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Med Term Mod 13

Blood Pathology, Lab Tests & Clinical Procedures

Epstein-Barr virus cause of mononucleosis
autologous bone marrow transplantation patient serves as own donor for stem cells
four main blood types A, B, AB & O
disseminated intravascular coagulation bleeding disorder marked by reduction in blood clotting factors due to their use & depletion for intravascular coagulation
graft versus host disease immune reaction of donor's cells to recipient's cells
hairy cell leukemia abnormal lymphocytes accumulate in bone marrow, leading to anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia & infection
mean corpuscular hemoglobin average amount of hemoglobin per cell
mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration average concentration of hemoglobin in a single red cell
when MCHC is low the cell is hypochromic
mean corpuscular volume average volume or size of a single red blood cell
when MCV is high the cells are macrocytic
when MCV is low the cells are microcytic
cubic millimeter one millionth of a liter
neutrophils are polymorphonuclear leukocytes
segs are mature white blood cells
Sequential Multiple Analyzer Computer an automated chemistry system that determines substance in serum
microliter one millionth of a liter
anemia dificiency in erythrocytes/hemoglobin
most common type of anemia is iron deficiency anemia
iron deficiency anemia is caused by a lack of iron
iron is required for hemoglobin production
aplastic anemia failure of blood cell production due to aplasia (absence of development/formation) of bone marrow cells
most cases of aplastic anemia are idiopathic
come cases of aplastic anemia have been linked to benzene exposure and antibiotics
antibiotic linked to aplastic anemia chloramphenicol
panctyopenia occurs when stem cells fail to product leukocytes, platlets & erythrocytes
blood transfusions prolong life, allowing marrow time to resume normal function, and antibiotics control infection for aplastic anemia
sponteneous recovery is unlinkely; therapy for aplastic anemia includes bone marrow transplant & drugs that inhibit the immune system
hemolytic anemia red blood cells are destroyed at a rate faster than the bone marrow can replace them
congential pherocytic anemia red blood cells are spheriodal, making them fragile & easily destroyed
shortened cell cell survival causes an increase of reticulocytes in blood as bone marrow compensates for hemolysis of mature RBC in congenital spherocytic anemia
another name for congenital spherocytic anemia hereditary spherocytosis
congenital spherocytic anemia is an example of hemolytic anemia
removing the spleen, which destroys RBC, can usually improve congenital spherocytic anemia
pernicious anemia incomplete maturation of RBCs causes the inability to absorb viatmin B12 into body
pernicious means ruinous or hurtful
viatmin B12 is necessary for proper development & maturation of erythrocytes
instrinsic factor substance normally found in gastric juice that helps absorb vitamin B12 into bloodstream
common foods containing B12 liver, kidney, sardines, egg yolks & oysters
those with pernicious anemia lack the intrinsic factor
excess of large, immature & poor functioning cells in bone marrow; often oval macrocytes in the circulation pernicious anemia
treatment for pernicious anemia is cobalamin (B12) instramuscular injections or via an intransal gel
sickle cell anemia hereditary condition characterized by abnormal sickle shape of erythrocytes and hemolysis
in sickle cell anemia the cresent, sickle-shape of erythrocytes is caused by abnormal type of HbS in the RBC
HbS abnormal type of hemoglobin in the RBC of patients with sickle cell anemia
distorted, fragile erythrocytes not being able to pass through vessels normally impeds blood flow to body's tissues
signs & symptoms of sickle cell anemia are arthralgia, acute attacks of abdominal pain & ulcerations of extremities
thalassemia inherited defect in synthesis of protein component that cause hemoglobin production
thalassemia usually affects those of Mediterranean descent
thalassemia usually manifests in varying forms & degrees of severity
leads to hypochromic anemia with diminished hemoglobin content in RBC thalassemia
thalassa is a Greek word meaning sea
hemochromatosis excessive iron deposits throughout the body
hepatomegaly, skin pigmentation, diabetes & cardiac failure all may occur with hemochromatosis
polycythemia vera general increase in RBC; erythremia
in polycythemia vera the blood is viscous due to greatly increased numbers of erythrocytes
in polycythemia vera the bone marrow is hyperplastic
in polycythemia vera the overproduction of RBCs is linked to a stem cell abnormality, causeing increases in number of WBCs & platlets
myelotxic drugs & phlebotomy are treatments for polycythemia vera
hemophelia excessive bleeding caused by hereditary lack of either factor VIII or IX
factor VIII & IX are necessary for clotting of the blood
platlet counts are normal, but the missing factor results in prolonged coagulation time hemophilliacs
hempophilia treatment includes administration of deficient blood factor
purpura multiple pinpoint hemorrhages & accumulation of blood under the skin
petechia tiny purple/red flat spots appearing on the skin as result of hemorrhages
ecchymoses larger blue/purplish patches on the skin
autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura patient makes an antibody destroying own platlets; bleeding time is prolonged
commons treatments purpura splenectomy & corticosteroids
leukemia increase in cancerous white blood cells; malignant leukocytes fill marrow & bloodstream
when using acute to describe luekemia lukemias of primarily immature leukocytes
when using chronic to describe luekemia lukemias of primarily mature leukocytes
common clinical characteristics of acute leukemias abrupt, stormy onset of symptoms, fatigues, fever, bleeding, bone pain/tenderness, lymphadenopathy. splenomegaly, hepatomegaly
CNS abnormalities of acute luekemias headache, vomitting & paralysis
acute myelogenous (myelocytic) leukemia (AML) immature myeloblasts predominate & infiltrate/replace bone marrow causing diminished erythrocytes & platlets
acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) immature lymphoblasts predominate; onset sudden & seen most often in children & adolescents
chronic myelogenous (myelocytic) leukemia (CML) immature & mature granulocytes present in bone marrow & bloodstream
ilness slow in progression, patients may have long period before life-threatening problems CML - chronic myelogenous (myelocytic) leukemia
therapies that target abnormal proteins responsible for malignancy treatment for chronic myelogenous (myelocytic) leukemia
Gleevec drug therapy that targets abnormal proteins responsible for malignancy in CML patients
chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) abnormal numbers of relatively mature lymphocytes predominate in marrow, lymph nodes & spleen
usually occurs in elderly & follows slow progressive course chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
all forms of leukemia are treated with chemotherapy
chemotherapy uses drugs that prevent cell division & selectively injure rapidly dividing cells
occurs when leukemia cells reappear in blood & bone marrow, necessitating further treatment relapse
dissappearance of signs of disease remission
transplantation of normal bone marrow from donors is successful in restoring bone marrow function in patients with acute leukemia
bone marrow donors must have similar tissue type
granulocytosis abnormal increase in granulocytes in blood
basophelia increase in basophilic granulocytes seen in certain types of leukemia
eosinophilia increase in eosinophilic granulocytes seen in asthma, or infections from tapeworm/pinworm
mononucleosis infectious disease marked by increased number of leukocytes & enlarged cervical lymph nodes
in mononucleosis atypical lymphocytes are present in the blood, liver & spleen
lymphadenitis, fever, fatigue, asthenia, & phayngitis are all symptoms of mononucleosis
mononucleosis is usually transmitted by direct oral contact
no treatment is necessary for EBV infections
multiple myeloma malignant neoplams of bone marrow; activated by B cells
Bence Jones protein immunoglobin fragment found in urine
malignant lymphocytes destroy bone tissue & cause overproduction of immunoglobins, including Bence Jones protein multuple myeloma
multuple myeloma leads to osteolytic lesions, hypercalcemia, anemia, renal damage & increased susceptibility to infections
treatment for multuple myeloma includes analgesics, radiotherapy, pallative doses of chemotherapy & special orthopedic supports
autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) in treating multuple myeloma may lead to prolonged remission and possible cure
bone marrow biopsy needle aspiration of a small amount of bone marrow followed by exam under microscope
bleeding time time required for blood to stop flowing from a tiny puncture wound
blood transfusion whole blood or cells are taken from a donor & infused into a patient
apheresis withdrawl & separation of blood elements
antiglobulin test test for presence of antibodies that coat & damage erythrocytes
autologous transfusion removal & reinfusion of a patient's own blood/blood components
coagulation time time require for venous blood to clot in a test tube
normal coagulation time less than 15 minutes
determined presence of antibodies in infants of Rh- women, or patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia autoglobulin test
normal bleeding time 8 minutes or less
Simplate or Ivy method is used bleeding time
bleeding time is prolonged in platlet disorders & patients using asprin
complete blood count (CBC) determination of the number of RBC, WBC platlets, hemoglobin level, hematocrit & red cell indices-MCH, MCV, MCHC
erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) speed at which erythrocytes settle out of plasma
venous blood collected into anitcoagulant and blood placed in a tube in verticle position ESR
sedimentation rate is the distance that erythrocytes sink in a given period of time
sedimation rate increases with infections, joint inflammation & tumors
tumors increase _________ in the blood fibrinogen content
hematocrit percentage of erythrocytes in a volume of blood
smaple of blood spun in centrifuge so that erythrocytes fall to the bottom of the sample hematocrit
hemoglobin test total amount of hemoglobin in a sample of peripheral blood
partial thromboplastin time (PTT) measures presence of plasma factors that act in a portion of the coagulation pathway
test is used to follow patients taking anticoagulants, such a heparin PTT
platlet count number of platlets per cubic millimeter, or microliter, of blood
normal average amounts are 150,000 & 350,000 per mm3 platlet count
red blood cell count (RBC) number of erythrocytes per cubic millimeter, or microliter, of blood
normal number is 4-6 million per mm3 RBC
red blood cell morphology microscopic exam of stained blood smear to determine shape of individual red cells
test for anisocytosis, poikilocytosis & sickle cell anemia red blood cell morphology
white blood cell count (WBC) number of leukocytes per cubic millimeter, or microliter, of blood
automated counting devices record numbers within in seconds to give totals of WBC
the normal WBC average between 5,000-10,000/mm3
white blood cell differential percentage of the total WBC made up by different types of leukocytes
cells are stained & counted under microscope by a tech, unless instruments can produce automated differentials white blood cell differential
term "shift to the left" describes increase in immature neutrophils in blood
process can remove tosix substances or antibodies from blood & collect blood cells apheresis
examples of apheresis are leukopheresis, platletpheresis & plasmapheresis
plasma exchange plasma removed & fresh plasma is replaced
blood type matched, tests to detect presence of hepatitis & HIV for blood to be used in a blood transfusion
packed cells preparation of RBC separated from liquid plasma
administered to severe anemics to restore levels of hemoglobin & RBC without overdiluting the blood with excess fluid packed cells
used to diagnose blood disorders, cells deficiencies & leukemia bone marrow biopsy
bone marrow aspirate bone marrow removed by breif suction produced by a syringe
hematopoietic stem cells transplantation peripheral stem cells from compatible donor administered into receipient's vein
patient's with malignant hematologic disease & multiple myeloma are candidates for hematopoietic stem cells transplantation
process for hematopoietic stem cells transplantation donor given drug to mobilize stem cells into blood, then removed from donor; recipient undergoes radiation & chemotherapy to kill malignant marrow cells & inactivate immune system; stem cells given to recipient through a vein
it is important to inactivate the recipient's immune system, for a hematopoietic stem cells transplantation, so that the donor's stem cells will not be rejected
in graft vs. host disease the immunocompetent cells in the donor's tissue recgonize the recipient's tissue as foreign & attack them
coagulopathy disease of blood clotting
duscrasia blood disease
electrophoresis technique used to separate serum proteins by electrical charge
erythrocytopenia deficiency of RBC
granulocytopenia deficiency of granulocytes
hemoglobinopathy disease/defect of hemoglobin production
hypochromic pertaining to deficiency in color; decrease in hemoglobin in RBCs
leukapheresis mechanical separation of WBCs from rest of the blood
leukocytopenia deficiency of white blood cells
macrocytosis presence of large red blood cells in blood
microcytosis increased numbers of smaller than normal blood cells
morphology study of the shape & form of cells, particularly RBCs
neutropenia deficiency of neutrophils
neutrophelia increased numbers of neutrophils
pancytopenia deficiency of all blood cells
plasmapheresis removal of plasma by centrifuge, from withdrawn blood
platletpheresis separation of platlets from rest of the blood
poikilocytosis variation in shape of RBCs
prothombin time test of ability of blood to blot
sideropenia deficiency of iron in blood
spherocytosis increase in numbers of sphere-shaped RBCs, as in a type of anemia (hemolytic anemia)
thrombocytopenia deficiency of clotting cells; decreased platelet counts prevents a platelet plug from forming
thrombolytic therapy treatment with drugs to breakdown clots that may abnormally form in blood vessels
thrombosis condition of clot formation
anemia cane be caused by low RBC production, increased breakdown of RBCs, or blood loss
anemia cane be caused by low RBC production, increased breakdown of RBCs, or blood loss
red blood cells of a person who is anemic, compared to a healthy person, often differ in their size, shape, and appearance
Cooley's anemia most severe form of thelesemia, both physical & mental growth can be retarded; requires blood transfusion
in aplastic anemia, the failure of the cell-generating ability of bone marrow affects all of the cellular elements of the blood; a condition known as pancytopenia
aplastic anemia can be diagnosed via bone marrow biopsy
hemolytic anemia can be congenital or aquired
Coombs test can be used to detect hemolytic anemia
acquired hemolytic anemia is sometimes caused by an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies develop and attack antigens on the red blood cell membrane
due to the rapid destruction of RBCs in hemolytic anemia the bilirubin is elevated causing jaundice
the spleen is the site of RBC destruction so a spleenectomy is often a treatment for hemolytic anemia
sickle cell crisis symptoms include joint pain, abdominal pain, & swelling of hands & feet
sickle cell anemia is incurable so treatment is aimed at alleviating the symptoms
hemochromatosis may develop as a complication of sickle cell anemia
diagnosis of multiple myeloma requires lab, radiologic & bone marrow exams