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Antibiotics 411

Antibiotics

QuestionAnswer
Systemic infection in which pathogens are present in the circulating bloodstream Septicemia
Syndrome involving multiple system organ involvement that is a result of microorganisms or their toxins circulating in the blood Sepsis
Invasion of body by pathogenic microorgs that reproduce and multiply, causing disease Infection
Localized presence and multipication of microorgs w/out invasion or damage Colonization
Presence of viable bacteria in the blood Bacteremia
Staphylococcus category Gram-positive cocci
Streptococcus category Gram-positive cocci
Escherichia coli category Enteric gram-negative Bacilli
Haemophilus influenza category Gram-negative Bacilli
Pseudomonas category Gram-negative Bacilli
Mycobacterium category Acid-Fast Bacilli (AFB)
Aqueous penicillin G Natural penicillin, gm+ anaerobes
Procain pen G Natural penicillin, gm+ anaerobes
Benzathine pen G Natural penicillin, gm+ anaerobes
Oxacillin Penicillinase resistant, penicillinase producing gm+ orgs
Nafcillin Penicillinase resistant, penicillinase producing gm+ orgs
Dicloxacillin Penicillinase resistant, penicillinase producing gm+ orgs
Cloxacillin Penicillinase resistant, penicillinase producing gm+ orgs
Ampicillin, Ampicillin/sulbactam Aminopenicillin (Extended Spectrum), same gm+ as pen G, some gm- (E. coli, H. flu)
Amoxicillin, Amoxicillin/clavulanate Aminopenicillin (Extended Spectrum) Same gm- as pen G, some gm- (E. coli, H. flu)
Carbenicillin Antipseudomonal Penicillin, pseudomonas
Ticarcillin Antipseudomonal Penicillin, pseudomonas
Piperacillin, Piperacillin/tazobactam Antipseudomonal Penicillin, pseudomonas
Cephalexin Cephalosporins-1st gen, gm+, little gm-, no H. flu, no B. fragilis
Cephradine Cephalosporins-1st gen, gm+, little gm-, no H. flu, no B. fragilis
Cefadroxil Cephalosporins-1st gen, gm+, little gm-, no H. flu, no B. fragilis
Cefaclor Cephalosporins-2nd gen, same gm+ as 1st gen, addit gm- (H. flu)
Cefuroxime axetil Cephalosporins-2nd gen, same gm+ as 1st gen, addit gm- (H. flu)
Cefprozil Cephalosporins-2nd gen, same gm+ as 1st gen, addit gm- (H. flu)
Loracarbef Cephalosporins-2nd gen, same gm+ as 1st gen, addit gm- (H. flu)
Cefixime Cephalosporins-3rd gen, more gm-, less gm+, moderate against pseudomonas
Cefpodoxime Cephalosporins-3rd gen, more gm-, less gm+, moderate against pseudomonas
Ciprofloxacin Fluoroquinolones, excellent gm- (H. flu), decent gm+, excellent shigella & salmonella
Ofloxacin Fluoroquinolones, excellent gm- (H. flu), decent gm+, excellent shigella & salmonella
Lomefloxacin Fluoroquinolones, excellent gm- (H. flu), decent gm+, excellent shigella & salmonella
Trovafloxacin Fluoroquinolones, excellent gm- (H. flu), decent gm+, excellent shigella & salmonella
Gatifloxacin Fluoroquinolones, excellent gm- (H. flu), decent gm+, excellent shigella & salmonella
Erythromycin Macrolides, gm+, gm- (H. flu), genital pathogens
Clarithromycin Macrolides, gm+, gm- (H. flu), genital pathogens
Azithromycin Macrolides, gm+, gm- (H. flu), genital pathogens
Tetracycline Tetracyclines, gm+, gm-, acne
Metronidazole (Flagyl) Misc, gm+ and gm- anaerobes
Clindamycin Misc, gm+ and gm- aerobes and anaerobes (better than Flagyl against), protozoa
SMX-TMP Misc, gm+ and gm- aerobes, chlamydia, protozoa, UTI & PCP infections
Imipenem/cilastin Carbapenems, wide spectrum, powerful
Aztreonam Monobactams, powerful gm-, high resistance
Vancomycin Glycopeptides, powerful gm+, high resistance
Teicoplanin Glycopeptides, powerful gm+, MRSA
Gentamicin Aminoglycosides, powerful gm-, low resistance
Tobramycin Aminoglycosides, powerful gm-, low resistance
Gentamicin & Tobramycin (Aminoglycosides) toxicity otoxicity, nephrotoxicty
Natural Penicillins Spectrum Gm+ anaerobes
Penicillinase resistant spectrum penicillinase producing gm+
Amonopenicillin (Extended Spectrum) spectrum Same Gm+ as pen G, Gm- (salmonella, shigella, some E. coli, & H. flu)
Antipseudomonal Penicillin spectrum Pseudomonas (gm-)
Cephalosporins-1st gen spectrum gm+, little gm-, no H. flu, no B. fragillis
Cephalosporins-2nd gen spectrum same gm+, addit gm- (H. flu)
Cephalosporins-3rd gen spectrum gm-, less gm+, moderate against pesudomonas
Fluoroquinolones spectrum excellent gm- (H. flu), decent gm+, shigella, salmonella
Macrolides spectrum gm+, gm- (H. flu), genital pathogens, others: MAC, legionella, mycoplasma pneumonia, helicobacter pylori
Tetracyclines spectrum decent gm+ and gm-, acne
Metronidazole spectrum gm+ and gm- anaerobes
Clindamycin spectrum gm+ and gm- anaerobes (better) and aerobes, protozoa
SMX-TMP spectrum gm+ and gm- aerobes, chlamydia, protozoa, *UTIs, PCP*
Carbapenems/Imipenem/cilastin spectrum wide, powerful, high resistance
Monobactams/Aztreonam spectrum powerful gm-, high resistance
Glycopeptides/Vancomycin & Teicoplanin spectrum powerful gm+, MRSA
Aminoglycosides/Gentamicin & Tobramycin spectrum powerful gm-, low resistance
Oxacillin, Nafcillin, Dicloxacillin, Cloxacillin Penicillinase resistant, penicillinase producing gm+ orgs
Ampicillin, Amoxicillin Aminopenicillin, gm+ and gm- (more gm-)
Carbenicillin, Ticarcillin, Piperacillin Antipseudomonal Penicillins
Cephalexin, Cephradine, Cefradoxil 1st gen Cephalosporins, gm+. little gm-, no H. flu, no B. fragilis
Cefaclor, Cefuroxime axetil, Cefprozil, Loracarbef Cephalosporins-2nd gen, same gm+ as 1st gen, addit gm- (H. flu)
Cefixime, Cefpodoxime Cephalosporins-3rd gen, gm-, less gm+
Imipenem/cilastin Carbapenem
Axtrepnam Monobactam, gm-
Vancomycin, Teicoplanin Glycopeptides, gm+, MRSA
Gentamicin, Tobramycin Aminoglycosides, gm-
Created by: lbreimeir on 2005-12-04



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