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The group that occupied the lowest level of Chinese Social Heirarchy Merchants
According to Confuscius, the primary ethical relationships include: father-son, brother-brother, ruler-subject, husband-wife, and friend-friend
Han peasants had difficulty enter govt. serivce because of EDUCATION COSTS
the philosophy of Daoism was developed by Loazi
Daoist teaching rejected the idea that people must fulfill special societial rules
The form of Christianity that developed in Byzantine Empire became known as Eastern Orthodox
The spread of Islam into Europe was halted by Charles Martel's victory in the Battle of Tours, France
The first Caliph was Muhammad's father in law ABU BAKAR
The holiest city of Islam is Mecca
The first yr of the Muslim calendar marks the YATHRIB
Followers who backed Ali's claim to Islamic leadership became known as Shiites
During Ramadan Muslims are expected to fast
after the death of Ali and Husayn, Muslims split into two branches Shiites and Sunni
Birthplace of Muhammad Mecca
muslims are expected to take a pilgrimage called Hajj
nomadic herders who inhabited the Arabian Peninsula Bedouins
Homes in Muslim cities were typically constructed around a central courtyard facing Mecca
islam improved position of women by ending female infantcides
Departure of Muhammad from Makkah to Yathrib is known as HIJRA
After the death of Muhammad. Muslims chose a new leader called a CALIPH
The holy scriptures of Islam Quran
near-total authority within a fiew was weilded by the lord of the fief
William the Conqueror earned his title by defeating Harold for the thron at the Battle of Hastings
strongest Germanic group to emerge during the AD 400s were the Franks
wandering preachers who encouraged Catholic loaylty during AD 1200s were called Missionaries
Charlemagne defended the pope, was big on education and schooling, and he expanded the empire
Behavior of knights was governed by a code of honor called Chivalry
The Benedictine Rule specified among other things that manual labor was connected to spirtual value, poverty, loyalty, chastity
first Germanic ruler to accept Catholicism Clovis
The denial of basic church teachings is called heresy
primarily intended to protect feudal rights the Magna Carta eventually shaped governemental traditions in England and limited the King's power
feudal society was characterized by heirarchial system of duties
the goal of the Inquisition was to torture and punish those of heresy
during feudal era, noblewomen possesed few rights
characteristics of medieval castles keep, wooden tower, fence, moat
self-sufficiency of manor was important during the feudal era because Trade was difficult and they had to defend against highwaymen, pirates, and theives
frankish kings Clovis, Peppin, Charlemagne
farmers who cannot leave manor without permission is called peasants
in return for recieving powers previously held by the government, feudal lords exchanged vows of loyalty and service (FEALTY)
under Henry II, feudal rules in England were replaced by the common law and the jury system
the crusades were undertaken to increase papal power and to fight against muslims
craft guild members who recieved pay but were not allowed to open their own shops were called JOURNEYMEN
under the leadership of Joan of Arc, the French broke the seige at: Orleans
The need for a common medium of exchange led to the rise of a monetary system
peasants were enticed to joun the crusades for what reason? travel, wealth, salvation
hundred years war was between england and france
war of roses was caused by the fact their was no heir to an open throne between the lancasters and yorks
Between 1348 and 1350 almost one third of the population of Europe died from the Black Death (bubonic plague)
many commoners disliked the sale of church positions, called SIMONY
by the end of the hundred years war feudal societies were changing because they needed armies more than they needed vassals
the period in AD 1300s called the Babylonian Captivity refers to when the pope was in being held in France
the Crusades contributed to contact with Byzantium, technology, growth of Mediterannean trade
German princes met at Worms to make Luther give up his writings
The term RENAISSANCE refers to the period from about 1300-1800 AD
tbe wealth of Venice during the Renaissance stemmed from its position as the center of trade
Francesco Petrarca was famous for writing Sonnets to Laura
According to the doctrine of predestination God had long ago determined who would gain salvation: between saints and sinners
What countries are part of the Low Countries Luxemborg, Netherlands, Belgium
The INSTITUTES OF CHRISTIAN RELIGION expressed the theological beliefs of Calvin and his predestination
Europe from the 1500s on could be rougly described as religiously divided between Catholics (south) and Protestants (north)
Opponents of Catholic rituals in the Protestant English Church became known as the Puritans
Martin Luther criticized the sale of indulgences
the city that lost its Renaissance leaderships after the interruption of Medici rule was Florence
During the Renaissance, Italian govt was characterized by oligarchies
Anabaptists believed that they should live outside sinful society
ties between the catholic church and england were weakened by King Henry VIII
wrote in England during Renaissance Shakespeare, Thomas Moore, Samuel Johnson
purchase of certificate of indulgence was supposed to provide a sould with less time in Purgatory
the Catholic reformation sparked the growth of the baroque style which emphasized emotion and exaggeration
Lutheranism emphasized the significance of salvation through faith
the renaissnce began in the city-state of Italy
Erasmus's In PRAISE of FOLLY he attacked ignorant and immoral people of his time including religious clergy
Geneva-based leader of the Reformation in Switzerland was John calvin
Humanism encompassed all worldly objects
european explorers encouraged ocean exploration to find a new and more effective way to trade with Asia
Khmer empire was influenced by Indian Hinduism
How did portugal gain control of trade in S.E. Asia More in south east asia and less in Europe
How did Portugal gain control of trade in S.E. Asia? Sea power and fighting
Portuguese lost control of Trade in indian ocean to Dutch
Ming and Qing dynasties followed which of the followinf policies regarding foreign trade? RESTRICTED FOREIGN TRADE
Vietnam was controlled by China (Han dynasty)
Who took control of spic trade from Portuguese Dutch
True of Japan under Tokugawa shoguns: Western ideas influenced Japan
Brazil was influenced by which culture? Portuguese
kingdoms that developed in W. Africa were influenced by Islamic Revivals
The legal code of Hammurabi called for Justice to prevail and strict punishments
Phonecians contributed to trade and alphabet
Zoroaster's teachings The belief in a single and wise god. he believed in forces of good and evil.
Perisans settled in present day iran
public square where meetings took place in greece agora
most greek goods were transported by cargo ships
ruler who established Athenian democracy Cleisthenes
Draco's code of law improvement because it codified law and created a death penalty
Macedonian King who conqured most of Greece by 338BC Phillip
Ptolemy Egypt
Thucydides historical technique was revolutionary because he went to the places he was writing about
Socrates argued at his trial that the serach for truth was the most important thing
In AD 455 Rome was completely ransacked by vandals
Tiberius was killed after proposing a law to limit latifundia
The first Punic war began when Rome resisted the forces of carthage
growing success of provincial and mainland latifundia resulted in the use of slave labor and it hurt the small farmers because the landless farmers migrated to rome
religious beliefs of the Romans were greatly influenced by the Greeks
Sophists truth is different for each person
Edict of Princes to make farmers to leave thier farms and control inflation
goal of 8-fold path achieve nirvana
Daoism emphasizes harmony between individuals in nature
Daoism and confuscianism share emphasis on life in THIS world
Created by: tigerlilly9221 on 2005-12-14



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