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Geology 101 Exam 2

Notecards for Exam 2 in Geology 101 Fall Semester 2009

What is the difference between physical and chemical weathering? Physical weathering is when something happens to the exterior, whereas chemical weathering is when something happens to the interior makeup
Distinguish between weathering and erosion Weathering is the physical/chemical breakdown of material whereas erosion is the movement or transportation of material
Describe Frost Wedging the volumetric expansion when something goes from a liquid to a solid
Describe Unloading The release of pressure by removal of overlaying materials, which produces sheet-like layers
Describe Thermal Expansion Expansion and contraction of rocks caused by heating and cooling
Describe Jointing Natural cracks that form in rocks are due to cooling or removal of pressure
Describe Biological Activity Also known as root wedging. The main examples is the tree vs. sidewalk
Describe Abrasion The mechanical scraping of rock surface by wind, water and ice
What is the reaction for the formation of Earth's most abundant natural acid? Carbonic acid which speeds up chemical weathering. The Reaction is H2O+CO2=H2CO3
What is dissolution? Occurs when a compound dissociates (ie dissolves) into ions
What minerals are susceptible to dissolution? Calcite
What is oxidation? The chemical transformation that occurs when a mineral is exposed to oxygen
What is acid mine drainage and how does it form? occurs when rocks containing sulfer combines with water and oxygen to produce sulfuric acid
What is the importance of hydrolysis? its a chemical reaction between water and mineral which produces a new mineral and it is important becasuse it turns feldspar to clay, which is the most important mineral
What factors control weathering rates? the specific rock characteristics
What is differential weathering? when certain minerals weather faster than others
What are the three main products of weathering? sediments, new minerals, ions in solution
What is soil? the material at the surface of a planet altered in place from rocks by physical, chemical and/or biological processes
Compare and contrast saprolite and bedrock bedrock is consolidated material, while saprolite is the highly weathered rock directly above bedrock
What is a soil horizon? layer of soil roughly parallel to the surface differing in properties from adjacent layers
Know the major horizons, their characteristics, and their sequence in soils Top to Bottom: 1. O Horizon, 2. A Horizon, 3. E Horizon, 4. B Horizon, 5. C Horizon, 6. R Horizon
Define Erosion The process by which materials are removed from one location and transported to another location
How and where do sedimentary rocks form? They form at or near earth's surface and they are formed by cementing loose sediment or by the precipitation of minerals from water
What is lithification? transformation of unconsolidated sediment into sedimentary rocks
What two processes are involved in lithification? compaction and cementation
Know the typical/ideal composition of soil 25% air, 25% water, 45% mineral matter, 5% organic matter
How does weathering affect the geologic environment? it alters the materials at or near earth's surface
Contrast the formation of clastic and chemical sedimentary rocks Clastic sedimentary rocks are formed by sediments (clasts) from pre-existing rocks whereas chemical sedimentary rocks derrive from dissolved ions that are carried in solution to oceans
How are clastic sedimentary rocks formed? how are they organized by grain size? they are formed by compaction and cementation and they are ogranzied by grain size: gravel, sand (quartz), silt, clay
What the major clastic and chemical sedimentary rocks. Which are most common? shale is the most common clastic sedimentary rock, limestone?? is the most common chemical sedimentary rock
How has demand for energy resources changed? it has increased due to population growth
what are fossil fuels? non-renewable fuels derrived from ancient organisms
contrast the formation and properties of coal, oil and natural gas coal froms from the accumulation of land plants, oil forms from the burial and transformation of marine microorganisms, and natural gas froms in the same way as oil except it needs more heat
know the different types of coal and their purity lignite (least pure), bituminous, anthracite (most pure)
How is coal mined? it is mined in rock form in specialized locations
how is oil mined? by breaking through the seal rock and extracting the liquid oil
what are the components of an oil trap? a geologic environment that allows for economically significant amouts of oil and gas to accumulate
what are the components of a reservoir? a porous permeable layer that yields oil and natural gas
what are the componenets of a source? where gas and oil form (generally shale)
what are the components of a seal rock? an impenetrable layer that allows oil and natural gas to accumulate
what is peak oil? a point in time when the maximum rate of global patroleum extraction is reacehd, after which the rate of production enters terminal decline
what fossil fuels does the u.s. rely on most heavily petroleum
what are oil sands and oil shales? both are emergin energy resources, but are difficutl to extract because they can't be pumped and there is a great deal of leftover waste
what is bitumen? a heavy oil that is later converted to liquid hydrocarbon (oil)
what is a metamorphic rock and how are they formed? a rock that has been altered deep within the earth. it is formed by heat, pressure and hydrothermal fluids
what are the 3 agents of metamorphism? heat, pressure, hydrothermal fluids
compare/contrast confining and directed pressure conflining pressure is when the force is equal on all sides whereas directed pressure is when the force is unequal on all sides
what is foliation? what kind of pressure is it associated with? the parallel arrangement of minerals and it is associated with directed pressure
what is a metamorphic grade? it indicates the intensity of metamophism (ie the amount of degree of change)
what is asbestos? asbestos are fiber-like crystals that form from mineral serpentine
how are metamorphic rocks classified? mostly be appearance and grade: layering, large crystals, fused crystals, shininess
what is a protolith? a parent rock from which a metamorphic rock forms
what are the protolith and key characteristics for slate? protolith=shale, characteristics= fine grained, low grade, breaks into sheets
what are the protolith and key characteristics for schist? protolith=shale and others, characteristics=medium to coarse grained, intermediate grade, large mica flakes which make it shiny
what are the protolith and key characteristics for gneiss? protolith=grantie, characteristics=high grade, medium to coarse grains, light/dark layering
what are the protolith and key characteristics for quartizte? protolith=sandstone, characteristics=large quartz crystals, fused, very resistant
what are the protolith and key characteristics for marble? protolith=limestone, characteristics=calcite, relatively soft monuments, pure white without impurities
how do metamorphic rocks get exposed? through exhumation
what are the differences between compressional, tensional and shear stress compressional stress=squeezing action, tensional stress=pulling action, shear stress=opposite but parallel motion
compare/contrast brittle and ductile deformation brittle deformation is a rock that breaks or cracks, while ductile deformation is the permanent change in shape/size without breaking
what is the difference between a joint and a fault? a fracture in a rock with movement of rock bodies
what is a dip-slip fault? a vertal rock motion, and the two types are a normal fault and reverse fault
what is a strike-slip fault? a horizontal rock motion, and the two types are right lateral and left lateral
know how to dostinguish between a right and left lateral fault right lateral the rock in the back is to the right, left lateral the rock in the back is to the left
what is the significance of the san andres fault? it is the most famous strike-slip fault
What are the two types of metamorphic rocks Foliated rock & Non-Foliated rock
what is metamorphic grade The relationship between temperature and pressure required to make different grades of metamorphic rock
what are facies? (used in the material index) groups of materials based on a specific environment.
at what depth do most metamorphic rocks form 10 - 30 km
What are 2 types of pressure Confining pressure - pressure from all sides Differential pressure - squeezing mainly from one source on one side
What are the two stages of metamorphism Prograde - temp and pressure increasing as it starts Retrograde - temp and pressure decreasing as it finished
Give examples of Foliated metamorphic rock Slate, Schist, Gneiss
Give examples of Non-Foliated metamorphic rock Hornfels, Quartzite, Marble
what is the difference between a focus and a epicenter of an earthquake? focus -The exact point on the fault were there earthquake started epicenter- the point on the surface relative to the focus underground
What are the three types of Seismic Waves - P (Primary) Waves - S (Shear) Waves - L (Long) Waves
That is the direction and speed of P (Primary) waves - Just compression and expansion waves - travels at 6 km/sec
What are shear waves -Slower then P waves -Vertical and horizontal movement -cant travel through liquid
What are (L) Long waves - Combination of P waves and S waves -moving vertically/Horizontally and compression/expansion
What is the Marcalli Index and what does it measure Rating system for earthquakes that is measured by property damage.
What is the Richtor scale and what does it measure Rating system for earthquakes that is measured in the amount of ground shaking
What is the Moment Magnitude scale rating system for earthquakes that measures the amount of movement at the focus. -(able to be read after the earthquake is over)
Created by: w3053795