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Med Term Mod15

Vocabulary & Definitions

acetabulum rounded depression/socket in the pelvis, which joins the femur forming the hip joint
acromion outward extension of shoulder blade forming point of shoulder; overlies shoulder joint & articulates with clavicle
articular cartilage thin layer of cartilage surrounding the bones in the joint space
bone dense, hard connective tissue composing the skeletom
calcium one of the mineral constituents of bone
calcium phosphate major calcium salt in bones
cancellous bone spongy, porous, bone tissue in the inner part of a bone
cartilaginous tissue flexible, rubbery connective tissue; found in the immature skeleton, at epiphyseal growth plate & on joint surfaces
collagen dense connective tissue strands of protein found in bone
compact (cortical) bone layer of hard, dense bone lying under periosteum in all bones
condyle rounded, knuckle-like process at the end of a bone near the joint; usually covered by articular cartilage
cranial bones bones of skull; ethmoid, frontal, occipital, parietal, sphenoid & temporal bones
diaphysis shaft/mid-portion of a long bone
disk (disc) flat, round, plate-like structure
epiphyseal line/plate layer of cartilage at the ends od long bones where lengthwise bone growth takes place, in immature skeleton
epiphysis each end of a long bone; area beyond epiphyseal plate
facial bones bones of face, lacrimal, mandibular, maxillary, nasal, vomer, & zygomatic bones
fissure narrow, slit-like opening in/between bones
fontanelle soft spot between skull bones of an infant
foramen opening/passage in bones where blood vessels & nerves enter & leave
foramen magnum opening of the inferior occipital bone through which spinal cord passes
fossa shallow cavity in a bone
Haversian canals minute spaces for blood vessels in compact bone
malleolus either of 2 bony enlargements (processes) on each side of an ankle; lateral malleolus is part of fibula & medial malleolus is part of tibia
manubrium upper portion of sternum
mastoid process round process of temporal bone behind ear
medullary cavity central, hollowed-out area in the shaft of a long bone
metaphysis flared portion of a long bone, between diaphysis of the bone & epiphyseal plate at the end of the bone
olecranon large process on the proximal end of ulna; the point of the flexed elbow
osseous tissue bone tissue
ossification process of bone formation
osteoblast bone cell responsible for forming bony tissue
osteoclast large bone cell that function to absorb & remove unwanted bony tissue during growth & healing of fractures
periosteum membrane surrounding bones; rich in blood vessels & nerve tissue
phosphorus mineral found in bones & teeth
pubic symphysis are of confluence of the 2 pubic bones in the midline of the pelvic bone; slightly movable joint separated by a disk of fibrocartilage
red bone marrow soft bone tissue in spongy, cancellous bone; site of hematopoiesis
ribs twelve pairs of curved, elongated bones in chest
sella turcica depression in sphenoid bone at base of the skull; location of pituitary gland
sinus hollow, air cavity within the cranial & facial bones
styloid process pole-like process extending downward from temporal bone on each side of skull
suture immovable, fibrous joint; as between bones of the skull
temporomandibular joint connection between temporal bone of skull & mandibular bone of jaw
trabeculae supporting bundles of fibers in cancellous, spongy bone
trochanter large process at neck of femur
tubercle small, rounded process on many bones for attachment of muscles & tendons
tuberosity small rounded elevation on a bone; attachment site for muscles & tendons
vertebra individua backbone composed of the vertebral body, vertebral arch, spinous process, lamina & neural canal
xiphoid process lower, narrow portion of sternum
yellow bone marrow fatty tissue found in the medullary cavity of most adult long bones
articulation a connection between bones; joint
bursae (bursa) closed sacs of synovial fluid lines with a synovial membrane near but not within joint
ligament connective tissue binding bones to other bones; supports, strengthens, & stabalizes a joint
suture joint immovable joint in which apposed bones are closely united; bones of skull
synovial cavity space between bones at synovial joint, containg synovial fluid produced by synovial membrane
synovial fluid viscous fluid containg water & nutrients to nourish as well as lubricate joints to reduce friction
synovial joint freely moving joint
synovial membrane membrane lining synovial joint cavity; produces synovial fluid
tendon type of connective tissue that binds muscles to bones
abduction muscle movement away from the midline of the body
adduction muscle movement toward the midline of the body
dorsiflexion backward (upward) bending of foot
extension increasing the angle between 2 bones & straightening a limb
fascia fibrous membrane separating & enveloping muscle
flexion decreasing angle btween 2 bones, as in bending a limb
insertion of a muscle connection of muscle to a bone that moves
origin of a muscle connection of the muscle to a stationary bone
plantar flexion motion that extends foot downward toward ground
pronation turning palm backward
rotation circular movement around a central point
skeletal muscle muscle connected to bones; voluntary/striated
smooth muscle muscle connected to internal organs; involuntary/visceral
striated muscle skeletal muscle
supination turning palm forward
visceral muscle smooth muscle
chondrocostal pertaining to cartilage that is attached to ribs
ligamentous pertaining to a ligament
lumbosacral pertaining to the lower bones of back (lumbar & sacral regions)
lumbar vertebrae backbones (5) in region of the waist (middle section below chest)
malleolar pertaining to a malleolus
mandibular pertaining to the lower jaw bone
myelopoiesis formation of bone marrow
nasal bone 2 slender bones that support bridge of nose
occipital bone forms the back & base of skull & joins parietal & temporal bones forming a suture
olecranal pertaining to elbow (olecranon)
parietal bones 2 bones on either side of skull, which form roof & upper part of the side of cranium
peroneal pertaining to the fibula
phalangeal pertaining to finger/toe bones
phosphorus mineral found in bones & teeth
radial pertaining to the radius
sacral vertebrae 5 separated bones that fuse when a young child; in an adult slightly curved traingularly shaped bone (lower back below lumbar region)
scapular pertaining to shoulder blade
striated muscle composed of bands of fibers that make the muscle look striped; attached to bones (voluntary/skeletal muscle)
subcostal pertaining to under the ribs
upraclavicular pertaining to above the collar bone
subpatellar pertaining to under the knee cap
suture joint joint in which apposed bones are closely united
temporal bones two bones that form the lower sides & base of cranium
thoracic vertebrae 12 backbones in region of chest
tibial pertaining to the larger of the two lower leg bones
ulnar pertaining to the ulna
visceral muscle muscle that lines walls of internal organs; smooth/voluntary muscle
vomer thin, single, flat bone that forms lower part of nasal septum
zygomatic bones two bone on each side of the face which form the high portion of cheek, or cheekbones
calcaneal pertaining to heel bone
cartilage flexible, connective tissue that is firmer than muscle, yet softer than bone
coccyx tailbone; four fused coccygeal bones
ethmoid bone thin, delicate bone that supports the nasal cavity & forms part of the orbits of the eye
femoral pertaining to the femur
fibular pertaining to the fibula
fibula smaller of the two leg bones
femur longest & heaviest bone in the body; thigh bone
frontal bone skull bone that forms the forehead & bony sockets that contain the eyes
humeral pertaining to the humerus
humerus upper arm bone
iliac pertaining to the ilium (upper & largest portion of the pelvis bone)
ilium upper & largest portion of the pelvis (hip) bone
ischial pertaining to the ischium (posterior portion of the pevlic bone)
ischium posterior portion of the pevlic bone
lacrimal bones two small, thin bones located at corner of each eye
ligament thickened fibrous bands of connective tissue anchoring one bone to another, adding considerable strength to joint capsule
ligamentous pertaining to a ligament
also called bone phagocytes osteoclasts
long bones very strong bones with broad ends where they join with other bones; large surface area for muscles attachments
found ing the thigh, lower leg & upper/lower arms long bones
short bones small with irregular shape
found in wrist & ankle are short bones
flat bones cover soft body parts
shoulder blade, ribs & pelvis bones are all flat bones
sesamoid bone small, rounded bones; resemble sesame seed in shape
found near joints & increase efficiency of muscles near particular joints sesamoid bones
the largest example of a sesamoid bone kneecap (patella)
lies chiefly around diaphysis of long bones compact (cortical) bone
bone head rounded end of bone separated from body of bone by a neck
usually covered by articular cartilage bone head
the bone head of the femur is called femoral head
greater trochanter large process on femur for attachment of tendons & muscle
lesser trochanter smaller process on femur for attachment of tendons & muscle
sometimes called trabecular bone callcellous bone
callcellous bone is much more porous and less dense than compact bones
composed primarily of cancellous bone which contains numberous small holes ethmoid bone
ethm/o means sieve
sphen/o means wedge
mast/o means breast
styl/o means pole, stake
each bone encloses an ear & contains fossa for joining with mandible temporal bones
sphenoid bone bat-shaped bone that extends behind eyes & forms part of base of skull; joins with frontal, occipital, & ethmoid bones
serves as an anchor to hold certain skull bones together sphenoid bone
nasal bones join with frontal bone superiorly & form part of the nasal septum
2 facial bones that contain fossae for the tear gland & canals for the passage of tear duct lacrimal bones
maxillary bones two large bones composing massive upper jawbones, joined by suture in median plane
mandibular bone lower jaw bone, joining skull at region of temporal bone, forming TMJ on either side of skull
what is the name for the sockets which the manidble & maxillae contain, in which teeth are embedded alveoli
the wall separating the nostils is called the vomer
the sinus functions are to warm & moisten air that passes through them
spinous process single process on the posterior portion of a vertebra, vertebral arch
tranverse process located on either side of the spinous process
lamina bar-like, inferior to transverse process; located on either side of spinous process
neural canal space between vertebral body & vertebral arch throuh which spinal cord passes
verterbal body inner, thick, round anterior portion of a vertebra
intervertebral disk (disc) pad of cartilage providing flexibility & prevents check to vertebral column
clavicle slender bone, ventrally (one on each side) connecting breastbone to each shoulder blade
scapula 2 flat, traingular bones; one on each dorsal side of thorax
scapula joins with clavicle to form a joint called the acromion
acr/o means extremity
om/o means shoulder
acromioclavicluar joint joint formed by clavicle & acromion joint
sternum flat bone extending down midline of chest
uppermost part of sternum articulates on the side with clavicle & ribs
uppermost part of sternum articulates lower, narrower portion with diaphragm & abdominal muscles
xiph/o means sword
articulates with medial aspect of clavicle manubrium
join anteriorly through costal cartilages the first 7 pairs of ribs
ribs 1-7 are called true ribs
true ribs join with sternum anteriorly and vertebral column in the back
costal cartilages cartilanginous attachments for the first 7 pairs of ribs
ribs 8-10 are called false ribs
false ribs join with vertebral column in back and anteriorly with 7th rib
ribs 11 & 12 are called floating ribs
floating ribs are completely free at anterior ends
large head is rounded & joins with glenoid fossa of scapula to form shoulder joint humerus
proximal bony process of the ulna at elbow is called olecranon
there are two rows on four bones in the wrist called carpals
bones at the palm of the hand metacarpals
carpals wrist bones
metacarpals 5 radiating bones in fingers
phalanges finger bones
each finger, except thumb has three phalanges
the three phalanges of the finger are the proximal, medial & distal
phalanx is singular for phalanges
the thumb only has a proximal & distal phalanx
pelvic girdle collection of bones that support the trunk of body
articulates with femur to form hip joint pelvis girdle
adult pelvis is composed of fused bones called ilium, ischium & pubis
ilium, ischium & pubis articulate posteriorly with the sacrum of the vertebral column
dorsally, the two parts of this pelvic girdle bone do not meet; insteaad they join the sacrum on either side ilium
sacroiliac joint connection between sacrum & iliac bones is firm, with very little motion able to occur
iliac crest superior part of ilium
filled with red bone marrow & serves as an attachment for abdominal walls muscles iliac crest
what do you sit on? ischium & muscles that attach to it
pubis anterior part of pelvis
two pubic bones join by way of a cartilaginous disk
pelvic cavity region within the ring of bone formed by pelvic girdle; rigid architecture to protect internal organs
pelvic cavity contains the rectum, sigmoid colon, bladder & female reproductive organs
at its proximal end it has a rounded head fitting into a depression in pelvis the femur
resemblance to a rounded cup Romans used for vinggar acetabulum
"ball and socket" joint/hip joint head of femur & acetabulum
patella small, flat (sesamoid) bone surrounded by protective tendons held in place by muscle attachments
lying anterior to articulation of femur & tibia patella
femur, tibia & patella form the knee joint
tibia larger of 2 bones in lower leg; runs under skin in front part of leg
joins with femur & patella proximally & at distal end flares to form malleolus tibia
fibula smaller of 2 lower leg bones; thin & well hidden under legs muscles running parallel lateral to tibia
talas first of tarsal bones
tibia, fibula & talas form the ankle joint
tarsals 7 short bones of hind part of foot; resemble carpal bones but are larger
calcaneus largest of the tarsals
metatarsal 5 bones of midfoot, which are similar to metacarpals of hand
each of these lead to phalanges of toes the metatarsas
metatarsophalangeal joint joint between big toe & bone of the foot
joint capsule fibrous tissue surrounding synovial joints
synovial membrane lies under joint capsule & lines synovial cavity between bones
located wherever 2 types of tissue are closely opposed & need to slide past one another with little friction bursae
tendons connective tissue that connects muscle to bone
between tendons & bones, ligaments & bones, skin & bones, & any area where bony anatomy prominent common sites of bursae
nucleus pulposus interior of intervertebral disk