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Med Term Mod11

Lab Tests & Clinical Procedures

BNP test measurement of brain natriuretic peptide in blood identifying patients at risk for major complications after MI and with CHF
BNP is elevated in patient's with CHF
this is secreted when heart becomes overloaded, acting like a diuretic to help heart function return to normal brain natriuretic peptide
the lipid test would be used to diagnose hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis
high levels of LDLs in a lipoprotein electrophoresis would indicate atherosclerosis
treatment of hyperlipidemia includes diet low in fat and high in fiber & exercise along with drug therapy of statins
niacin viatmin that helps reduce lipids
National guideline for LDL is less than ____ in a normal person and less than ____ in patients with CAD, PVD, and diabetes mellitus 130mg/dL; 70mg/dL
damaged heart muscles release anzymes into the bloodstream; serum enzyme tests for creatine kinase (CK, troponin-I (cTnI) and troponin-T (cTnT)
a protein released into circulation after myocardial infarction troponin
ateriography xray imaging of arteries after injection of contract via a catheter into aorta/artery
64-slice CT scanner is used in CTA
digital subtraction angiography (DSA) aftering xray taken stored in computer, then contrast material injected to take 2nd image of same area; computer compares two images & subtracts digital data for the first from the 2nd leaving an image of vessels with contrast
this is a newer faster test than a standard CT, also called ultrafast CT, taking clear pic of coronary arteries while heart is beating electron beam tomography (EBCT or EBT)
instrument focusing sound waves on blood vessels & echoes bounce off red blood cells Doppler ultrasound studies
Doppler ultrasound studies examiner is able to hear various alterations in blood flow caused by vessel obstruction
Duplex ultrasound combines Doppler & conventional ultrasound to allow physicians to image the structure of blood vessels & measure speef of blood flow
cartoid artery occlusion, aneurysm, varicose veins & other vessel disorders can be diagnosed with Duplex ultrasound
ECHOs show structure & movement of heart
transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) transducer placed in esophagus providing ultrasound & Doppler information
technique that detects cardiac masses, prosthetic valve function, aneurysms & pericardial fluid transesophageal echocardiography
PET scans can detect CAD, myocardial function & differences between ischemic heart disease vs. cardiomyopathy
this scan is used in patient's who have had an MI, to assess amount of damaged heart muscle; also used in conjuction with an exercise tolerance test technetium Tc 99m sestamibi scan
sestamibi radioactive tracer compound used to define areas of poor blood flow in heart muscle
show the viability of heart muscle; scarred myocardium shows up as "cold spots" thallium 201 scan
cardiac MRI gives in images in multiple planes to show aneurysms, cardiac output & patency of peripheral & coronary arteries
magnetic waves from an MRI machine can interfere with implanted pacemakers because they contain metal
contrindication for a patient with a pacemaker an MRI
magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) type of MRI which gives highly detailed images of blood vessels
used to view arteries & blockage inside arteries MRA
begins in the SA node & is between 60 to 100 beats per minute normal sinus rhythm
dysrhythmia abnormal rhythms
rhythm changes are correlated with symptoms recorded in a diary Holter monitoring
common protocol uses 3-minute stages at set speeds & elevations of a treamill stress test
stress test uses continual monitoring of vital signs & ECG rhythms is important in diagnosis of CAD & left ventricular function
for patients at high risk of sudden cardiac death from ventricular dysrhythmias, an implantable ICD or AICD is placed in the upper chest cardioversion
internal mammary & radial arteries & saphenous vein grafts are used to keep myocardium supplied with oxygenated blood
cardiac surgeons use smaller incisions instead of traditional sternotomy to open the chest CAGB surgery
vein & artery grafts, used in CABG surgery, are removed endoscopically
fatty deposits & throboses are removed to open clogged arteries endarterectomy
cartoid endarterectomy procedure to remove plaque buildup in cartoid artery reducing risk of a stroke
extracorporeal circulation blood leaves body, enters heart lung machine where it is oxygenated, then returns to a blood vessel to circulate through the bloodstream
extracorporeal membrane oxygenation ECMO technique used by the extracorporeal circulation machine
intervantional cardiologist place catheter in femoral/radial artery, then threads it up into coronary artery percutaneous coronary intervention
stents create wide lumens making stenosis less likely
drug-eluting stents coated with plymers that release antiproliferative drugs to prevent scar tissue formation leading to restenosis
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, stent placement, laser angiography & atherectomy percutaneous coronary intervention techniques
tissue plasmingogen activator & streptokinase restore blood flow to heart & limit irreversible damage to heart muscle
tPA & streptokinase are drugs given within 12 hours after the onset of a heart attack
thrombolytic agents reduce mortality in patients with myocardial infarction by 25%
advanced cardiac life support includes CPR plus drugs & defibrillation
adenosine diphosphate ADP blockers used to prevent cardiovascular-related death, heart attack & strokes; also used after all stent procedures
electrophysiology study catheters are inserted into veins & threaded into heart & electrical conduction is measured
tachycardias are provoked & measured during electrophysiology study
high-density lipoprotein high blood levels are associated with lower incidence of coronary artery disease
intra-aortic balloon pump used to support patients in cardiogenic shock
multiple-gated acquisition scan radioactive test of heart function
used for myocardial imaging with sestamibi scans single photon emission computer tomography
electrocardiography recording of heart's electrical activity
aids in diagnosis of rhythmic irregularities of the heart electrocardiography
electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG) the record produced by electrocardiography
defects in heartbeat may result from genetic causes, enviromental factors or a combination of both
majority of congenital heart defects occur during fetal development
Diagnostic tools used to assess inflammatory disease of the heart include electrocardiography, echocardiography, cardiac catheterization, computed tomography (CT), and cardiac MRI
Diagnosis of valvular heart disease is aided by the use of echocardiography and cardiac catheterization
electron beam computed tomography can identify calcium deposits in and around the coronary arteries
computerized tomography angiography takes three-dimensional images of the heart and coronary arteries very quickly
mitral commissurotomy a procedure in which the mitral valve is divided at the juncture of its cusps to treat stenosis, and valve replacement
freestyle heart valve replacement uses a stentless pig valve
Hancock II heart valve replacement uses a stented valve
Carpenter-Edwards heart valve replacement uses bioprosthesis