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Med Term Mod 11

Terms & Definitions

ACE inhibitor drug that caused dialation of blood vessels & lowers blood pressure, prevents heart attacks, strokes & congestive heart failure
ACE stands for antiotensin-converting enzymenormally constricts blood vessels
acute coronary syndromes consequences of plaque rupture in coronary arteries; unstable angina & myocardial infarction
anuerysm local widening/ballooning out of a small area of an artery
angina chest pain associated with myocardial ischemia
angiogram x-ray record of a blood vessel
angiography x-ray imaging of blood vessels after injection of contrast material
angioplasty surgical repair of a blood vessel
anoxia lack of oxygen in body tissue
aorta largest artery in the body
aortic stenosis narrowing of the aorta
arrhythmia without rhythm; any deviation from the normal rhythmic pattern of the heartbeat
arterial anastomosis surgical connection between 2 arteries
arteriography xray recording of arteries; contrast is injected
ateriosclerosis hardening of an artery with collection of fatty plaque
artery largest type of blood vessel
artherectomy removal of plaque (lipds/clots) that accumulate in lining of an artery
artheroma mass of fatty plaque that collects in an artery
artherosclerosis form are arteiosclerosis in fatty plaque deposits in the interior lining of an artery
atrial pertaining to an atrium
atrial fibrillation electrical impulses move randomly throughout the atria, causing the atria to quiver instead of contracting with a normal rhythm
atrioventricular block failure of conduction of impulses from the AV node to the atrioventricular bundle & ventricles of heart
atrioventricular bundle specialized muscle fibers connecting the atria with the ventricles & transmitting impulses between them; bundle of His
atrioventricular node a small mass of cardiac muscle tissue located in the right atrium near the ventricle
atrium plural for atria
atrium upper chambers of heart
auscultation use of a stethoscope to listen for sounds emanating from heart/other organs
beta-blocker drug used to treat high blood pressure & control heart rate
brachial artery artery that carries blood to the arm
bradycardia slow heartrate
bruit an abnormal blowing/swishing sound heard on auscultation of an artery/organ
bundle of His atroiventricular bundle
calcium channel blocker drug used to treat chest pain & high blood pressure
capillary smallest blood vessel
carbon dioxide gas released by body cells; carried by veins to heart & then to lungs for exhalation; CO2
cardiac arrest sudden, unexpected stoppage of heart; cardiac death
cardiac catheterization thin, flexible tube guided into heart via vein/artery after contract material introdcued, blood pressure measured & xrays taken to image patterns of blood flow
cardiac MRI images of heart produced with magnetic waves
cardiac tamponade pressure of heart caused by fluid in pericardial space
cardiomegaly enlargement of heart
cardiomyopathy disease of heart muscle
cardioversion treatment for serious arrhythmias using breif discharged of electricity to shock the heart so that a normal rhythm can begin; defribillation
claudication pain, tension & weakness in leg after walking has begun; absence of pain at rest
coarctation of the aorta congenital anomaly in which a portion of the aorta near the heart is narrowed/stenosed
computerized tomography angiography xray images are combined with CT to produce a 3D pic of the heart & blood vessels
congenital heart disease structural heart defects that appear at birth
congestive heart failure heart is unable to pump its required amount of blood
coronary arteries branches of aorta bringing oxygen-rich blood to heart muscle
coronary artery bypass grafting arteries/veins are grafted onto coronary arteries to bypass blocked arteries & bring needed blood supply to myocardium
coronary artery disease ateries that supply blood to heart muscle become clogged & blocked with deposits of fatty material & cholestrol
cyanosis abnormal condition; blueness of skin; caused by decreased oxygen & increased carbon dioxide in blood
deep-vein thrombosis blood clots form in a large vein, usually in the leg
deoxygenated blood blood that is oxygen-poor
diastole period during which heart relaxes between contractions
digital subtraction angiography video equipment, computer & xray machine produce images of blood vessels before & after injecting contrast material
digoxin drug that increases strength & regularity of heartbeat
Doppler ulrtasound method of focusing sound waves on blood vessels to measure blood flow
echocardiography high-energy sound waves are transmitted into chest & images recorded of veins, chambers, surfaces & movement of heart
electrocardiogram record of electricity flowing through heart
electrocardiography process of recording electricity flowing through heart
electron beam CT electron beams & CT identify calcium deposits in & around coronary arteries to diagnose early coronary artery disease
embolus plural for emboli
ambolus clot/other substance that travels to distant location & suddenly blocks a blood vessel
endarterectomy surgical removal of plaque from the inner layer of an artery
endocarditis inflammation of the endocardium
endocardium inner lining of heart
endothelium innermost lining of blood vessels
extracorporeal circulation use of a heart-lung machine to divert blood from heart & lungs during open heart surgery
fibrillation disturbance of the heart's rhythm in which there are rapid, disorganized, and ineffectual contractions of the atria or ventricles
flutter rapid, but regular, contractions of heart; usually of the atria
heart transplantation donor heart is transferred to a recipient
hemorrhoids swollen, twisted veins in rectal & anal area
holter monitoring compact version of an electrocariograph is worn during 24hour period to detect cardiac arrhythmias
hypercholesterolemia high levels of cholestrol in blood
hypertension high blood pressure
hypoxia deficiency of oxygen in body tissues
implantable cardioverter defibrillator small electric device implanted inside chest (near collarbone) to sense arrhythmias & terminate them to restore normal sinus rhythm
infarction area of dead tissue
interventricular septum wall between ventricles of heart
ischemia holding back blood to a region of body
myocardial ischemia deprivation of blood to the heart muscle
left ventricular assist device (LVAD) booster pump implanted in abdomen with a tube inserted into the left ventricle
LVAD is a "bridge to transplant" or destination when heart transplantation is impossible
lipid test measurement of cholesterol & trycligerides in a sample of blood
lipoprotein electrophoresis lipoproteins are physically separated in a blood sample
lioproteins combinations of fat & protein
HDL & LDL are examples of lipoproteins
HDL high density lipoprotein
LDL low density lipoprotein
mitral stenosis narrowing of the mitral valve
mitral valve valve between left atrium & left ventricle
bicuspid valve mitral valve
mitral valve prolapse abnormal closure of mitral valve so that blood refluxes backward into left atrium during ventricular contraction
mitral valvulitis inflammation of mitral valve
murmur extra sound heard between normal beats during auscultation of heart
myocardial infarction area of necrotic tissue in heart muscle; heart attack
myocardium muscular layer of heart
myxoma rare neoplasm of connective tissue found in heart muscle
nitroglycerin drug used in treatment of angina (pectoris)
dialates coronary arteries so that more blood flow to heart muscle nitroglycerin
normal sinus rhythm heart rhythm originating in sinoatrial node
pacemaker of the heart normal sinus rhythm
occlusion blockage/closure of a vessel/tube
pacemaker specialized nervous tissue in wall of right atrium
begins the heartbeat pacemaker
sinoatrial node pacemaker oh heart
palpitations uncomfortable sensations in chest related to cardiac arrhythmias, such as skipped beats
patent ductus arteriosus small duct that is open during fetal circulation, fails to close at birth
percutaneous coronary intervention catheter with balloon & stent is inserted into a coronary artery to remove collections of plaque
drugeluting stents release chemicals to keep debris & plaque from recollecting during precutaneous coronary intervention
pericardial friction rub scaping/grating heart sound heard on auscultation of heart
symptomatic of pericarditis pericardial friction rub
pericardiocentesis surgucal puncture to remove fluid within pericardial space surrounding heart
pericarditis inflammation of pericardium
pericardium double-layered membrane surrounding heart
peripheral vascular disease blockage of blood vessels outside heart
cartois artery occlusion in an example of peripheral vascular disease
petechiae small pinpoint hemorrhages under skin
phlebotomy incision into a vein
PET Scan of heart images show blood flow & myocardial function following uptake of radioactive substances
pulmonary artery blood vessel carrying oxygen-poor blood from right ventricle of heart to the lungs
pulmonary circulation flow of blood from heart to the lungs & then back to heart
pulmonary valve valve located between right ventricle & pulmonary arteru
pulmonary vein 1 of 2 pairs of vessels carrying oxygenated blood from lungs to left atrium of heart
pulse beat of heart as felt through the walls of the arteries
radiofrequency catheter ablation radiofrequency deleivered from tip of catheter inserted through blood vessel into heart
treatment destroys the tissue causing certain arrhythmia via radiofrequency energy radiofrequency catheter ablation
Raynaud disease recurrent episodes of pallor & cyanosis in fingers & toes caused by blood vessel spasms
rheumatic heart disease disease of heart caused by rheumatic fever
septal defects small holes present at birth in walls between heart chambers
septum wall/partition
plural for septa septum
lies between atria of heart interatrial sepctum
lies between ventricles of heart interventricular septum
serum enzyme test chemicals measured in blood as evidence of heart attack
creatine kinase (CK) is an example of a serum enzyme test
troponin-l (cTnl) is an example of a serum enzyme test
troponon T (cTnT) is an example of a serum enzyme test
sinoatrial node sensitive nervous tissue in wall of right atrium
sphygmomanometer instrument to measure blood pressure
statins drugs give to lower cholesterol on bloodstream
stethoscope instrument for listening to sounds in chest
stress test used to determine heart's response to physical exertion
exercise tolerance test (EET) stress test
systemic circulation flow of blood from body tissues to heart & from heart back to tissues
systole phase cardiac cycle when heart contracts
tachycardia rapid heartbeat
technetium 99m sestamibi scan uptake of technetium 99m sestamibi in myocardium reveals evidence of myocardial infarction
technetium 99m sestamibi radioactive chemical
telemetry continuous monitoring of patient's heart rhythm in a hospital
tetralogy of Fallot 4 separate defects of heart occuring at birth
thallium 201 scan concentraction of thallium 201 is measured in myocardium to show evidence of an infarction
infarction as known as "cold spots"
thallium 201 radioactive substance
thrill fine vibration felt on palpating body over a blood vessel that is blocked
thrombolysis destruction of a blood clot
thrombolytic therapy injection of streptokinase & tPA to dissolve clots in bloodstream
thrombophlebitis inflammation of a vein & formation of a clot within the vein
thrombotic occlusion blockage of blood vessel caused by thrombosis/clot formation
tricuspid valve valve located between right atrium & right ventricle
valve structure in a vein/heart that temporarily closes an opening so that blood flows in proper direction
valvotomy incision of a valve
valvuloplasty surgical repair of a valve
varicose veins swollen, twisted veins, often occurring in legs
vascular partaining to a blood vessel
vasoconstriction narrowing of a blood vessel
vasodilation widening of a blood vessel
vegetations collections of clotted material that accumulate on endocardium & valves of heart
vegetations occur in conditions such as endocarditis & rheumatic heart disease
vein thin-walled blood vessel that carries oxygen-poor blood from body tissues back to heart
vena cava largest vein in body
plural for venae cavae vena cava
inferior & superior venae cavae return blood to heart from body tissues
venipuncture incision of a vein to remove blood
venous pertaining to a vein
ventricle 1 of 2 lower chambers of heart
venule small vein
saturated fats animal origin, such as milk, butter, & meats; increase blood cholesterol
polyunsaturated fats vegetable origin such as corn & safflower oil; decrease blood cholesterol
creatine kinase released into bloodstream after injury to heart or skeletal muscles
cardiac resynchronization therapy biventricular pacing
ejection fraction measures amount of blood that pumps out of the heart with each beat
cardiovascular system consists of closed network of blood vessels, and heart, that carry blood throughout the body
blood vessels are responible for transporting nutrients & oxygen to the cells to power the body's functions
carry carbon dioxide & waste prodycts to lungs & kidneys to be eliminated blood vessels
heart cone-shaped organ that is the pump of cardiovascular system
lies in the mediastinum of thoracic cavity, between lungs & just behind sternum heart
the heart lies in front of the esopahgus, aorta, venae cavae & vertebral column
apex blunt point making the lower border of heart, just below the 5th rib
base upper border of heart just below 2nd rib
the heart rests on the diaphragm
the heart is rotated to the left
endocardium inner layer of heart made up of smooth membranous tissue
endothelium smooth membranous tissue on inner layer of heart
myocardium tick middle layer of heart wall
endocardium lines the interior of heart and heart valves
myocardium is composed of cardiac muscle
epicardium outer layer of heart
the heart has this many layers 3
pericardium consist of a thin sheet of tissue called serous membrane
the outer portion of pericardium is made up of a(n) fibrous portion
visceral pericardium inner layer
parietal pericardium outer layer
this adheres to the heart's surface visceral pericardium
lines the heart's fibrous coat parietal pericardium
space between the visceral and parietal layers of pericardium contains pericardial fluid
pericardial fluid acts as a lubricant, allowing pericarium's layers to move without friction
low pressure containers that collect blood from circulatory system & deliver to ventricles atria
larger & more muscular, pumping blood to the circulatory system ventricles
muscular partition that separates heart into 2 functioning units septum
double-pump heart
interatrial septum separated atria
interventricular septum separates ventricles
right side of heart consists of right atrium & ventricle
left side of the heart consists of left atrium & ventricle
bicuspid & trcuspid valves mitral valves
mitral valves are atrioventricular valves
pulmonary & aortic valves are semilunar valves
during artial heart contraction, cardiac muscle in artial wall contracts, forcing blood through the atrioventricular valves
when the blood is forced through the atrioventricluar valves it forces blood into the ventricles
during ventricular contraction the atrioventricular valves close
blood is forced out of ventricles through semilunar valves and into arteries duuring ventricular contraction
when the heart makes the "lub" sound, the sound is caused by the vibration & abrupt closure of atrioventricular valves as ventricles contract
when the heart makes the "dub" sound, the sound is caused by the closing of the semilunar valves when ventricles undergo relaxation
three major types of blood vessels: arteries, veins, and capillaries
Arteries carry blood containing oxygen and other nutrients away from the heart to the body's cells
large, strong vessels with elastic walls because they need to withstand the force of the blood as it leaves the heart arteries
Smaller arteries arterioles
arterioles carry blood to the tiniest of the blood vessels
capillaries microscopic blood vessels with walls thin enough to permit the exchange of oxygen and nutrients from the blood into the tissue fluid surrounding the body's cells
allow carbon dioxide and waste materials to pass into the blood from the cells capillaries
the blood is carried to the veins by venules
venules small veins
Because venous return of blood to the heart is less forceful than blood flow through the arteries, their walls are thinner and less elastic the veins
in the veins keep the blood flowing back to the heart valves
receives venous blood from the inferior and superior venae cavae right atrium
once received by the right atrium then flows through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle
With each contraction, the blood is passed from the right ventricle through the pulmonary valve and into the pulmonary artery
only artery through which oxygen-poor blood flows the pulmonary artery
In the lungs, blood travels through the ____ and into the lung ____ arterioles; capillaries
carbon dioxide is eliminated and oxygen is absorbed in the lung capillaries
oxygen-rich blood flows from the lungs through the venules and is carried by the _____ ____ into the left atrium pulmonary veins
are the only veins through which oxygenated blood flows the pulmonary veins
From the left atrium, blood travels through the ____ to the left ____ mitral valve; ventricle
As the heart contracts, blood is forced from the left ventricle, through the ____ ____, into the aorta and the ____ circulation aortic valve; systemic
right and left coronary arteries pair of arteries that branch from the aorta; both coronary arteries have two main branches;
right coronary artery and its branches supply the right atrium, the right ventricle, and a portion of the left ventricle
left coronary artery and its branches supply the left atrium, the left ventricle, and a portion of the right ventricle.
carries oxygen-poor blood from right ventricle to lungs pulmonary artery
tricuspid valve connects right atrium & right ventricle
systemic circulation flow of blood from body's organs to heart & back
vessels that carry blood containing oxygen & other nutrients away from heart to the body arteries
blood flows throught the mitral valve to the lft ventricle
high blood pressure has a powerful effect on the rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the heart
cardiac cycle 2 plases: systole & diastole
with each cardiac cycle the atria simultaneously contract, emptying blood into the relaxed ventricles
tricuspid & mitral valves stay open during atrial contraction
during atrial contraction the pulmonary & aortic valves are closed
To prevent the backflow of blood from the ventricles, the tricuspid and mitral valves are closed during ventricular systole
While the ____ ____, the atria relax and are filled with blood returning from the systemic circulation and from the lungs ventricles contract
force of the blood being ejected from the heart causes a regular expansion and contraction of the arterial walls called the pulse
The most commonly used pulse point is over the radial artery, just inside the wrist over the thumb
A blood pressure measurement is determined by blood volume, the size and tone of the blood vessel, and the force of the heart's contraction as it ejects blood into the arteries
The rhythmic contractions of the heart are caused by the spread of an electrical impulse across certain cardiac pathways and structures
coordinates the muscular contractions that occur during the cardiac cycle electrical wave
generated by a shift in the chemical charge of cardiac cells electical impulses
with one pulsation of your palpatated pulse all the events in the cardiac cycle and the conduction process have just occurred
wave of conduction begins at the sinoatrial(SA) node
the sinoatrial node is located near vena cava in the right atrial wall
after leaving the SA node impulses travel through both atria pausing at the atrioventricular (AV) node
Purkinje fibers modified cardiac fibers in the subendocardial tissue completion of the conducting system of the heart
dysrhythmia disturbance of rhythm; any deviation from the normal rhythmic pattern of the heartbeat
aperture opening
Electrocardiography, cardiac catheterization, and echocardiography all use high-frequency sound waves to show the structure & movement of the heart