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Shelleys midterm

Earth science midterm

QuestionAnswer
Fiords are found exclusively along the coast of Norway. False
Gravity plays an important role in all mass wasting events. True
The velocity of a river usually increases downstream. True
Which of the following statements are true about deserts? despite infrequent rainfalls, erosional and depositional features of running water are important in desert landscapes
Which of the following best describes how geysers erupt? water slowly boils in a network of vertical cracks above the water table, sending up a plume of steam and hot water.
Hot springs are most numerous in which region of the United states? West
is an irregular, usually thin till layer laid down by a retreating glacier. Ground moraine
Loess consists mainly of silt-sized particles. True
A is likely to host a waterfall or steep rapids today. Hanging valley
A stream pattern is developed only on growing mountains like volcanoes or where the land surface is tectonically doming upward. Radial
The downstream end or snout of a glacier advances over periods of time during which ablation exceeds accumulation. False
A stream begins at an elevation of 200 meters and flows a distance of 400 kilometers to the ocean. What is the average gradient? .5m/km
A___________represents a former meltwater channel or tunnel in glacial ice that was filled with sand and gravel. esker
Which of the following features characterize wide streams and valleys? Natural levees; broad floadplains
Crevasses are short, narrow cracks in the plastic flow zone of a glacier that alternately open and close as the ice flows along. False
The source of heat for most hot springs is hot igneous material beneath the surface. True
During the most recent ice age, glaciers covered about________percent of Earth's land area. 30
More water is evaporated from the ocean than is returned to the ocean by precipitation. True
The Basin and Range region of the western United states is an excellent example of a mountainous desert landscape. True
Rapid surge movements of the Earth's tectonic plates offer a convincing explanation for the advances and retreats of the Pleistocene ice sheets. False
A broad accumulation of stratified drift deposited adjacent to the downstream edge of an end moraine is a outwash plain
The transfer of rock material down slope under the influence of gravity is termed mass wasting
A fiord is a _______ Drowned glacial trough
_______would have the largest capacity to naturally remove sewage pollutants. Slightly clayey sand.
At a bend in a river, the main erosion is _____ on the outside of the bed.
A name commonly used as a synonym for the Ice Age is _________ Pleistocene Epoch
Running water is an important agent in many arid lands despite infrequent rainfalls. True.
A ______is an erosional feature specifically produced by alpine glaciation. U-shaped valley
Which one of the moraines listed below is NOT characteristic of continental glaciation? Lateral moraine
Loose undisturbed particles assume a stable slope called the angle of repose. True.
Steppes are the driest of the true desert lands. False
A cirque represents an erosional feature formed in what was an important accumulation zone for snow and ice at the upstream head of a glacier. True
Which one of the following factors does NOT influence stream velocity? laminar flow
A_______ is the icicle-like speleothem that grows down from the roof of a cavern. stalactite
Loose undisturbed particles assume a stable slope called the angle of repose. true
______generally constitutes the highest percentage of the annual sediment load moved by a stream. Suspended load.
Which one of the following could not have significantly affected climatic variations and advances and retreats of ice sheets during the Pleistocene epoch? movements of Earth's tectonic plates
Which one of the following concerning artesian wells is not true? when the well penetrates the aquifer, the water rises to the bottom of the aquitard above the aquifer.
A ______is an intermittent stream channel in the dry land areas of the western United States. wash
_______are erosional features produced by valley/alpine glaciers. Cirques
Which one of the following is NOT true of glaciers? exist only in the Northern Hemisphere.
The term drif_______ means any sediment of glacial origin
the water table is a boundary between saturated rock below and unsaturated rock above
When water is pumped from a well, a depression is often produced in the water table. Such a depression is an cone of depression
Alluvium refers to stream deposits, mainly sand and gravel. True
_______are characteristics of down cutting streams and youthful stage of a valley evolution. Rapids and lots of whitewater
Desert pavement is the result of deflation
Bajadas develop from coalescence of alluvian fans along fronts of mountain ranges in arid lands. True
At a bend in a river, the main erosion is on the outside of the bend.
Obsidian exhibits a_______texture. glassy
Atoms of the same element, zinc for example, have the same number of ____________. protons in the nucleus
Which one of the following is not true for minerals? They can be a liquid, solid, or glass.
Which one of the following mineral groups exhibits a sheet-like silicate structure? micas
Evaporites have a biochemical origin. False
The micas, biotite and muscovite, both exhibit one direction of cleavage. true
This dense, nonfoilated metamorphic rock is produced most often from sandstone. quartzite
Igneous rock is formed by crystallization of molten rock.
What element is the most abundant in the Earth's crust by weight? oxygen
Which common mineral is composed entirely of silicon and oxygen? quartz
The most abundant sedimentary rock is shale. True
Which one of the following is an igneous rock? Rhyolite
What mineral is the hardest known substance in nature? Diamond
One magma can produce several different igneous rocks having different mineral compositions. true
Select the coarse-grained rock which is composed mainly of quartz and potassium feldspar from the list below. granite
which of these factors influence the type and rate of weathering? all of these.
An atoms mass number is 13 and its atomic number is 6. How many neutrons are in its nucleus? 7
Which carbon mineral reacts readily with cool, dilute hydrochloric acid to produce visible bubbles of carbon dioxide gas? calcite
Metamorphism can affect only sedimentary rocks. False.
Which of the following best describes bedded gypsum and rock salt. evaporites;chemical,sedimentary rocks.
A mineral can be composed entirely of one element. True.
Atoms that have an electrical charge due to a gain or loss of electrons are called. ions
Over 100 elements are currently known. True.
Which of the rocks listed below is a popular building stone? Granite
The ion at the center of a silicon-oxygen tetrahedron is surrounded by 4 oxygen ions
Which of the following has the highest specific gravity? gold
Rocks are aggregates of one or more minerals. True
The primary agent of contact metamorphism is heat
During metamorphism the material undergoing deformation remains a solid. True.
Nearly 4,000 minerals have been named. True.
Basalt is the fine-grained equivalent of gabbro. True
Sedimentary rocks all of these
Detrital sediments would predominate in all of the following environments except Salt flat
Which of the following denotes the positively charged particles in an atoms nucleus? PROTONS
The texture of an igneous rock the rate of cooling of the melt:
Most limestone has a biochemical origin. true
Which rock type is associated with high-energy environment(such as a very turbulent stream) conglomerate
Which of the following is NOT one of the eight most common elements in Earth's crust? carbon
__________is a strong, parallel alignment of different mineral bands in metamorphic rock. FOLIATION
The micas, biotite, and muscovite both exhibit one direction of cleavage. True
Which of the following describes light reflecting and transmission characteristics of a mineral? luster
Chemical weathering would be most effective? cold, wet climate
All silicate minerals contain which two elements? silicon, oxygen
Isotopes of the same element have the same mass number. False.
Quartz is quite resistant to weathering and is an important component of sands in riverbeds and on beaches. True
The resistance of a mineral to abrasion is known as ________. hardness
Mineral luster is broadly classified as either being metallic or opaque. False
A cubic centimeter of quartz, olivine, and gold weigh 2.5, 3.0, and 19.8 grams respectively. This indicates that ________. gold has a higher density and specific gravity than quartz and olivine
Diamond and quartz are both minerals composed of a single element. False
his igneous texture is characterized by two distinctively different crystal sizes. porphyritic
Most limestone has a biochemical origin. True
Detrital sedimentary rocks are classified (named) primarily on the basis of ________. particle size
All atoms of the same element have the same atomic number. true
Which of the following is correct for isotopes of the same element? the atoms have different numbers of neutrons and the same number of protons
Which mineral is easily soluble in water at room temperature conditions? halite
Glassy igneous rocks form when magma cools too fast for mineral grains to grow. TRUE
Which group of minerals are the most abundant in the Earth's crust? Silicates
In the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron there are more silicon atoms than oxygen atoms. False
Mineral deposits which have been identified and can be extracted profitably are called ________. Reserves
Metamorphism is commonly associated with mountain building. True
The common rock produced by the metamorphism of limestone is ________. marble
Which of the following lists the rocks in the order of increasing grain size and increasing grade of metamorphism? slate, phyllite, schist
Nonmetallic minerals like halite and gypsum have no industrial uses. False
Which mineral is easily soluble in water at room temperature conditions? halite
Chemical weathering would be most effective ________. n a warm, humid climate
ntrusive rocks ________. NONE OF THESE
Which pair of minerals is most common in detrital sedimentary rocks? CLAY AND QUARTZ
Electrically neutral atoms have equal numbers of electrons and protons. True
Which one of the following is NOT true about mechanical weathering? does not affect metamorphic rocks
n the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron there are more silicon atoms than oxygen atoms. false
The most abundant sedimentary rock is shale. true
Which one of the following is an igneous rock? rhyolite
Glassy igneous rocks form when magma cools too fast for mineral grains to grow. True
The largest quantity of metamorphic rock is produced by regional metamorphism. True
A cirque represents an erosional feature formed in what was an important accumulation zone for snow and ice at the upstream head of a glacier. True
Which one of the following factors does NOT influence stream velocity? Stream gradient, channel shape, and roughness of the channel.
Which one of the following is NOT true of glaciers? exist only in the northern hemisphere.
he oldest rocks of the oceanic crust are found in deep ocean trenches far away from active, mid-ocean ridges. True
During the geologic past, the magnetic field poles have generally been very close to Earth's rotational poles. True
he Aleutian Islands occur at a ________ convergent boundary on a volcanic arc above a northward-subducting Pacific plate
A transform plate boundary is characterized by ________. a deep, vertical fault along which two plates slide past one another in opposite directions
The ________ is an example of an active, continent-continent collision? northward movement of India into Eurasia
During various times in the geologic past, the polarity of Earth's magnetic field has been reversed. True
Today, ________ is in about the same geographic position as during late Paleozoic time. Antartica
Mount St. Helens and the other Cascade volcanoes are ________. young, active stratovolcanoes built on a continental margin above a sinking slab of oceanic lithosphere
Pull-apart, rift zones are generally associated with a ________ plate boundary. divergent
In the early part of the 20th century, ________ argued forcefully for continental drift. Alfred Wegner
The volcanoes of Hawaii are localized above a deep mantle hot spot; they are not part of the East Pacific oceanic ridge True
Where would you drill to recover samples of the oldest basalts of the oceanic crust, which are Jurassic in age? oceanic side of the Aleutian trench
The continental drift hypothesis was rejected primarily because Alfred Wegener could not ________. identify a mechanism capable of moving continents
________ first related the symmetrical magnetic patterns in seafloor basalts to seafloor spreading at a mid-ocean ridge. Vine and Matthews
Which of the following paleoclimatic evidence supports the idea of the late Paleozoic super continent in the Southern Hemisphere? tillites (rocks formed by glaciers) in South Africa and South America
An extensive, late Paleozoic glaciation affected southern India, southern Africa and southeastern South America. True
________ was never proposed as evidence supporting the existence of Pangaea. Islands of Precambrian rocks along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Iceland is a good example of an island arc, formed from an oceanic-oceanic plate collision. False
The modern-day Red Sea is explained by plate tectonics theory because it is ________. a rift zone that may eventually open into a major ocean if Arabia and Africa continue to separate
In general, rocks of the continental crust are less dense than rocks of the oceanic crust. true
Linear, magnetic patterns associated with mid-ocean ridges are configured as ________. normal and reversed magnetized strips roughly parallel to the ridge
Earth's radius and surface area are slowly increasing to accommodate the new oceanic crust being formed at mid-ocean ridges. False
he rate of seafloor spreading is, on the average, about one meter per year. False
Hawaii is the oldest island of the Hawaiian Island chain. False
A very long-lived magma source located deep in the mantle is called a ________. hot spot
Early results of the Deep Sea Drilling Project clearly justified the conclusion that ________. the ocean basins are relatively young; most ocean basin rocks and sediments are Cretaceous or younger in age
Which one of the following most accurately describes the volcanoes of the Hawaiian Islands? shield volcanoes fed by a long-lived hot spot below the Pacific lithospheric plate
Which of the following energy sources is thought to drive the lateral motions of Earth's lithospheric plates? export of heat from deep in the mantle to the top of the asthenosphere
Cooler, older, oceanic lithosphere sink into the mantle at ________. subduction zones along convergent plate boundaries
Seafloor spreading rates can be estimated if the geologic ages of the magnetic field reversals are independently known. True
The Himalayan Mountains and Tibetan Plateau are still rising today as Eurasia slides beneath the Indian subcontinent. False
Accretionary wedges develop along subduction zones where sediments and other rocks are scraped off a descending plate and piled against the leading edge of the overriding plate. True
The lithosphere is defined as ________. a rigid layer of crustal and mantle material
Continental crustis generally thicker than oceanic crust. true
the elastic rebound theory for the origin of earthquakes was first proposed by ________ following the ________ earthquake. Reid; 1906, San Francisco
The Sierra Nevada, CA, and Teton, WY ranges are examples of ________. fault blocks uplifted by late Tertiary to Quaternary normal faulting
Which one of the following statements about the crust is NOT true? oceanic crust is enriched in potassium, sodium, and silicon
The Mercalli Scale is a scale from ________. I to XII that rates the structural damage due to an earthquake
In a reverse fault, the hanging wall block moves up relative to the footwall block. True
A horst is ________. an uplifted block bounded by two normal faults
Unconsolidated, water-saturated soils or sediments provide good foundation materials for buildings and other structures. False
Which of the following combinations should favor folding rather than faulting? high temperature and high confining pressure
Large circular downwarped structures are called ________. basins
The asthenosphere is located ________. the upper mantle
The ________ magnitude scale is a measure of the energy release Richter
The ________ is (are) characterized by terrane accretion that has been active throughout most of Mesozoic and Cenozoic time. western margin of North America
S waves can travel through solid and liquid media. False
A graben is an upraised block bounded by two reverse faults. False
On a typical seismogram, ________ will show the highest amplitudes. surface waves
The Richter magnitude of an earthquake is determined from the ________.
The ________ in California is the boundary between the North American and Pacific plates. San Andreas strike-slip fault
The ________ earthquake was accompanied by extensive fire damage. San Francisco, 1906
Earthquakes result from the sudden release of elastic strain energy previously stored in rocks surrounding a zone of fault movement. True
Which one of the following is true regarding tsunamis? they occur in the open ocean, wavelengths are many miles or kilometers and wave heights are only a few feet
Brittle deformation would be favored over plastic deformation in which of the following conditions? cooler temperatures
Which one of the following statements is correct?
________ is the maximum possible damage designation on the Mercalli scale. XII
In a normal fault ________. the hanging wall block above an inclined fault plane moves downward relative to the other block
The Richter earthquake magnitude scale is based on the total amount of energy released by the earthquake. True
A graben is characterized by ________. a hanging wall block that has moved down between two normal faults
________ magma is the most abundant type of magma erupted at oceanic spreading centers. Basaltic
Small amounts of water can lower partial melting temperatures in silicate rocks. True
Which type of basaltic lava flow has a fairly smooth, unfragmented, ropy surface? pahoehoe
In general, cinder cones are much larger than shield volcanoes. False
________ destroyed the city of St. Pierre, Martinique in 1902. A nueé ardente
Which statement about the May, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens is false? during the eruptive period, the mountain peak was substantially built up by new lava flows and pyroclastic debris
Kilauea and Mauna Loa are ________. basaltic shield volcanoes
Vents that emit only heated, volcanic gases and water are called fumaroles. True
The active Hawaiian volcanoes are situated directly above a major boundary between two of the Earth's largest tectonic plates False
The largest igneous intrusive body is called a(n) ________. BATHOLITH
Which of the following statements best describes the big Hawaiian volcanoes? are situated in the interior of a large, Pacific plate above a hot spot deep in the mantle
Which kind of volcanism is typical of mid-oceanic ridge systems? submarine; basaltic lava flows
Most basaltic magmas are believed to form by partial melting of granite in the lower crust and upper mantle. FALSE
Which of the following is associated with deep mantle hot spots? the volcanoes of Hawaii and Quaternary activity in Yellowstone National Park
________ are usually the most abundant gases emitted during basaltic volcanism. Water and carbon dioxide
Most of the active volcanoes on Earth are located in a belt known as the ________. Ring of FIRE
The 1943 eruption of Paricutin in Mexico was characterized by ________. cinder cone building and basaltic lava
Magma tends to rise toward Earth's surface principally because rocks become less dense when they melt
Paricutin is an example of a ________. CINDER CONE
A ________ is the largest, discordant body of intrusive, igneous rock. BATHOLITH
The 1991 Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines caused brilliantly colored sunrises and sunsets to be seen for the next few years. What caused this phenomenon? sulfur dioxide and other erupted gases formed aerosols in the stratosphere
Which region has the greatest concentration of currently active volcanoes? the circum-Pacific area
Basalt is the most common magma erupted along oceanic rift systems. TRUE
A ________ volcano is a very large, gently sloping mound composed mainly of basaltic lava flows. SHIELD
Which type of basaltic lava flow has its surface covered with sharp-edged, angular blocks and rubble? aa
The ________ ocean basin is rimmed by the most subduction zones. PACIFIC
Spreading center volcanism most generally produces rocks which are ________. basaltic in composition
Kilauea is an example of a ________. SHIELD VOLCANO
Magma generation at depth almost always involves partial melting, not complete melting of the source rock. True
Most basaltic magmas are believed to form by partial melting of granite in the lower crust and upper mantle. False
Ash and Lapilli are different sized pyroclastic particles. TRUE
______is a major dissolved volatile constituent in both magmas and volcanic gases? water
_____tend to increase the explosive potential of magma body beneath a volcano. High viscosity and dissolved gas
The Icelandic volcanoes are related to plate tectonics because They lie on a spreading center where two plates are moving apart.
Vents that emit only heated, volcanic gases and water are called fumaroles. True
Which kind of volcanism is typical of mid-oceanic ridge systems? submarine;basaltic lava flows
In 1980,______ was the first Cascade Range Volcano to erupt since Mt. Lassen in 1915-16 Mt. ST. HELENS
The eruptions of the Hawaiin volcanoes may be described as explosive in comparison to the 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption. False
Which statement about the May, 1980, eruption of MOunt St. Helens is false? During the eruptive period, the mountain peak was substantially built up by new lava flows and pyroclastic debris.
Which of the following statements best describes the big Hawaiin volcanoes? are situated in the interior of a large, Pacific plate above a hot spot deep in the mantle
Small amounts of water can lower partial melting temperatures in silicate rocks. True
________magma is the most abundant type of magma erupted at oceanic spreading centers. Basaltic
The 1943 Eruption of Paricutin Mexico was characterized by Cinder cone building and basaltic lava
Repeated eruptions of relatively fluid lava from fissures can eventually cause an area to be covered by flood basalts. True
A_______is a near surface, intrusive igneous rock body that results from local inflation of a horizontal sill. Laccolith
The era of "ancient life" is the ________ era. Paleozoic
Which of the following is an essential characteristic of an index fossil? the organism only lived for a short period of geologic time
Which of the following geologic observations would not bear directly on working out the sequence of geologic events in an area? the feldspar and quartz contents of a granite
The geologic time scale was devised before numerical dating using radioactivity was invented. the feldspar and quartz contents of a granite
The geologic time scale was devised before numerical dating using radioactivity was invented. True
Consider the names of the eras in the geologic time scale. What is meant by "zoic"? life; living things
What is the age of the Earth accepted by most scientists today? 4.5 billion years
The half-life of carbon-14 is about 6000 years. Assume that a sample of charcoal formed by burning of living wood 15,000 years ago. How much of the original carbon-14 would remain today? between one-fourth and one-eighth
An unconformity is a buried ________. surface of erosion separating younger strata above from older strata below
When a radioactive isotope decays by electron capture, the electron ________. combines with a proton in the nucleus; the atomic number of the daughter is one less than the parent
What fundamental concept states that in a horizontal sequence of conformable sedimentary strata, each higher bed is younger than the bed below it? law of superposition
When a beta particle is emitted, the mass number of the isotope remains unchanged. true
After three half-lives, one-ninth of an original, radioactive, parent isotope remains and eight-ninths has decayed into the daughter isotope. False
Who made the first clear statement of the law of superposition? When? Nicolaus Steno, 17th century
Radiometric dating means placing events in their proper sequence. False
The ratio of parent to daughter isotopes in a radioactive decay process is 0.40 How many half-lives have elapsed since the material was 100% parent atoms? between l and 2
Visualize five, horizontal, sedimentary strata exposed in a cliff or canyon wall identified by consecutive numbers, 1 being the lowest bed and 5 being the highest. Which of the following statements concerning the strata are true? beds l and 3 are older than bed 4
The ________ is the idea or concept that ancient life forms succeeded each other in a definite, evolutionary pattern and that the contained assemblage of fossils can determine geologic ages of strata? principle of faunal succession
Which of the following denotes the divisions of the geologic time scale in correct order of decreasing lengths of time beginning with the longest time interval and ending with the shortest? eon, era, period, epoch
Sandstone strata and a mass of granite are observed to be in contact. Which of the following statements is correct geologically? the granite is older if the sandstone contains pebbles of the granite
he era known as the "age of mammals" is the ________. Cenozoic
In the late 1700s James Hutton published his important work titled ________. Theory of the Earth
An unconformity involving older metamorphic rocks and younger sedimentary strata is termed a nonconformity. TRUE
The Paleozoic is the era of "ancient life." TRUE
Correlation of rock units between continents or widely separated areas is accomplished by using physical features such as color, texture, and thickness of units. TRUE
The term Mesozoic refers to life forms intermediate in complexity between early and much later, more modern-looking life forms. TRUE
Assume that you have just examined several flat-lying sedimentary layers. After much study you determine that there is a considerable span of time for which no sedimentary rock layer exists at this site. You have just discovered a(n) ________ disconformity
The subdivision of the geologic time scale that represents the shortest time span is called a(n) ________. epoch
Which of the following describes radioactive decay by beta particle emission? the atomic number of the daughter isotope is one more than the parent; the mass numbers are the same
________ is an erosional contact between tilted, older strata below and horizontal, younger strata above. An angular unconformity
Melting and calving are two forms of ablation. TRUE
Which one of the following applies to a valley glacier that lengthens (extends its terminus downslope) over a period of many years? accumulation exceeds wastage
Which of the following terms is used to describe the way materials move during a mass wasting event? all of these
Rejuvenation of a stream may be due to ________. uplift of land
________ is one of the two, major flow mechanism in a glacier. basal slip
Ice Age glaciers had many indirect effects. Which one of the following was NOT such an effect? extinction of some organizims
Blowouts are broad, shallow depressions excavated by deflation. true
The water table is ________. a boundary between saturated rock below and unsaturated rock above
If you were to examine the longitudinal profile of a typical river, you would probably find that the gradient is ________. steepest near the head
________ is an irregular, usually thin till layer laid down by a retreating glacier. ground moraine
The temperature below which magnetic material can retain a permanent magnetization is called the ______ Curie Point
A fiord is a ________. drowned glacial trough
What mature, desert landscape feature consists of coalesced alluvial fans? bajada
The term karst topography was first used in ________. the Republic of Slovenia, a province of the former Yugoslavia
The formation of stalactites and stalagmites occurs in the zone of saturation. false
At the head of a delta, the major channel splits into smaller channels that follow different paths to the sea. These smaller channels are known as ________. distributaries
Which one of the following statements is true? despite infrequent rainfalls, erosional and depositional features of running water are important in desert landscapes
Running water is an important erosional agent in many arid lands despite infrequent rainfalls. True
A ________ stream pattern is developed only on growing mountains like volcanoes or where the land surface is tectonically doming upward. radial
The single most important erosional agent is ________. running water
Crevasses are short, narrow cracks in the plastic flow zone of a glacier that alternately open and close as the ice flows along. false
Point bars are depositional features located along the outer portions of meander bends. false
Bajadas develop from coalescence of alluvial fans along fronts of mountain ranges in arid lands. true
For a well to be characterized as being artesian, water must flow freely at the surface. false
Which one of the moraines listed below is NOT characteristic of continental glaciation? lateral moraine
________ is an erosional contact between tilted, older strata below and horizontal, younger strata above. An angular unconformity
Assume that man's recorded history can be stretched back to 4600 years before the present. This is approximately what fraction of geologic time? one millionth
The ratio of parent to daughter isotopes in a radioactive decay process is 0.40 How many half-lives have elapsed since the material was 100% parent atoms? between l and 2
An unconformity is a buried ________. surface of erosion separating younger strata above from older strata below
________ is an erosional contact between tilted, older strata below and horizontal, younger strata above. An angular unconformity
An unconformity involving older metamorphic rocks and younger sedimentary strata is termed a nonconformity. True
Which of the following denotes the divisions of the geologic time scale in correct order of decreasing lengths of time beginning with the longest time interval and ending with the shortest? eon, era, period, epoch
What is the age of the Earth accepted by most scientists today? 4.5 billion years
In the late 1700s James Hutton published his important work titled ________. Theory of the Earth
The term Paleozoic describes the era of ancient life forms. True
The era of "ancient life" is the ________ era. Paleozoic
The Paleozoic is the era of "ancient life." true
What of the following refers to the investigative process by which geologists identify and match sedimentary strata and other rocks of the same ages in different areas? correlation
A worm would stand a poor chance of being fossilized because ________. worms have no hard parts
When a beta particle is emitted, the mass number of the isotope remains unchanged. True
Phanerozoic, marine, sedimentary strata of the same age on different continents can usually be correlated by their fossil assemblages. True
The subdivision of the geologic time scale that represents the shortest time span is called a(n) ________. epoch
After three half-lives, one-ninth of an original, radioactive, parent isotope remains and eight-ninths has decayed into the daughter isotope. False
Phanerozoic, marine, sedimentary strata of the same age on different continents can usually be correlated by their fossil assemblages. True
The term Mesozoic refers to life forms intermediate in complexity between early and much later, more modern-looking life forms. True
When a radioactive isotope decays by electron capture, the electron ________. combines with a proton in the nucleus; the atomic number of the daughter is one less than the parent
By applying the law of superposition ________ dates can be determined. relative
Who is credited with formulating the doctrine of uniformitarianism? Hutton
Which of the following best characterizes an angular unconformity? tilted strata lie below the unconformity; bedding in younger strata above is parallel to the unconformity
The geologic time scale was devised before numerical dating using radioactivity was invented. true
The ________ is the idea or concept that ancient life forms succeeded each other in a definite, evolutionary pattern and that the contained assemblage of fossils can determine geologic ages of strata? principle of faunal succession
Which of the following describes radioactive decay by beta particle emission? the atomic number of the daughter isotope is one more than the parent; the mass numbers are the same
What fundamental concept states that in a horizontal sequence of conformable sedimentary strata, each higher bed is younger than the bed below it? law of superposition
The era known as the "age of mammals" is the ________. Cenozoic
Who made the first clear statement of the law of superposition? When? Nicolaus Steno, 17th century
Assume that man's recorded history can be stretched back to 4600 years before the present. This is approximately what fraction of geologic time? one millionth
The ratio of parent to daughter isotopes in a radioactive decay process is 0.40 How many half-lives have elapsed since the material was 100% parent atoms? between l and 2
An unconformity is a buried ________. surface of erosion separating younger strata above from older strata below
________ is an erosional contact between tilted, older strata below and horizontal, younger strata above. An angular unconformity
Assume that man's recorded history can be stretched back to 4600 years before the present. This is approximately what fraction of geologic time? one millionth
The ratio of parent to daughter isotopes in a radioactive decay process is 0.40 How many half-lives have elapsed since the material was 100% parent atoms? between l and 2
An unconformity is a buried ________. surface of erosion separating younger strata above from older strata below
________ is an erosional contact between tilted, older strata below and horizontal, younger strata above An angular unconformity
An unconformity involving older metamorphic rocks and younger sedimentary strata is termed a nonconformity. True
What of the following refers to the investigative process by which geologists identify and match sedimentary strata and other rocks of the same ages in different areas? correlation
A worm would stand a poor chance of being fossilized because ________. worms have no hard parts
Phanerozoic, marine, sedimentary strata of the same age on different continents can usually be correlated by their fossil assemblages. True
When a beta particle is emitted, the mass number of the isotope remains unchanged. True
After three half-lives, one-ninth of an original, radioactive, parent isotope remains and eight-ninths has decayed into the daughter isotope. False
The term Mesozoic refers to life forms intermediate in complexity between early and much later, more modern-looking life forms. TRUE
When a radioactive isotope decays by electron capture, the electron ________. combines with a proton in the nucleus; the atomic number of the daughter is one less than the parent
By applying the law of superposition ________ dates can be determined. relative
Who is credited with formulating the doctrine of uniformitarianism? Hutton
Which of the following best characterizes an angular unconformity? tilted strata lie below the unconformity; bedding in younger strata above is parallel to the unconformity
What fundamental concept states that in a horizontal sequence of conformable sedimentary strata, each higher bed is younger than the bed below it? law of superposition
Which of the following best characterizes an angular unconformity? tilted strata lie below the unconformity; bedding in younger strata above is parallel to the unconformity
Assume that man's recorded history can be stretched back to 4600 years before the present. This is approximately what fraction of geologic time? one millionth
he ratio of parent to daughter isotopes in a radioactive decay process is 0.40 How many half-lives have elapsed since the material was 100% parent atoms? between l and 2
An unconformity is a buried ________ surface of erosion separating younger strata above from older strata below
Which of the following describes radioactive decay by beta particle emission? the atomic number of the daughter isotope is one more than the parent; the mass numbers are the same
What of the following refers to the investigative process by which geologists identify and match sedimentary strata and other rocks of the same ages in different areas? correlation
Which of the following best characterizes an angular unconformity? tilted strata lie below the unconformity; bedding in younger strata above is parallel to the unconformity
The temperature below which magnetic material can retain a permanent magnetization is called the ______ Curie point
The former, late Paleozoic super continent is known as ________. PANGAEA
The rate of seafloor spreading is, on the average, about one meter per year. FALSE
The ________ is an example of an active, continent-continent collision? northward movement of India into Eurasia
Seafloor spreading rates can be estimated if the geologic ages of the magnetic field reversals are independently known. TRUE
Which of the following paleoclimatic evidence supports the idea of the late Paleozoic super continent in the Southern Hemisphere? tillites (rocks formed by glaciers) in South Africa and South America
Which of the following statements apply to the asthenosphere, but not the lithosphere? zone in the upper mantle that deforms by plastic flowage
As the South Atlantic basin widens by seafloor spreading, Africa and South America are moving closer together. FALSE
Earth's radius and surface area are slowly increasing to accommodate the new oceanic crust being formed at mid-ocean ridges. FALSE
During various times in the geologic past, the polarity of Earth's magnetic field has been reversed. TRUE
In general, rocks of the continental crust are less dense than rocks of the oceanic crust. TRUE
A typical rate of seafloor spreading in the Atlantic Ocean is ________. 2 centimeters per year
Where would you drill to recover samples of the oldest basalts of the oceanic crust, which are Jurassic in age? oceanic side of the Aleutian trench
The Aleutian Islands occur at a ______ convergent boundary on a volcanic arc above a northward-subducting Pacific plate
The volcanoes and deep valleys of east Africa are related to a ________ continental rift along which parts of the African continent are beginning to slowly separate
Today, ________ is in about the same geographic position as during late Paleozoic time. Antarctica
The oldest rocks of the oceanic crust are found in deep ocean trenches far away from active, mid-ocean ridges. TRUE
A transform plate boundary is characterized by ________. a deep, vertical fault along which two plates slide past one another in opposite directions
Cooler, older, oceanic lithosphere sink into the mantle at ________. subduction zones along convergent plate boundaries
An extensive, late Paleozoic glaciation affected southern India, southern Africa and southeastern South America. TRUE
During the geologic past, the magnetic field poles have generally been very close to Earth's rotational poles. TRUE
The modern-day Red Sea is explained by plate tectonics theory because it is ________. a rift zone that may eventually open into a major ocean if Arabia and Africa continue to separate
________ was never proposed as evidence supporting the existence of Pangaea. Islands of Precambrian rocks along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
________ first related the symmetrical magnetic patterns in seafloor basalts to seafloor spreading at a mid-ocean ridge. Vine and Matthews
Which one of the following is an important fundamental assumption underlying the plate tectonic theory? Earth's diameter has been essentially constant over time
________ most effectively outline the edges of the lithospheric plates. Lines of earthquake epicenters
________ was an ancient reptile that lived in South America and Africa during the late Paleozoic. Mesosaurus
The Black Hills of South Dakota are a good example of a(n) ________. DOME
A graben is an upraised block bounded by two reverse faults. FALSE
The Richter earthquake magnitude scale is based on the total amount of energy released by the earthquake. TRUE
On a typical seismogram, ________ will show the highest amplitudes. surface waves
A horst is ________. an uplifted block bounded by two normal faults
Basin and range topography, like that in the western and southwestern United States, indicates that compressive folding is active today or was active very recently, geologically speaking. FALSE
Earthquakes result from the sudden release of elastic strain energy previously stored in rocks surrounding a zone of fault movement. TRUE
The average composition of the continental crust most closely approximates that of ________. granite
he ________ are a geologically old mountain range folded and deformed during the Paleozoic. Appalachians in the eastern United States
Continental crustis generally thicker than oceanic crust. TRUE
Approximately how much more energy is released in a 6.5 Richter magnitude earthquake than in one with magnitude 5.5? 30 TIMES
The ________ magnitude scale is a measure of the energy release Richter
The mechanism by which rocks store and eventually release energy in the form of an earthquake is termed ________. elastic rebound
The record of an earthquake obtained from a seismic instrument is a(n) ________. seismogram
A graben is characterized by ________. a hanging wall block that has moved down between two normal faults
In a ________ fault, the hanging wall block move up with respect to the footwall block REVERSE
Which one of the following statements is correct? S waves travel through solids and P waves travel through liquids
The elastic rebound theory for the origin of earthquakes was first proposed by ________ following the ________ earthquake. Reid; 1906, San Francisco
The Himalayan Mountains and Tibetan Plateau are still rising today as Eurasia slides beneath the Indian subcontinent. False
The asthenosphere is located ________. in the upper mantle
The lithosphere is defined as ________. a rigid layer of crustal and mantle material
Most of our knowledge about Earth's interior comes from ________. seismic waves
S waves can travel through solid and liquid media. False
Unconsolidated, water-saturated soils or sediments provide good foundation materials for buildings and other structures. FALSE
In a reverse fault, the hanging wall block moves up relative to the footwall block. TRUE
The ________ is (are) characterized by terrane accretion that has been active throughout most of Mesozoic and Cenozoic time. western margin of North America
The Mercalli Scale is a scale from ________. I to XII that rates the structural damage due to an earthquake
Accretionary wedges develop along subduction zones where sediments and other rocks are scraped off a descending plate and piled against the leading edge of the overriding plate. T R U E
Which of the following combinations should favor folding rather than faulting? high temperature and high confining pressure
The ________ earthquake was accompanied by extensive fire damage. San Francisco, 1906
Which one of the following is true regarding tsunamis? they occur in the open ocean, wavelengths are many miles or kilometers and wave heights are only a few feet
Which of the following combinations should favor folding rather than faulting? high temperature and high confining pressure
The mantle is composed mainly of metallic iron with small amounts of magnesium silicate minerals. FALSE
The Richter magnitude of an earthquake is determined from the ________. amplitude of the largest seismic wave recorded
The Himalayan Mountains and Tibetan Plateau are still rising today as Eurasia slides beneath the Indian subcontinent. FALSE
S waves can travel through solid and liquid media. FALSE
In a reverse fault, the hanging wall block moves up relative to the footwall block. TRUE
A graben is an upraised block bounded by two reverse faults. FALSE
The mechanism by which rocks store and eventually release energy in the form of an earthquake is termed ________. ELASTIC REBOUND
Most of our knowledge about Earth's interior comes from ________. seismic waves
In a ________ fault, the hanging wall block move up with respect to the footwall block. reverse
The Sierra Nevada, CA, and Teton, WY ranges are examples of ________. fault blocks uplifted by late Tertiary to Quaternary normal faulting
In a normal fault ________. the hanging wall block above an inclined fault plane moves downward relative to the other block
The ________ are a geologically old mountain range folded and deformed during the Paleozoic. Appalachians in the eastern United States
Large circular downwarped structures are called ________. BASINS
On a typical seismogram, ________ will show the highest amplitudes. surface waves
Basin and range topography, like that in the western and southwestern United States, indicates that compressive folding is active today or was active very recently, geologically speaking. FALSE
The average composition of the continental crust most closely approximates that of ________. GRANITE
Approximately how much more energy is released in a 6.5 Richter magnitude earthquake than in one with magnitude 5.5? 30 TIMES
A horst is ________. an uplifted block bounded by two normal faults
The lithosphere is defined as ________. a rigid layer of crustal and mantle material
Which one of the following statements is correct? S waves travel through solids and P waves travel through liquids.
Which one of the following statements about the crust is NOT true? oceanic crust is enriched in potassium, sodium, and silicon
Which statement about the May, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens is false? during the eruptive period, the mountain peak was substantially built up by new lava flows and pyroclastic debris
Vents that emit only heated, volcanic gases and water are called fumaroles. TRUE
________ are usually the most abundant gases emitted during basaltic volcanism. water and carbon dioxide
A ________ volcano is a very large, gently sloping mound composed mainly of basaltic lava flows. shield
Which type of basaltic lava flow has a fairly smooth, unfragmented, ropy surface? pahoehoe
Which of the following is associated with deep mantle hot spots? the volcanoes of Hawaii and Quaternary activity in Yellowstone National Park
The active Hawaiian volcanoes are situated directly above a major boundary between two of the Earth's largest tectonic plates. FALSE
Spreading center volcanism most generally produces rocks which are ________. basaltic in composition
Which type of basaltic lava flow has its surface covered with sharp-edged, angular blocks and rubble? aa
Which of the following statements best describes the big Hawaiian volcanoes? are situated in the interior of a large, Pacific plate above a hot spot deep in the mantle
The 1943 eruption of Paricutin in Mexico was characterized by ________. cinder cone building and basaltic lava
Most basaltic magmas are believed to form by partial melting of granite in the lower crust and upper mantle. FALSE
Magma tends to rise toward Earth's surface principally because rocks become less dense when they melt
In 1980, ________ was the first Cascade Range volcano to erupt since Mt. Lassen in 1915-16. Mt. St. Helens
The recent (geologically) volcanic activity in Yellowstone National Park is ________. related to intraplate, hot spot volcanism
The eruptions of the Hawaiian volcanoes may be described as explosive in comparison to the 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption. FALSE
The 1991 Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines caused brilliantly colored sunrises and sunsets to be seen for the next few years. What caused this phenomenon? sulfur dioxide and other erupted gases formed aerosols in the stratosphere
________ destroyed the city of St. Pierre, Martinique in 1902. A nueé ardente
Kilauea is an example of a ________. shield volcano
In general, cinder cones are much larger than shield volcanoes. False
A ________ is a near surface, intrusive, igneous rock body that results from local inflation of a horizontal sill. laccolith
________ magma is the most abundant type of magma erupted at oceanic spreading centers. BASALTIC
Which kind of volcanism is typical of mid-oceanic ridge systems? submarine; basaltic lava flows
The Icelandic volcanoes are related to plate tectonics because ________. they lie on a spreading center where two plates are moving apart
Kilauea and Mauna Loa are ________. basaltic shield volcanoes
The ________ ocean basin is rimmed by the most subduction zones. PACIFIC
What volcanic events formed Crater Lake, OR? When did they take place? caldera collapse followed major ash and pyroclastic-flow eruptions; 6000 years ago
Small amounts of water can lower partial melting temperatures in silicate rocks. TRUE
The largest igneous intrusive body is called a(n) ________. batholith
_______ are usually the most abundant gases emitted during basaltic volcanism. water and carbon dioxide
A ________ is the largest, discordant body of intrusive, igneous rock. batholith
Which statement about the May, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens is false? during the eruptive period, the mountain peak was substantially built up by new lava flows and pyroclastic debris
Basalt is the most common magma erupted along oceanic rift systems. TRUE
Which type of basaltic lava flow has its surface covered with sharp-edged, angular blocks and rubble? aa
Which kind of volcanism is typical of mid-oceanic ridge systems? submarine;basaltic lava flows
Which of the following is associated with deep mantle hot spots? the volcanoes of Hawaii and Quaternary activity in Yellowstone National Park
The 1943 eruption of Paricutin in Mexico was characterized by ________. cinder cone building and basaltic lava
Paricutin is an example of a ________. cinder cone
Vents that emit only heated, volcanic gases and water are called fumaroles. True
Magma generation at depth almost always involves partial melting, not complete melting of the source rock. true
________ destroyed the city of St. Pierre, Martinique in 1902. A nueé ardente
Kilauea is an example of a ________. shield volcano
The ________ ocean basin is rimmed by the most subduction zones. pacific
________ magma is the most abundant type of magma erupted at oceanic spreading centers. Basaltic
In 1980, ________ was the first Cascade Range volcano to erupt since Mt. Lassen in 1915-16. Mt. St. Helens
The eruptions of the Hawaiian volcanoes may be described as explosive in comparison to the 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption. False
Repeated eruptions of relatively fluid lava from fissures can eventually cause an area to be covered by flood basalts. TRUE
Which region has the greatest concentration of currently active volcanoes? the circum-Pacific area
________ tend to increase the explosive potential of a magma body beneath a volcano. High viscosity and dissolved gas.
Kilauea and Mauna Loa are ________. basaltic shield volcanoes
Which of the following statements best describes the big Hawaiian volcanoes? are situated in the interior of a large, Pacific plate above a hot spot deep in the mantle
________ is a major dissolved volatile constituent in both magmas and volcanic gases? water
A ________ is a near surface, intrusive, igneous rock body that results from local inflation of a horizontal sill. LACCOLITH
Spreading center volcanism most generally produces rocks which are ________. basaltic in composition
Small amounts of water can lower partial melting temperatures in silicate rocks. true
Ash and lapilli are different sized pyroclastic particles. True
The recent (geologically) volcanic activity in Yellowstone National Park is ________. related to intraplate, hot spot volcanism
The era of "ancient life" is the ________ era. Paleozoic
Which of the following is an essential characteristic of an index fossil? the organism only lived for a short period of geologic time
Catastrophism ________. was a philosophy that was first expounded by the early Greeks
Which of the following geologic observations would not bear directly on working out the sequence of geologic events in an area? the feldspar and quartz contents of a granite
The geologic time scale was devised before numerical dating using radioactivity was invented. True
Consider the names of the eras in the geologic time scale. What is meant by "zoic"? life;living things
What is the age of the Earth accepted by most scientists today? 4.5 billion years
The half-life of carbon-14 is about 6000 years. Assume that a sample of charcoal formed by burning of living wood 15,000 years ago. How much of the original carbon-14 would remain today? between one-fourth and one-eighth
When a radioactive isotope decays by electron capture, the electron ________. combines with a proton in the nucleus; the atomic number of the daughter is one less than the parent
What fundamental concept states that in a horizontal sequence of conformable sedimentary strata, each higher bed is younger than the bed below it? law of superposition
When a beta particle is emitted, the mass number of the isotope remains unchanged. TRUE
After three half-lives, one-ninth of an original, radioactive, parent isotope remains and eight-ninths has decayed into the daughter isotope. False
Who made the first clear statement of the law of superposition? When? Nicolaus Steno, 17th century
Radiometric dating means placing events in their proper sequence. FALSE
The ratio of parent to daughter isotopes in a radioactive decay process is 0.40 How many half-lives have elapsed since the material was 100% parent atoms? between l and 2
Visualize five, horizontal, sedimentary strata exposed in a cliff or canyon wall identified by consecutive numbers, 1 being the lowest bed and 5 being the highest. Which of the following statements concerning the strata are true? beds l and 3 are older than bed 4
The ________ is the idea or concept that ancient life forms succeeded each other in a definite, evolutionary pattern and that the contained assemblage of fossils can determine geologic ages of strata? principle of faunal succession
Which of the following denotes the divisions of the geologic time scale in correct order of decreasing lengths of time beginning with the longest time interval and ending with the shortest? eon, era, period, epoch
Sandstone strata and a mass of granite are observed to be in contact. Which of the following statements is correct geologically? the granite is older if the sandstone contains pebbles of the granite
The era known as the "age of mammals" is the ________. Cenozoic
n the late 1700s James Hutton published his important work titled ________. Theory of the Earth
An unconformity involving older metamorphic rocks and younger sedimentary strata is termed a nonconformity. TRUE
The Paleozoic is the era of "ancient life." TRUE
The term Mesozoic refers to life forms intermediate in complexity between early and much later, more modern-looking life forms. TRUE
Correlation of rock units between continents or widely separated areas is accomplished by using physical features such as color, texture, and thickness of units. FALSE
Assume that you have just examined several flat-lying sedimentary layers. After much study you determine that there is a considerable span of time for which no sedimentary rock layer exists at this site. You have just discovered a(n) ________. disconformity
The subdivision of the geologic time scale that represents the shortest time span is called a(n) ________. epoch
Which of the following describes radioactive decay by beta particle emission? the atomic number of the daughter isotope is one more than the parent; the mass numbers are the same
Which of the following geologic observations would not bear directly on working out the sequence of geologic events in an area? the feldspar and quartz contents of a granite
Visualize five, horizontal, sedimentary strata exposed in a cliff or canyon wall identified by consecutive numbers, 1 being the lowest bed and 5 being the highest. Which of the following statements concerning the strata are true? beds l and 3 are older than bed 4
Who made the first clear statement of the law of superposition? When? Nicolaus Steno, 17th century
Assume that man's recorded history can be stretched back to 4600 years before the present. This is approximately what fraction of geologic time? one millionth
Created by: dreamwalker on 2009-11-05



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