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Med Term Mod 12

Terms & Meanings

adenoid hypertrophy increased development of adenoids
adenoidectomy removal of adenoids
adenoids lymphatic tissue in nasopharynx
alveolar pertaining to an alveoulus
alveolus clusters of millions of minuteair sacs, arising from alveolar ducts
plural for alveoli alvelous
anosmia loss of sense of smell
anthracosis abnormal condition of coal dust in lungs
also called black lung disease anthracosis
apex of lung uppermost portion of lung
apical pertaining to top of an organ
apnea stoppage of breathing
asbestosis abnormal condition of absestos fiber particles in the lungs
asphyxia deficient oxygean & increased cardbon dioxide in bloodstream
asthma chronic inflammation disorder, characterized by airway obstruction
caused by bronchial edema, bronchoconstriction & increased mucus production asthma
atelectasis collapsed lung
auscliation listening for sounds in chest & abdomen using stethoscope
bacilli rod-shaped bacteria that are cause of tuberculosis
base of lung lower portion of lung
bronchial alveolar lavage irrigation/washing of a bronchus by injecting fluid through a bronchoscope & then removing to analyze contents
bronchiectasis abnormal widening of bronchial tubes
bronchiole small bronchial tube
bronchiolitis inflammation of a bronchiole
bronchodilator agent that open bronchial tubes
bronchopleural pertaining to a bronchial tube & pluera
bronchoscopy examination of the bronchi with a fiber-optic or rigid endoscope
bronchospasm involuntary muscular contractions in bronchial tubes leading to narrowing of the bronchi
bronchus branch of trachea leading towards air sacs of lung
carbon dioxide gas produced in tissue cells when oxygen & food combine
chest tomograms xray image series to reaveal chest, layers/sections of the lung
chronic bronchitis inflammation of bronchi persisting over long period of time
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease lung & bronchial tube conditions that block & damage airways & persists over long period of time
chronic bronchitis & emphysema are examples of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
cilia thin hairs that line nasal passageways & tubes of respiratory tract
computed tomography of chest computer generated xray images showing thoracic structures in cross-section
cor pulmonale enlargement of the right side of the heart due to lung disease
croup acute viral infection in infants & children
strider strained, high-pitched noisy breathing
characterized by barking cough, obstruction of larynx & strider croup
cyanosis abnormal condition of bluish coloration of skin
cystic fibrosis inherited disorder of exocrine glands resulting in mucous secretions that do not drain normally
diaphragm muscle that separates chest & abdomen
diptheria acute infection of throat caused by diptheria bacteria
characterized by formation of a thick membrane that obstructs throat & breathing diptheria
dysphonia abnormal voice/sound produced by speaking
dyspnea abnormal breathing
emphysema hyperinflation of air sacs with destruction of alveolar walls
empyema pus in pleural space surrounding lungs
endotrachial intubation tube placed through mouth & throat into trachea to establish an airway
epiglottis leaf-shaped flap of tissue (cartilage)
epiglottitis inflammation of epiglottis
epistaxis nosebleed
expectoration coughin up of mucus/sputum from throat & respiratory tract
expiration process of breathing out or exhalation
exudate fluid, cells or other substances that slowly leave cells/capillaries through pores/breaks in cell membranes
glottis slit-like opening between vocal folds of larynx
hemoptysis spitting up blood from respiratory tract
hemothorax blood in pleural cavity surrounding lungs
hilar pertaining to hilum
hilum of lung midline region where bronchi, blood vessels & nerves enter & exit lungs
hydrothorax water/fluid that accumulates in pleural space surrounding the lungs
hypercapnia increased levels of cardon dioxide in bloodstream
hyperpnea increase in breathing rate
hypoxia deficiency of oxygen in tissues
inspiration act of breathing in
inhalation is also called inspiration
laryngeal pertaining to larynx
laryngitis inflammation of larynx
laryngoscopy endoscopic visual exam of larynx
laryngospasm involuntary contraction of muscles surrounding larynx
larynx voicebox, located at upper region of trachea
lobectomy removal of a lobe/section of an organ
lung biopsy surgical removal of lung tissue followed by microscopic exam of cells
lung cancer malignant tumor arising from lungs & bronchial tubes
MRI of chest magnetic waves create images of chest in all 3 planes of body
mediastinoscopy endoscopic visual exam of mediastinum
mediastinum region between lungs in chest cavity
mesothelioma rare malignant tumor arising in pleura & associated with asbestos exposure
nares nose
nasogastric intubation placement of tube through nose into stomach
obstructive lung disease narrowed airways result in resistance to airflow during breathing
asthma, bronchiectasis, COPD & cystic fibrosis are all examples of obstructive lung disease
orthopnea breathing is only comfortable when a patient is in an upright position
oxygen gas inhaled & entering bloodstream through lungs
palatine tonsil one of a pair of almond-shaped masses of lymphatic tissue in oral pharynx
palliative relieving, but not curing an illness
paranasal sinus one of a pair of air cavities in the bones around the nose
parietal plueral outer layer of pleura lying closest to chest wall
peroxysmal pertaining to a suddent occurance
percussion tapping on surface to determine underlying structure
perussis bacterial infection of throat, larynx & trachea
perussis is also called whooping cough
pharyngeal pertaining to throat/pharynx
pharynx throat, nasopharynx, oropharynx & laryngopharynx
phrenic nerve carries impulses to diaphragm from brain
pleura double-folded membrane surrounding each lung, lining the chest wall
pleural cavity space between pleura surrounding each lung
pleural effusion collection of fluid in pleural cavity
pleural rub scratchy sound produced by inflamed/irritated pleural surfaces rubbing against each other
pleurisy inflammation of pleura, or pleuritis
pleurodynia pain associated with pleura
pneumoconiosis abnormal condition of collection of dust particles in lungs
pneumonectomy removal of a lung
pneumonia acute inflammation & infection of alveoli which fill with pus & products of inflammation
pneumothorax presence of air/gas in pleural cavity causing lung to collapse
PET of lung redioactive substance injected into patient & images reveal the metabolic activity in lung for diagnosis of malignant tumors
pulmonary pertaining to lungs
pulmonary abcess collection of pus in lungs
pulmonary angiography xray recording of lung blood vessels after injecting contrast into the pulmonary artery
pulmonary edema collection of fluid in air sacs & bronchioles of lung
pulmonary embolism clot/material from distant veing that blocks a blood vessel in the lung
pulmonary fibrosis formation of scar tissue in connective tissue of the lung
pulmonary function test tests that measure the breathing mechanics of the lung
pulmonary infarction area of dead tissue in the lung
pulmonary parenchyma essential parts of lungs responsible for respiration
bronchioles & alveoli are considered the pulmonary parenchyma
purulent pus-filled
pyothorax pus collection in the pleural cavity
rale abnormal, fine, crackling sound hear on auscilation when there is fluid in the aveoli
respiration process by which oxygen & carbon dioxide are exchanged between the body & its enviroment through movement of air in & out of the lungs
restrictive lung disease condition in which lung expansion is limited by diseases that affect the chest, pleura or lung tissue itself.
pulmonary fibrosis, radiation damage & pheunoconiosis are examples of restrictive lung disease
rhinoplasty surgical repair of nose
rhinorrhea discharge of mucus from nose
rhonchus (rhonchi) loud, rumbling sound heard on auscilation of bronchi obstructed by sputum
sarcoidosis chronic inflammatory disease of unknown cause in which small nodules/tubercles devlops in lungs, lymph nodes, & other organs
silicosis silica glass duct collects in lungs; type of pneumoconiosis
sinusitis inflammation of paranasal sinuses
spirometer instrument to measure breathing
sputum material expelled from chest by coughing/clearing throat; phelgm
sputum culture sputum collected & placed in growth medium to analyze the type of microorganisms present
stridor strained, high-pitched noisy breathing associated with obstruction of larynx/trachea
thoracentesis surgical puncture to remove fluid from pleural space
thoracic pertaining to the chest
thorascopy endoscopic visualization of chest
thoracotomy incision of chest
tonsillectomy removal of tonsils
trachea windpipe
tracheal stenosis narrowing of trachea
tracheostomy new opening of trachea to outside of body
tracheotomy incision of trachea
tube thoracostomy chest tube passed through opening in skin of chest to continuously drain pleural effusion
tuberculin test determined past/present exposire to TB based on a positive skin test
tuberculosis infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis
lungs usually involved by other organs may be affected by tuberculosis
ventilation-perfusion scan detection device records radioactivity after injection of readioisotope/small amounts of inhaled radioactive gas
visceral pleura innermost membrane of pleura, lying closet to lung tissue
wheeze continuous high-pitched whistling sound heard when air is forced through a narrow space during inspiration/expiration
cor pulmonale heart failure
upper respiratory tract includes nose, pharynx, adenoids (pharnygeal tonsils), palatine tonsils, epiglottis, larynx & trachea
nares is the entrance to respiratory passageway through which air travels to & from lungs
exterior of nares consists of cartilage & bone overlaid by skin
interior of nares consists of mucous membrane & cilia, forming the lining of nasal cavity
nasal cavity lies over the roof of the mouth & is separated by septum
septum a midline partition of the nasal cavity
air passing along the lining of the nares is warmed, moistened & filtered of impurities/foreign substances
alomst the entire lining of respiratory tract is lined with specialized respiratory mucous membrane
the specialized respiratory mucous membrane is composed of ciliated pseudostratified epithelium
the respiratory mucosa is rish in goblet cells
the cilia on surface of respiratory mucosa sweep contaminants in the mucus secretions upward towards the pharynx to eventually be removed
also lined with a mucous membrane which produces secretions that drain into & lubricate the nasal cavity paranasal sinuses
air-filled spaces which help to tighten the bones of skull & serve as resonating chambers for speech the paranasal sinuses
frontal, ethmoid, maxillary & sphenoid are all part of the paranasal sinuses
the uppermost section of pharynx, the nasopharynx, is located just posterior to the nasal cavity
the pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids) and eustachian tube are contained with the nasopharynx
the 2nd division of pharyx, oropharynx, is located juest behind the mouth
palatine tonsils are contained within the oropharynx
3rd section of pharyx, laryngopharynx, opens into larynx & esophagus
nasal conchae thin bony plates that project into the nasal cavity; called also turbinates or turbinate bones.
larynx consists of a cartilaginous framework
Adam's apple held together by muscles & ligaments; most prominent portion of larynx; also called thyroid cartilage
the larynx is also lined with a ciliated mucous membrane, which helps to warm, humidify & filter incoming air
from the base of the tounge, includes the epiglottis, vocal cords, trachea & thyroid cartilage the larynx
laryngeal muscles function to widen/narrow opening between vocal cords
when air is expired through the glottis it causes the vocal cord to vibrate, producing sound
protects the glottis preventing aspiration of food into airway, by covering entrance to larynx, during swallowing the epiglottis
lower respiratory tract consists of all segments of bronchial tree & the lungs
the only lower airway structures not contained within the lungs are trachea & main stem bronchi
cylindrical tube in neck trachea
the trachea is divided at its lower end into two large airway passages called the bronchial tubes/bronchi
divides the trachea into the two branches the mediastinum
left bronchus enters the left lung
right bronchus is slightly larger & more verticle that the left, enters the right lung
bronchi divide into primary, secondary & tertiary; in that order
bronchioles branch to form miscroscopic tubes called alveolar ducts
perform the function of gas exchange within the lungs alveoli
walls of alveoli consist of a single layer of epithelial cells
once within the bloodstream oxygen binds with iron in the protein hemoglobin
carry oxygen to all parts of the body & carbon dioxide to lungs for expiration erythrocytes
thorax chest
the lungs extend from the clavicle to the diaphragm
primary muscle of respiration the diaphragm
pair of highly elastic organs that provide an enormous surface area for gas exchange lungs & diaphragm
space separating pluera layers contains a small amount of ____ that helps to keep lungs inflated & lubricate during respiration surfactant
modified cone-shaped organs the lungs
basilar pertaining to the base
right lung has a ___________ lobe right, middle & upper
the left lung only has 2 lobes in order to compensate for the space that the heart takes up in chest cavity
ventilation activity by which air moves into and out of the lungs
made up of inspiration & expiration ventilation
during inspiration air flows from the atmosphere into the lungs because contraction of diaphragm causes pressure within thorax to fall below that of the external enviroment
during expiration the diaphragm relaxes upward, which causes a reduction in volume of thoacic cavity & increased pressure within, forcing air out of the lungs
respiration includes ventilation, gas exchange & gas transport
relies on the interdependence of many body systems for its effectiveness respiration
during _____ pressure in the thoarcic cavity increases expiration
during _____ the thoracic cavity expands inspiration
expectorants agents that help to expel mucus