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My Skeletal System

chapter 3 - intro to medicine

compact bone dense, hard, very strong protective outer layer of bone.
spongy bone Lighter, not at strong as compact bone. commonly found in ends & inner portion on long bones. [contain red bone marrow]
Red Bone marrow located in spongy layer of bone, is hemopoietic tissue that manufactures red blood cells.
Yellow Bone marrow functions as a fat storage area, composed of mostly fat cells. Located in madullary cavity.
Cartilage smooth, rubbery, tough connective tissue which act as shock absorbers between bones.
diaphysis the shaft of a long bone.
epiphysis covered with articular cartilage. Wide end of a long bone.
Foramen Opening in bones where blood, nerves, & blood vessels pass through.
synovial joint contain a synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid. created where two bones come together.
Ball & socket joints allow large range of movement in many directions. [hip & shoulder]
Hinge joints move one way. [knee & elbow]
Axial Skeleton includes the skull, vertebral column, & rib cage.
Appendicular Skeleton includes arms & legs. makes body movement possible.
Frontal bone forehead.
Parietal bones [2] forms roof & upper sides of skull.
Occipital bones forms posterior floor & walls of skull.
Temporal bones forms sides & base of cranium. [temples]
Sphenoid bone forms part of base of the skull & floor of the eyeball socket.
Ethmoid bone forms part of the posterior portion of the nose & orbit.
Nasal bones form upper part of bridge of nose.
Zygomatic bones Cheek bones.
Maxillary bones form upper jaw.
Lacrimal bones form inner eye.
Palatine bones form part of hard palate of mouth and nose.
inferior conchae interior nasal septum. base for it.
mandible lower jaw.
Temporomandibular joint [TMJ] where jaw is attached to the skull.
1st set of ribs 7 pairs. called true ribs.
2nd set of ribs 3 pairs. called false ribs.
3rd set of ribs 2 pairs. floating ribs.
sternum breastbone, located in middle of ribs.
manubrium bony structure at top of breastbone.
Body of sternum middle part.
xiphoid process made of cartilage at bottom of sternum.
shoulders pectoral girdle that supports arms & hands.
clavical collar bone.
scapula shoulder blade.
humerous bone of upper arm.
Radius smaller shorter bone of arm [thumb side]
Ulna larger bone in forearm.
carpals 8 bones that form wrist.
metacarpals 5 bones that form palms.
Phalanges 14 bones that make up fingers.
cervical vertebrae [c1-c7] 1st set of 7 vertebrae that form neck
thoracic vertebrae [t1-t12] 2nd set of 12 vertebrae that form chest & rib cage.
lumbar vertebrae [L1-L5] 3rd set of 5 vertebrae that form lower back.
sacral vertebrae [5 fused vertebrae] slightly curved triangle bone at base of spine.
coccyx tail bone.
Pelvic Girdle supports legs.
Ilium broad blade shaped bone that forms back of pelvis.
Ischium forms lower posterior of pubic bone.
pubis anterior if pubic bone. below bladder.
Sacroiliac [SI] joint slightly movable articulation between the sacrum & Ilium.
Acetabulum hip socket.
Femur thigh bone. largest in body.
patella knee cap.
tibia shin. larger weight bearing bone on anterior of leg.
fubula lateral lower small leg bone.
tarsals ankle bones
talus ankle bone that articulates with tibia & fibula.
calcaneus heel bone.
metatarsals arch of foot.
Phalanges bones of toes.
chiropractor specializes in the manipulation treatment of the spine.
orthopedic surgeon specializes in diagnosing & treating diseases & disorders in bones, joints, & muscles.
osteopathic physician specializes in health problems by spine manipulation.
podiatrist diagnosis & treatment of foot.
ankylosis the loss or absence of mobility in a joint due to disease, injury, or surgical procedure.
chondromalacia abnormal softening of cartilage.
dislocation total displacement of bone from joint.
subluxation partial displacement of bone from joint.
arthritis inflammation of one or more joints.
Osteoarthritis wear & tear arthritis caused by aging.
Gouty Arthritis deposit of uric acid in joints.
Rheumatoid arthritis chronic autoimmune disorder in which joints & organs are attacked.
Herniated disk slipped or ruptured disk. caused by pressure on nerve roots.
lumbago lower back pain.
spina bifida congenital defect, occurs in early pregnancy when the spinal canal doesn't close completely around spinal chord to protect it.
Kyphosis hump back. abnormal increase in the outward cure of thoracic spine. [aging]
Lordosis sway back. increased forward curve of lumbar spine.
scoliosis abnormal lateral or sideways curve of spine.
fibrous dysplasia bone disorder of unknown cause that destroys normal bone structure & replaces it with scar like tissue. leads to uneven bone growth, brittleness, & deformity of bones.
Ostalgia pain in bone.
Osteitis inflammation of bone.
osteomyelitis inflammation of bone marrow & adjacent bone.
short stature dwarfism.
talipes club foot.
primary bone cancer rare malignant tumor that originates in a bone.
Ewing's sarcoma tumor that occurs in the bones up the upper arms, legs, pelvis, or ribs. age 10-20.
compression fracture occurs when bones are pressed together on itself.
closed fracture [simple] bone is broken but no open wound.
open fracture [compound] bone is broken through the skin.
comminuted fracture bone is splintered & or crushed.
greenstick fracture incomplete. bone is bent & partially broken.
spiral fracture bone has been twisted apart.
stress fracture overuse injury. small crack develops from chronic excessive impact.
transverse fracture fracture straight across bone.
radiograph x-ray. use of x radiation to visualize bone fractures & other formalities.
Magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] used to image soft tissue. such as interior complex of joints.
dual x-ray absorptiometry low exposure radiographic measurement of the spine & hips to measure body density.
Bone marrow transplant used to treat certain types of cancer.
Allogenic bone marrow transplant use of healthy bone marrow cells form compatible donor.
autologous bone marrow transplant patient receives their own bone marrow cells which have been harvested, cleansed, treated & stored.
Orthotic mechanical appliance, such as a leg brace, splint designed to control, correct, and compensate for impaired bone.
prosthesis substitute for a diseased or missing body part such as a leg that had been amputated.
arthrodesis surgical ankylosis; surgical fusion of 2 bones to stiffen joints. performed to treat severe arthritis or damaged joint.
arthrolysis surgical loosening of ankylosed joint.
chondroplasty surgical repair of damaged cartilage.
arthroplasty surgical repair of damaged joints. or surgical placement of artificial joint.
closed reduction treatment manipulation; the attempted realignment of the bone involved in a fracture.
open reduction treatment surgical procedure to realign bone when closed reduction isn't partial.
external fixation fracture treatment where pins are placed through soft tissue & bone so an external appliance can be used to hold pieces together. removed later on.
internal fixation pins are placed in bone & are not removed.
Created by: heather21604