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Med Term Mod15

Pathology, Lab/Clinical Procedures, & Doctors

achondroplasia inherited disorder in which bones of arms & legs fail to grow to normal size; achondroplastic dwarf
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis damage to nerves on lateral columns of spinal cord & lower region of brain, leading to progressive muscular paralysis
ankylosing spondylitis chronic, progressive arthritis with stiffening of joints, primarily of spine; joint changes are similar to RA
ankylosis immobility/fusion of a joint due to disease, injury or surgical procedure
antinuclear antibody test (ANA) detects an antibody present in serum of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus
arthrocentesis surgical puncture to remove synovial fluid from a joint for analysis
arthrodesis surgical fusion of a joint to eliminate movement
arthrography x-ray imaging of a joint after injection of contrast material
arthroplasty surgical repair of a joint with prostheses
total hip replacement and knee replacement are examples of arthroplasty
arthroscopy visual examination of inside of a joint with an endoscope & television camera
arthrotomy incision of a joint
atrophy wasting away/lack of development of a normally developed organ/tissue, especially muscle
bone density test low-energy x-ray absorption in bones of spinal column, pelvis & wrist to measure bone mass
also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometryDEXA / DXA bone density test
bone scan uptake of radioactive substance is measured in bone
bunion abnormal swelling of medial aspect of joint between big tow & st metatarsal bone
bursitis inflammation of a bursa surrounding a joint
carpal tunnel syndrome compression, by a wrist ligament, of median nerve as it passes between ligament, bones & tendon of wrist
chondroma begnign tumor of cartilage
chondromalacia softening of cartilage
Colles fracture broken bone occuring in wrist at lower end of radius
comminuted fracture broken bone is splintered/crushed into several pieces
computed tomography x-ray beam & computer provide cross-sectional images
craniotome instrument to cut the skull
craniotomy incision of skull
crepitus crackling sound produced when ends of bone rub against each other or against roughened cartilage
decalcification loss or removal of calcium from bones/teeth
diskography x-ray images of cervical/lumbar interverterbral disks after injection of contrast material into interior of disk
dislocation displacement of a bone from its joint; bones no longer articulate with eachother
electromyography (EMG) process of recording strength of muscle contraction as a result of electrical stimulation
erythrocyte sedimentation rate measures rate at which erythrocytes settle to bottom of a test tube
Ewing sarcoma malignant bone tumor
exostosis bony growth arising from surface of a bone
fasciectomy removal of fascia
fibromyalgia chronic pain & stiffness in muscles & fibrous tissue, especially in shoulders, neck, hips & knees
ganglion fluid-filled cystic mass arising from joint capsule/tendon in wrist, shoulder, knee, hip/ankle
gouty arthritis inflammation & painful swelling of joints caused by defect in metablosim of uric acid causing excess in body
hemarthrosis condition of blood in a joint
hydrarthrosis condition of water/fluid in a joint
hypercalcemia high levels of calcium in blood
hypertrophy increase in size of tissue/organ due to increase in size of individual cells
hyperuricemia increase in uric acid in blood
impacted fracture broken bone in which one fragment is driven firmly into the other fragment
kyphosis abnormal condition of outward curcature (convexity) of thoracic spine
laminectomy surgical removal of posterior portion of a vertebra to relieve pressure on a spinal nerve/spinal cord from a displaced intervertebral disk
leiomyoma begnin tumor of smooth, involuntary muscle
leiomyosarcoma malignant tumor of smooth muscle
lordosis forward curvature of lumbar spinal column; in extreme form it is known as "swayback"
Lyme disease chronic, recurrent disorder marked by severe arthritis, myalgias, neurologic & cardiac symptoms; caused by a deer tick
magnetic resonance imaging magnetic field & radio waves create images of soft tissues & muscles
metatarsalgia foor pain
muscle biopsy removal of muscle tissue for microscopic examination
muscular dystrophy group of inherited disorders marked by progressive weakness & degeneration of muscle fibers without involvment of nervous system
myalgia muscle pain
myopathy disease of muscles
myositis inflammation of muscles
orthopedics surgical speciality devoted to straightening, correcting & treating deformities & diseases in bones
osteitis inflammation of bone
osteoarthritis progressive, degenerative joint disease marked by loss of articular cartilage & hypertrophy at articular surfaces
osteodystrophy abnormal development of bone
osteogenesis imperfecta congenital bone disease in which bones are unsually brittle & fragile
osteogenic sarcoma malignant (cancerous) tumor arising from bone tissue; osteoblasts multiply forming large, bony tumors especially at the end of long bones (1/2 of lesions located just below/above knee)
osteomalacia softening of bones with inadequate amounts of calcium in bone
osteomyelitis inflammation of bone & bone marrow secondary to infection
another name for osteoporosis osteopenia
osteoporosis deficiency of bone tissue caused by destruction of bone tissue that exceeds rate of bone matrix growth
pelvimetry measurement of hip bone to determine if delivery of infant through vagina is possible
podagra foot pain that occurs in the joint of the big toe in gout (gouty arthritis)
polyarthritis inflammation of many joints
polymyalgia pain of many muscles especially in shoulders & hips
polymyositis chronic inflammation of many muscles
pyrexia fever
reduction restoration of bone to its normal portion after a fracture
rhabdomyoma begnin tumor of striated, voluntary muscle (attached to bones)
rhabdomyosarcoma malignant tumor of striated, voluntary muscle
rheumatoid arthritis chronic, autoimmune disease of joints, marked by pain & inflammation
rheumatoid factor test serum (blood minus clotting proteins & cells) is tested for presence of an antibody rheumatoid factor; found in RA patients
rheumatologist medical doctor specializing in diagnosis & treatment of joint disorders
scoliosis abnormal condition of lateral (sideways) curvature of spine
serum calcium (Ca) measurement of calcium in serum
serum creatine kinase (CK) measurement of an enzyme, creatine kinase, in serum
spondylolisthesis forward slipping/subluxation of one vertebra over another
spondylosis abnormal condition of spine characterized by stiffness & fixation of verterbral joints
sprain trauma to a joint with pain, swelling & injury to ligaments
strain muscle injury involving overstretching of muscle with pain & swelling
subluxation partial/incomplete dislocation of a bone from its joint
synovitis inflammation of synovial membrane lining synovial joint
systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) autoimmune disease in which collagen in connective tissue throughout body becomes chronically inflamed,
erythematous reddish facial rash that resembled the bite of a wolf
talipes foot is fixed in an abnormal position due to a congenital deformity of ankle & foot
tarsectomy removal of an anklebone
tendinitis inflammation of tendons
tenorrhaphy suture of a tendon
tenosynovitis inflammation of a tendon & its sheath/covering
uric acid test measurement of uric acid in serum
orthopedist MDs who treat bone & joint diseases
osteopathic physicians (DOs) practice osteopathy
separate school of medicine using diagnostic/therapuetic measures based on belief that body is capable of healing itself when bones in proper positions & adequeste nutrition is provided osteopathy
chiropractors use physical means to manipulate spinal column, believing that disease is caused by pressure of nerves
neither an MD or DO chiropractors
if these bones do not grow together normally before birth, the condition is known as cleft palate
pain & swelling common, especially in medullary cavity of long bones; usually occuring between 5-15 years old Ewing sarcoma
surgery, radiotherapy & chemotherapy respresent greatest chance for cure, if not metatstisized treatment for Ewing sarcoma
osteochondromas & bunions are examples of exostoses
osteochondroma composed of cartilage & bone; usually found on metaphyses of long bones near epiphyseal plate
fracture traumatic breaking of a bone
closed fracture bone is broken but there is no open wound in the skin
open/compound fracture bone is broken & a fragment of bone protrudes through an open wound in the skin
pathalogical fracture caused by disease of the bone, tumor/infection, making it weak
simple fracture bone breaks only in one place
compression fracture bone is compressed; often occurs in vertebrae
greenstick fracture bone is partially broken, only on one surface & only bends on the other; occurs in children
closed reduction manipulative reduction, without surgical incision
open reduction incision is made into the fracture site
cast solid mold of the body part is applied to immobilize the injured bone(s)
open reduction/internal fixation often involves insertion of metal plates, screw or pins to stabilize the injured bone(s)
open/closed reduction, cast, & ORIF are all treatments for fractures
most common type of malignant bone tumor is an osteogenic sarcoma
in an osteogenic sarcoma, metastisis takes place in the ___, often affecting the lungs bloodstream
surival rate is improved by surgical resection followed by chemotherapy treatments for osteogenic sarcoma
metastatic bone lesions malignant tumors from other parts of body (breast, lung, etc.) that metastasize to bones
rickets osteomalacia in infancy/chilhood
Vitamin D deficient in diet, preventing clacium & phosphorus from being absorbed into blood stream from intestines patients with osteomalacia
since Vit D is formed by action of sinlight on certain compounds in the skin osteomalacia is more common in large, smoky cities during winter months
adminstering large daily doses of Vit D & increased in dietary intake of calcium & phosphorus treatments for osteomalacia
occurs most often in children at ends of long bones in legs/arms; occurance in adults usually as result of open fracture osteomyelitis
lesion begins as inflammation with pus collection, pus spreads down medullary cavity & out to periosteum course of osteomyelitis
antibiotic therapy corrects condition if treated quickly treatments for osteomyelitis
if treatment is delayed for osteomyelitis this can form an absess
absess walled-off area of infection that can be difficult/impossible to penetrate with antibiotics
surgical drainage is usually necessary treatment of an absess
common in women, due to estrogen deficiency during menopause; lack of estrogen promotes excessive bone reabsorption & less bone deposition osteoporosis
results of osteoporosis can include fractures, loff of height & kyphosis
estrogen replacement therapy, increased calcium intake, weight-bearing exercise, and drug therapy treatments for menopausal women
artrophy, aging process, & cortiosteriod therapy patients others who can be effected by osteoporosis
talipes equinovarus clubfoot, most common form of talipes
infant cannot stand with sole of foot flat on the ground talipes
orthopedic splinting in early months of infancy, or if that fails surgery treatments for talipes
chondromalacia patellae softening & roughening of articular cartilaginous surface of kneecap; pain, grating sensation & mechanical "catching" behind patella
arthritis inflammation of joints
bilateral sclerosis of sacroiliac joints is a diagnostic sign of ankylosing spondylitis
corticosteriods & anti-inflammatory drugs treatments for ankylosing spondylitis
gouty arthritis inflammation
hyperuricemia high levels of uric acid in blood
uric acid crystals destroy articular cartilage & damage synovial membrane, resulting in excruciating pain for patients with
gouty arthritis is often called podagra because joint cheifly affected is big toe
drugs to lower uric acid production & prevent inflammation; special diet avoiding uric acid rich foods treatments for gouty arthritis
osteoarthritis is also known as degenerative joint disease
occurs mainly in hips & knees of aged; marked by narrowing of joint space osteoarthritis
asprin & analgesics to reduce pain & inflammation along with PT to loosen joints treaments for osteoarthritis
end-stage osteoarthritis is most common reason for joint replacement surgery/total joint arthroplasty
synovial membranes become inflammed & autoimmune reaction against joint tissues particulary the synovial membrane causing it to thicken; damaging articular cartilage & preventing ease of movement RA
bony anklyosis, fever, and swollen painful joints symptoms of RA
heat, NSAIDS, & corticosteriods are treaments for symptoms of RA
methotrexate & gold salts are DMARDS used to treat RA
bursa often develops over the site & chronic inflammation from ill-fitting shows can cause build up of soft tissue & underlying bone characteristics of a bunion
changing shoes, use of anti-inflammatory agents, or lastly removal of bony exostosis & associated soft tissue treatments for a bunion
pain & burning sensations in fingers & hand, extending to elbow; index & 3rd finger most often affected along with thumb & radial/ of ring finger symptoms of CTS
excessive wrist movement, arthritis, hypertrophy of bone & swelling of wrist can product CTS
splinting wrist, anti-inflammatory meds, cortisone injections into site, or surgical release of ligament treatments for CTS
acromioclavicular dislocation disruption of articulation between acromion & clavicle
shoulder dislocation disruption of articulation between head of humerus & glenoid fossa of scapula
hip dislocation disruption of articulation between head of femur & acetabulum of pelvis
reduction is treatment for a dislocation
herniation of intervertebral disk (disc) abnormal protrusion of a fibrocartilaginous intervertebral disk into neural canal or spinal nerves
commonly referred to as a slipped disk herniation of intervertebral disk
sciatica pain radiating down the leg
pain & sciatica are symptoms when a disk protrudes into the lumbar spine
neck pain & burning pain radiating down an are are symptoms when a disk protrudes into the cervical spine
bed rest, physical therapy, and drugs for pain are treatments for herniation of intervertebral disk
laminectomy, open diskectomy, & spinal fusion are treatments for chronic/recurrent disk herniation
endoscopic diskectomy intervertebral disk removed by inserting a tube through skin & aspirating disk through the tube
chemonucleolysis injection of a disk-dissolving enzyme into center of herniated disk to relieve pressure on compressed nerve or spinal cord
chymopapain a disk-dissolving enzyme
Lyme disease is also known as Lyme arthritis
cause is a spirochete (bacterium) carried by a tick Lyme disease
may also involved damage to blood vessels, muscles, tendons & nerves sprain
ice, elevation, & compressive wrap are treatments for sprains
marked by red, scaly facial rash over nose & cheeks, along with polyarthralgia, pyrexia, kindey inflammation & malaise key symptoms of SLE
presence of abnormal antibodies in bloodstream & LE cells diagnoses of SLE
LE cells characteristic WBCs found in patients with SLE
chronic autoimmune disease is not curable, but managable with corticosteriods treatment for SLE
lupus means wolf
Duchenne muscular dystrophy most common for of muscular dystrophy; muscle weakness occurs soon after birth
pseudohypertrophy muscles appear to enlarge as fat replaced functional muscle cells that have degenerated & atrophied
muscle biopsy & electromyography diagnose Duchenne muscular dystrophy
marked by symmetrical muscle weakness & pain, aoften ccompanied by rash around eyes & on face & limbs polymyositis
some patients recover completely with immunosupressive therapy treatment for polymyositis
there is growing evidence that polymyositis is an autoimmune disorder
elevated ESR is associated with inflammatory disorders, such as RA, tumors & infections & with chronic infections of bone & soft tissues
serum Ca can test for disorders of parathyroid gland & maligancy that affects bone metabolism
those with burns, sepsis & acute renal failure may have an elevated serum Ca
enzyme normally present in skeletal & cardiac muscle creatine kinase (CK)
increased levels of creatine kinase (CK) occur in muscular dystrophy, polymyositis, & traumatic injuries
high levels are associated with gouty arthritis uric acid
total hip replacement (THR) replacement of femoral head & acetabulum with protheses that are fastened into the bone
THR & TKR are examples of arthroplasty
total knee replacement (TKR) metal prothesis covers end of femur & tibial component made of metal & plastic covers tip end of tibia
orthopedist passes small instruments into a joint to remove & repair damaged tissue arthroscopy
in a bone density scan areas of decreased density indicate osteopenia & osteoporosis
nuclear medicine physician uses a bone scan to detect areas of increased uptake which indicate tumors, infection, inflammation, stress fractures
soft tissue/bone abnormalities and muskuloskeletal trauma can be seen on a CT scan
polymyalgia rheumatica syndrome seen in the elderly that is characterized by multiple sites of proximal joint and muscle pain—most often seen in the shoulder, hip, or neck
giant cell arteritis characterized by severe headache, fever, and accumulation of giant cells in the walls of medium-sized arteries, especially the temporal arteries
chronic vascular disease of unknown origin, occurring in the elderly giant cell arteritis
considered a secondary muscle syndrome associated with giant cell arteritis polymyalgia rheumatica
areas that are increasingly sensitive to touch tender points
diffuse pain, tenders points, fatigue/sleeping problems fibromyalgia
fibromyalgia is commonly misdiagnosed as chronic fatigue syndrome
chronic fatigue syndrome constant debilitating fatigue, reduction of physical activity to >1/2 usual, some combination of muscle weakness, sore throat, mild fever, tender lymph nodes, headaches, and depression;symptoms not relating to any other known cause
fibromyalgia & polymyalgia rheumatica are both considered secondary muscle syndromes
most reliable indicator of fibromyalgia is a mapping of tender points
hypotonia diminished tone of the skeletal muscles; diminished resistance of muscles to passive stretching
weakness and hypotonia are symptoms of Ducenne dystrophy
muscle weakness, from polymyositis, can be recorded using electromyography
In this disorder, muscle fibers undergo necrosis and are surrounded or infiltrated with lymphocytes and macrophages polymyositis
inflammation affects tendons, ligaments, bones, and cartilage all over body; spreads to skins, kidneys, nervous system & lungs characteristics of SLE
osteophyte bone spur
antinuclear antibody test with a homogenous pattern (diffuse) (immunoflorescent staining) is associated with SLE & Mixed Connective Tissue Disease
antinuclear antibody test with an outline pattern (peripheral)(immunoflorescent staining) is associated with SLE
antinuclear antibody test with a speckled pattern (immunoflorescent staining) is associated with SLE, Mixed Connective Tissue Disease, Sjogren;s syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis & RA
antinuclear antibody test with a nucleolar pattern (immunoflorescent staining) is associated with scleroderma & polymyositis