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AL 101-Chapter 5


adenoid/o adenoids
alveol/o alveolus
bronchi/o, bronch/o bronchus
diaphragmat/o, phren/o diaphragm
epiglott/o epiglottis
laryng/o larynx
lob/o lobe
nas/o, rhin/o nose
pharyng/o pharynx
pleur/o pleura
pneum/o, pneumat/o, pneumon/o lung, air
pulmon/o lung
sept/o septum (wall off, fence)
sinus/o sinus
thorac/o thorax (chest)
tonsill/o tonsil
trache/o trachea
atel/o imperfect, incomplete
capn/o carbon dioxide
hem/o, hemat/o blood
muc/o mucus
orth/o straight
ox/o, ox/i oxygen
py/o pus
phon/o sound, voice
somn/o sleep
spir/o breathe, breathing
a-, an- without or absence of
endo- within
eu- normal, good
pan- all, total
poly- many, much
tachy- fast, rapid
-algia pain
-ar, -ary, -eal pertaining to
-cele hernia or protrusion
-centesis surgical puncture to aspirate fluid (with a sterile needle)
-ectasis stretching out, dilation, expansion
-emia blood condition
-graphy process of recording, radiographic imaging
-meter instrument used to measure
-metry measurement
-pexy surgical fixation, suspension
-pnea breathing
-rrhagia rapid flow of blood
-scope instrument used for visual examination
-scopic pertaining to visual examination
-scopy visual examination
-spasm sudden, involuntary muscle contraction
-stenosis constriction or narrowing
-stomy creation of an artificial opening
-thorax chest
-tomy cut into or incision
nose lined with mucous membrane and fine hairs. It acts as a filter to moisten and warm the entering air.
nasal septum partition separating the right and left nasal cavities.
paranasal sinuses air cavities within the cranial bones that open into the nasal cavities
pharynx serves as a food and air passageway. Air enters from the nasal cavities & passes through the pharynx to the larynx. Food enters the pharynx from the mouth & passes into the esophagus. (Also called the THROAT.)
adenoids lymphoid tissue located behind the nasal cavity.
tonsils lymphoid tissue located behind the mouth
larynx location of the vocal cords. Air enters from the pharynx. (Also called the VOICE BOX.)
epiglottis flap of cartilage that automatically ocvers the opening of and keeps food from entering the larynx during swallowing.
trachea passageway for air to the bronchi (also called the WINDPIPE).
bronchus (pl. bronchi) one of two branches from the trachea that conducts air into the lungs, where it divides & subdivides. The branchings resemble a tree; therefore, they are referred to as a BRONCHIAL TREE.
bronchioles smallest subdivision of the bronchial tree
alveolus (pl. alveoli) air sacs at the end of the bronchioles. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged through the alveolar walls and the capillaries.
lungs two spongelike organs in the thoracic cavity. The right lung consists of three lobes and the left lung has two lobes.
pleura double-folded serous membrane covering each lung and lining the thoracic cavity with a small space between, called the pleural cavity, which contains serous fluid.
diaphragm muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. It aids in the breathing process by contracting & pulling air in, then relaxing & pushing air out.
mediastinum space between the lungs. It contains the heart, esophagus, trachea, great blood vessels, & other structures.
adenoiditis inflammation of the adenoids
atelectasis incomplete expansion (of the lung of a newborn or collapsed lung)
bronchiectasis dilation of the bronchi
bronchitis inflammation of the bronchi
bronchogenic carcinoma cancerous tumor originating in a bronchus
bronchopneumonia diseased state of the bronchi & lungs, usually caused by infection
diaphragmatocele hernia of the diaphragm
epiglottitis inflammation of the epiglottis
hemothorax blood in the chest (pleural space)
laryngitis inflammation of the larynx
laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB) inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi (the acute form is called CROUP)
lobar pneumonia pertaining to the lobe(s); diseased state of the lung (infection of one or more lobes of the lung)
nasopharyngitis inflammation of the nose & pharynx
pansinusitis inflammation of all sinuses
pharyngitis inflammation of the pharynx
pleuritis inflammation of the pleura (also called PLEURISY)
pneumatocele hernia of the lung (lung tissue protrudes through an opening in the chest)
pneumoconiosis abnormal condition of dust in the lungs
pneumonia diseased state of the lung (the infection & inflammation are caused by bacteria such as Pneumococcus, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Haemophilus; viruses; & fungi)
pneumonitis inflammation of the lung
pneumothorax air in the chest (pleural space), which causes collapse of the lung
pulmonary neoplasm pertaining to (in) the lung, new growth (tumor)
pyothorax pus in the chest (pleural space). (Also called EMPYEMA.)
rhinitis inflammation of the (mucous membranes) nose
rhinomycosis abnormal condition of fungus in the nose
rhinorrhagia rapid flow of blood from the nose (also called EPISTAXIS)
thoracalgia pain in the chest
tonsillitis inflammation of the tonsils
tracheitis inflammation of the trachea
tracheostenosis narrowing of the trachea
adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) respiratory failure in an adult as a result of disease or injury. Symptoms include dyspnea, rapid breathing, and cyanosis (also called ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME)
asthma respiratory disease characterized by paroxysms of coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and constriction of airways
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) a group of disorders that are almost always a result of smoking that obstructs bronchial flow. One or more of the following is present in COPD in varying degrees: emphysema, chronic bronchitis, bronchospasm, & bronchiolitis.
coccidioidomycosis fungal disease affecting the lungs & sometimes other organs of the body (also called VALLEY FEVER or COCCI)
cor pulmonale serious cardiac disease associated with chronic lung disorders, such as emphysema
croup condition resulting from acute obstruction of the larynx, characterized by a barking cough, hoarseness, & stridor. It may be caused by viral or bacterial infection, allergy, or foreign body. Occurs mainly in children.
cystic fibrosis (CF) hereditary disorder of the exocrine glands characterized by excess mucus production in the respiratory tract, pancreatic deficiency, & other symptoms.
deviated septum one part of the nasal cavity is smaller because of malformation or injury of the nasal septum
emphysema stretching of lung tissue caused by the alveoli becoming distended & losing elasticity
epistaxis nosebleed (synonymous with RHINORRHAGIA)
influenza highly infectious respiratory disease caused by a virus (also called FLU)
Legionnaire disease a lobar pneumonia caused the bacterium Legionella pneumophila.
obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) repetitive pharyngeal collapse during sleep, which leads to absence of breathing; can produce daytime drowsiness & elevated blood pressure
pertussis highly contagious bacterial infection of the respiratory tract characterized by an acute crowing inspiration, or whoop (also called WHOOPING COUGH)
pleural effusion escape of fluid into the pleural space as a result of inflammation
pulmonary edema fluid accumulation in the alveoli & bronchioles
pulmonary embolism (pl. emboli) (PE) foreign matter, such as a blood clot, air, or fat clot, carried in the circulation to the pulmonary artery, where it blocks circulation
tuberculosis (TB) an infectious disease, caused by an acid-fast bacillus, most commonly spread by inhalation of small particles & usually affecting the lungs
upper respiratory infection (URI) infection of the nasal cavity, pharynx, or larynx
adenoidectomy excision of the adenoids
adenotome surgical instrument used to cut the adenoids
bronchoplasty surgical repair of a bronchus
laryngectomy excision of the larynx
laryngoplasty surgical repair of the larynx
laryngostomy creation of an artificial opening into the larynx
laryngotracheotomy incision of the larynx & trachea
lobectomy excision of a lobe (of the lung)
pleuropexy surgical fixation of the pleura
pneumobronchotomy incision of lung & bronchus
pneumonectomy excision of a lung
rhinoplasty surgical repair of the nose
septoplasty surgical repair of the (nasal) septum
septotomy incision into the (nasal) septum
sinusotomy incision of a sinus
thoracocentesis surgical puncture to aspirate fluid from the chest cavity (also called THORACENTESIS)
thoracotomy incision into the chest cavity
tonsillectomy excision of the tonsils
tracheoplasty surgical repair of the trachea
tracheostomy creation of an artificial opening into the trachea
tracheotomy incision of the trachea
bronchoscope instrument used for visual examination of the bronchi
bronchoscopy visual examination of the bronchi
endoscope instrument used for a visual examination within (a hollow organ or body cavity). (Current trend is to use endoscopes for surgical procedures as well as for viewing.)
endoscopic pertaining to visual examination within (a hollow organ or body cavity) (used to describe the practice of surgeries that use endoscopes)
endoscopy visual examination within (a hollow organ or body cavity)
laryngoscope instrument used for visual examination of the larynx
laryngoscopy visual examination of the larynx
thoracoscope instrument used for visual examination of the thorax
thoracoscopy visual examination of the thorax
capnometer instrument used to measure carbon dioxide (levels in expired gas)
oximeter instrument used to measure oxygen (saturation in the blood)
spirometer instrument used to measure breathing (or lung volumes)
spirometry a measure of breathing (or lung volumes)
polysomnography (PSG) process of recording many (tests) during sleep (performed to diagnose obstructive sleep apnea). Tests include electrocardiography, electromyography, electroencephalography, air flow monitoring, and oximetry.
chest computed tomography (CT) scan computerized images of the chest created in sections sliced from front to back. Used to diagnose tumors, abscesses, & pleural effusion. Computed tomography is used to visualize other body parts such as the abdomen & brain.
chest radiograph (CXR) a radiographic image of the chest used to evaluate the lungs & the heart (also called a CHEST X-RAY)
ventilation-perfusion scanning (VPS) a nuclear medicine procedure used to diagnose pulmonary embolism & other conditions (also called a LUNG SCAN)
acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear a test performed on sputum to determine the presence of acid-fast bacilli, which cause tuberculosis
Arterial Blood Gases (ABGs) a test performed on arterial blood to determine levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, & other gases present
pulmonary function tests (PFTs) a group of tests performed to measure breathing, which is used to determine respiratory function or abnormalities & is useful in distinguishing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from asthma
pulse oximetry a noninvasive method of measuring oxygen in the blood by using a device that attaches to the fingertip
PPD (purified protein derivative) skin test a test performed on individuals who have recently been exposed to tuberculosis. PPD of the tuberculin bacillus is injected intradermally. Positive tests indicate previous exposure, not necessarily active tuberculosis (also called TB SKIN TEST)
acapnia condition of absence (less than normal level) of carbon dioxide (in the blood)
anoxia condition of absence (deficiency) of oxygen
aphonia condition of absence of voice
apnea absence of breathing
bronchoalveolar pertaining to the bronchi & alveoli
bronchospasm spasmodic contraction in the bronchi
diaphragmatic pertaining to the diaphragm (also called PHRENIC)
dysphonia condition of difficult speaking (voice)
dyspnea difficult breathing
endotracheal pertaining to within the trachea
eupnea normal breathing
hypercapnia condition of excessive carbon dioxide (in the blood)
hyperpnea excessive breathing
hypocapnia condition of deficient carbon dioxide (in the blood)
hypopnea deficient breathing
hypoxemia condition of deficient oxygen (in the blood)
hypoxia condition of deficient oxygen (to the tissues)
intrapleural pertaining to within the pleura (space between the two pleural membranes)
laryngeal pertaining to the larynx
laryngospasm spasmodic condition of the larynx
mucoid resembling mucus
mucous pertaining to mucus
nasopharyngeal pertaining to the nose & pharynx
orthopnea able to breathe easier in an upright position
phrenalgia pain in the diaphragm (also called DIAPHRAGMALGIA)
phrenospasm spasm of the diaphragm
pulmonary pertaining to the lungs
pulmonologist a physician who studies & treats diseases of the lung
pulmonology study of the lung (a branch of medicine dealing with diseases of the lung)
rhinorrhea discharge from the nose (as in a cold)
tachypnea rapid breathing
thoracic pertaining to the chest
airway passageway by which air enters & leaves the lungs as well as a mechanical device used to keep the air passageway unobstructed
asphyxia deprivation of oxygen for tissue use; suffocation
aspirate to withdraw fluid or to suction as well as to draw foreign material into the respiratory tract
bronchoconstrictor agent causing narrowing of the bronchi
bronchodilator agent causing the bronchi to widen
cough sudden, noisy expulsion of air from the lungs
hiccup sudden catching of breath with a spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm (also called HICCOUGH and SINGULTUS)
hyperventilation ventilation of the lungs beyond normal body needs
hypoventilation ventilation of the lungs that does not fulfill the body's gas exchange needs
mucopurulent containing both mucus and pus
mucus slimy fluid secreted by the mucous membranes
nebulizer device that creates a mist used to deliver medication for giving respiratory treatment
nosocomial infection an infection acquired during hospitalization
paroxysm periodic, sudden attack
patent open (an airway must be patent)
sputum mucous secretion from the lungs, bronchi, & trachea expelled through the mouth
ventilator mechanical device used to assist with or substitute for breathing when a patient cannot breathe unassisted
Created by: Ann Callies Ann Callies