link information from different parts of the brain. It may also be referred to as a learning disorder or a learning difference.
Limited English proficient (LEP) Students who have insufficient English to succeed in English-only classrooms. Increasingly, English language learner (ELL) or English learner (EL) are used in place of LEP.
Literacy Includes reading, writing, and the creative and analytical acts involved in producing and comprehending texts.
Local education agency (LEA) Public board of education or other public authority within a state that maintains administrative control of public elementary or secondary schools in a city, county, township, school district or other political subdivision of a state.
Metacognition The process of "thinking about thinking." For example, good readers use metacognition before reading when they clarify their purpose for reading and preview the text.
Monitoring comprehension Readers who know when they understand what they read and when they do not. Students are able to use appropriate "fix-up" strategies to resolve problems in comprehension.
Morpheme The smallest meaningful unit of language; can be one syllable (book) or more than one syllable (seventeen). May be a whole word or a part of a word such as a prefix or suffix. The word ungrateful contains three morphemes: un, grate, and ful.
Morphemic relationship The relationship between one morpheme and another. In the word books, book is a free morpheme (it has meaning by itself) and -s is a bound morpheme (it has meaning only when attached to a free morpheme).
Morphology The study of how the aspects of language structure are related to the ways words are formed from prefixes, roots, and suffixes (e.g., mis-spell-ing), and how words are related to each other.
Multiple intelligences The theory proposes eight different intelligences to account for a broader range of human potential in children and adults: linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist.
Multisensory structured language education Use of visual, auditory, and kinesthetic-tactile cues simultaneously to enhance memory and learning. Linking the visual, auditory, & kinesthetic-tactile pathways in learning to read and spell.
Naming speed Naming speed is the rate at which a child can recite "overlearned" stimuli such as letters and single-digit numbers.
No Child Left Behind (NCLB) The Elementary and Secondary Education act - 1965, with 4 basic education principles: accountability for results, increased flexibility & local control, options for parents, & use of teaching methods based on scientifically-based research.
Nonverbal learning disability A disorder of reception of nonverbal or performance-based information governed by this hemisphere is impaired in varying degrees, causing problems with visual-spatial, intuitive, organizational, evaluative, & holistic processing functions.
Onset Parts of monosyllabic words in spoken language; smaller than syllables but may be larger than phonemes. The initial consonant sound of a syllable (the onset of bag is b-; of swim is sw-).
Oral language difficulties A child may exhibit poor vocabulary, listening comprehension, or grammatical abilities for his or her age.
Orthographic knowledge The understanding that the sounds in a language are represented by written or printed symbols.
Phoneme The smallest units of sound that change the meanings of spoken words. For example, if you change the first sound in bat from /b/ to /p/, the word bat changes to pat. English has about 41-44 phonemes.
Phoneme addition In this activity, children make a new word by adding a sound to an existing word. (Teacher: What word do you have if you add /s/ to the beginning of park? Children: spark.)
Phoneme blending In this activity, children learn to listen to a sequence of separately spoken sounds, and then combine thesounds to form a word. (Teacher: What word is /b/ /i/ /g/? Children: /b/ /i/ /g/ is big.)
Phoneme categorization In this activity, children recognize the word in a set of three or four words that has the "odd" sound. (Teacher: Which word doesn't belong? bun, bus, rug. Children: Rug does not belong. It doesn't begin with a /b/.)
Phoneme deletion In this activity, children learn to recognize the word that remains when a sound is removed from another word. (Teacher: What is smile without the /s/? Children: Smile without the /s/ is mile.)
Phoneme identity In this activity, children learn to recognize the same sounds in different words. (Teacher: What sound is the same in fix, fall, and fun? Children: The first sound, /f/, is the same.)
Phoneme isolation In this activity, children learn to recognize and identify individual sounds in a word. (Teacher: What is the first sound in van? Children: The first sound in van is /v/.)
Phoneme segmentation In this activity, children break a word into its separate sounds, saying each sound as they tap out or count it. (Teacher: How many sounds are in grab? Children: /g/ /r/ /a/ /b/. Four sounds.)
Phoneme substitution In this activity, children substitute one sound for another to make a new word. (Teacher: The word is bug. Change /g/ to /n/. What's the new word? Children: bun.)
Phonemic awareness The ability to notice, think about, and work with the individual sounds in spoken words. An example is combining or blending the separate sounds of a word to say the word ("/c/ /a/ /t/ - cat.")
Phonics Instruction to build understanding of the alphabetic principle, and the predictable relationship between the sounds in spoken language & graphemes, the letters representing sounds in written language and use to read or decode words.
Analogy-based phonics Use parts of words already learned to read and decode words not know; when the words share similar parts, such as, reading screen by analogy to green. Need to teach a large set of key words for use in reading new words.
Analytic phonics In this approach, children learn to analyze letter-sound relationships in previously learned words. They do not pronounce sounds in isolation.
Embedded phonics Instruction on the letter-sound relationships during the reading of connected text. Letter-sound relationships are taught as part of sight word reading. If the sequence of letter-sounds is determined words encountered in text, not systematic or explicit.
Onset-rime phonics instruction In this approach, children learn to break monosyllabic words into their onsets (consonants preceding the vowel) and rimes (vowel and following consonants). They read each part separately and then blend the parts to say the whole word.
Phonics through spelling In this approach, children learn to segment words into phonemes and to make words by writing letters for phonemes.
Synthetic phonics In this instructional approach, children learn how to convert letters or letter combinations into a sequence of sounds, and then how to blend the sounds together to form recognizable words.
Systematic and explicit phonics instruction A program has a plan of instruction includes a carefully selected set of letter-sound relationships that are organized into a logical sequence. Includes precise directions for the teaching of these relationships.
Phonological awareness A range of understandings related to the sounds of words and word parts, including identifying and manipulating larger parts of spoken language such as words, syllables, and onsets and rimes.
Print awareness/basic print concepts Basic knowledge about print and how it is typically organized on a page. For example, print conveys meaning, print is read left to right, and words are separated by spaces.
Reading disability (RD) Another term for dyslexia, also sometimes referred to as reading disorder or reading difference.
Reciprocal teaching An instructional approach for teaching comprehension skills; includes: asking questions about the text; summarizing parts of the text; clarifying words and sentences not understand; & predicting what might occur next.
Repeated and monitored oral reading In this instructional activity, students read and reread a text a certain number of times or until a certain level of fluency is reached. This improves reading fluency and overall reading achievement.
Rime Parts of monosyllabic words in spoken language; smaller than syllables but may be larger than phonemes. The part of a syllable containing the vowel and all that follows it (the rime of bag is -ag; of swim is -im).
Self-monitoring The mental act of knowing when one does and does not understand what one is reading.
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS). Or Social English The language ability required for face-to-face communication, often accompanied by gestures and relying on context to aid understanding. Learned easily & quickly than academic English, but not enough for an academic classroom. "
Speech language pathologist An expert who helps children who have language disorders to understand and give directions, ask and answer questions, convey ideas, & improve the language skills to lead to better academic performance.
State education agency (SEA) The agency primarily responsible for the state supervision of public elementary and secondary schools.
Story structure The content & events of a story are organized into a plot. Students learn to identify the categories of content (setting, characters, initiating events, internal reactions, goals, attempts, and outcomes) and how this content is organized into a plot.
Summarizing A process in which a reader synthesizes the important ideas in a text, helps to generate main ideas, connect central ideas, eliminate redundant and unnecessary information, and remember what they read.
Supplemental services Outside tutoring or academic assistance for students in poor performing schools. Parents can choose the appropriate services for their child from a list of approved providers.
Syllable A word part that contains a vowel or, in spoken language, a vowel sound (e-vent, news-pa-per).
Syllabication The act of breaking words into syllables.
Text comprehension The reason for reading: understanding what is read, with readers reading actively (engaging in the complex process of making sense from text) and with purpose (for learning, understanding, or enjoyment).
Vocabulary Words a reader knows. Listening vocabulary - the words understood in oral speech. Speaking vocabulary - the words used in speaking. Reading vocabulary - the words understood in print. Writing vocabulary - the words used in writing.
Word attack An aspect of reading instruction that includes intentional strategies for learning to decode, sight read, and recognize written words.
Word parts Include affixes (prefixes and suffixes), base words, and word roots.
Word roots Words from other languages that are the origin of many English words. About 60 percent of all English words have Latin or Greek origins.
Created by: marylu