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AP Psychology-Ch 6

Chapter 6 (Learning) Vocabulary

Learning A lasting change in behavior or mental processes that result from experience.
Habituation Learning not to respond to the repeated presentation of a stimulus.
Mere Exposure Effect A learned preference for stimuli to which we have been previously exposed.
Behavioral Learning Forms of learning such as classical conditioning and operant conditioning, that can be described in terms of stimuli and responses.
Classic Conditioning A form of behavioral learning in which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the power to elicit the same innate reflex produced by another stimulus.
Neutral Stimulus Any stimulus that produced no conditioned response prior to learning. When it is brought into a conditioning experiment, the researcher will call it a conditioned stimulus (CS).
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) In classical conditioning, the stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response.
Unconditioned Response (UCR) In classical conditioning, the response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus without prior learning.
Acquisition The initial learning stage in classical conditioning, during which the conditioned response comes to be elicited by the conditioned stimulus.
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) In classical conditioning a previously neutral stimulus that comes to elicit the conditioned response.
Conditioned Response (CR) In classical conditioning a response elicited by a previously neutral stimulus that has become associated with the unconditioned stimulus.
Extinction (in classical conditioning) The weakening of a conditioned response in the absence of an unconditioned stimulus.
Spontaneous Recovery The reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response after a time delay.
Stimulus Generalization The extension of a learned response to a stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus.
Experimental Neurosis A pattern of erratic behavior resulting from a demanding discrimination learning task, typically one that involves aversive stimuli.
Taste-aversion Learning A biological tendency in which an organism learns after a single experience to avoid a food with a certain taste, if eating it is followed by illness.
Operant An observable, voluntary behavior that an organism emits to “operate” on, or have an effect on, the environment.
Operant Conditioning A form of behavioral learning in which the probability of a response is changed by its consequences- that is, by the stimuli that follow the response.
Law of Effect The idea that responses that produced desirable results would be learned, or “stamped” into the organism.
Reinforcer A condition (involving either the presentation or removal of a stimulus) that occurs after a response and strengthens that response.
Positive Reinforcement A stimulus presented after a response and increasing the probability of that response happening again.
Negative Reinforcement The removal of an unpleasant or aversion stimulus, contingent on a particular behavior. Compare with punishment.
Operant Chamber A boxlike apparatus that can be programmed to deliver reinforcers and punishers contingent on an animal’s behavior. The operant chamber is often called a “skinner box.”
Reinforcement Contingencies Relationships between a response in stimulation that follow the response.
Shaping An operant learning technique in which a new behavior is produced by reinforcing responses that are similar to the desired response.
Intermittent Reinforcement A type of reinforcement schedule by which some, but not all, correct responses are reinforced; also called partial reinforcement.
Extinction (in operant conditioning) A process by which a response that has been learned is weakened by the absence or removal of reinforcement. (Compare with extinction in classical conditioning).
Schedules of Reinforcement Programs specifying the frequency and timing of reinforcements.
Ration Schedule A program by which reinforcement depends on the number of correct responses.
Interval Schedule A program by which reinforcement depends on the time interval elapsed since the last reinforcement.
Fixed Ratio (FR) Schedules Programs by which reinforcement is contingent on a certain, unvarying number of responses.
Variable Ratio (VR) Schedules Reinforcement programs by which the number of responses required for a reinforcement varies from trial to trial.
Fixed Intervals (FI) Schedules Programs by which reinforcement is contingent on a certain, fixed time period.
Variable Interval (VI) Schedules Programs by which the time period between reinforcements varies from trial to trial.
Primary Reinforcers Reinforcers, such as food and sex, that have an innate basis because of their biological value to an organism.
Conditioned Reinforcers or Secondary Reinforcers Stimuli such as money or tokens, that acquire the reinforcing power by a learned association with primary reinforcers.
Token Economy A therapeutic method based on operant conditioning, by which individuals are rewarded with tokens which act as secondary reinforcers. The tokens can be redeemed for a variety of rewards and privileges.
Premack Principle The concept developed by David Premack, that a more preferred activity can be used to reinforce a less-preferred activity.
Punishment An aversive stimulus which, occurring after a response, diminishes the strength of that response. (Compare with negative reinforcement.)
Positive Punishment The application of an aversive stimulus after a response.
Omission Training (negative punishment) The removal of an appetitive stimulus after a response, leading to a decrease in behavior.
Insight Learning A form of cognitive learning, originally described by the Gesalt psychologists, in which problem solving occurs by means of a sudden reorganization of perceptions.
Cognitive Map A mental representation of physical space.
Observational Learning A form of cognitive learning in which new responses are acquired after watching others’ behavior and the consequence of their behavior.
Long-term Potentiation A biological process, involving physical changes that strengthen the synapses in groups of nerve cells, which is believed to be the neural basis of learning.
Created by: Mr. Tusow on 2009-11-08

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