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Radiography

Radiation Protection II

QuestionAnswer
ESE entrance skin exposure
average AP supine lumbar spine radiograph delivers an ESE of about 350 mrad (0.35 rad).
The average AP supine abdomen delivers about 300 mrad
the average AP cervical spine is about 80 mrad
Use factor describes the percentage of time that the primary beam is directed toward a particular wall.
Workload is determined by the number of x-ray exposures made per week.
Occupancy factor is a reflection of who occupies particular areas (radiation workers or nonradiation workers) and is another factor used in determining radiation barrier thickness.
SSD Source Skin Distance
A 0.25-mm lead equivalent apron will attenuate about 97% of a 50-kVp x-ray beam, 66% of a 75-kVp beam, and 51% of a 100-kVp beam.
A 0.5-mm apron will attenuate about 99% of a 50-kVp beam, 88% of a 75-kVp beam, and 75% of a 100-kVp beam.
The 1.0-mm lead equivalent apron will provide close to 100% protection at most kVp levels, but it is rarely used because it weighs anywhere from 12 to 24 lb.
Lead aprons are available with what various lead equivalents 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mm are the most common.
What will result at 200 and 500 rad 200 rad temporary sterility, 500 rad sterility
Explain HVL reduction amounts the first HVL would reduce the intensity to 50% of its original value, the second to 25%, the third to 12.5%, and the fourth to 6.25% of its original value.
The average high kVp chest with grid delivers an ESE of about 20 mrad (0.020 rad).
he same chest done without grid at 80 kVp would deliver an ESE of about 12 mrad (0.012 rad).
Remnant Radiation is the radiation that emerges from the patient to form the radiographic image.
The interaction between x-ray photons and tissue that is responsible for radiographic contrast but that also contributes significantly to patient dose is the photoelectric effect.
With mA increased to maintain output intensity, how is the ESE affected as the SSD is increased The ESE decreases.
What is the intensity of scattered radiation perpendicular to and 1 m from the patient, compared to the useful beam at the patient's surface 0.1%
Aluminum filtration has its greatest effect on long wavelength radiation.
Patient dose increases as fluoroscopic FOV decreases
Which contributes most to occupational exposure? Compton scatter.
Which contributes most to patient dose? Photoelectric effect
Personnel present in the x-ray room during fluoroscopic examinations wear lead aprons to protect them primarily from Compton scatter
Stochastic effects of radiation are nonthreshold & randomly occurring. The chance of occurrence of stochastic effects is directly related to the radiation dose; that is, as radiation dose increases, there is a greater likelihood of genetic alterations or development of cancer.
Examples of stochastic effects include carcinogenesis and genetic effects.
Nonstochastic effects are predictable, threshold responses; that is, a certain quantity of radiation must be received before the effect will occur, and the greater the dose, the more severe the effect.
Created by: Thevictory on 2009-11-09



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