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Motivation

EDPT 511 - Motivation

QuestionAnswer
Instrumental-Incremental Concept of Ability an individuals beliefs about their own ability, like a skill, can be increased through practice and effort
Entity Concept of Ability ability is a stable trait of which individuals have a fixed amount and which is only modertately affected by practice and effort
Behavior Modification the process of using reinforcement principles to change behavior ex: calling on a student when she raises her hand to answer a question and ignoring her when she calls out an answer
Contingency Management Using principles of operant conditioning to change a person's behavior by modifying discriminant stimuli or consequences ex:changing contingencies 4 rewards in the classrm so specific set of pos. social behaviors are rewarded and time-out 4 antisoc. beha
Shaping Providing reinforcement for behaviors that increasingly approximate the desired behaviors ex: praising a child for opening a book, then for beginning, then for completing it
Token Economy a system in which individuals receive or lose token that can be exchanged for a reward ex: a poker chip is earned for every assignment turned in and later exhcnaged for extra recess time
Baseline behaviors frequency of behaviors previous to intervention designed to increase or decrease it by reward or punishment ex: proportion of homework assignments completed before a token economy intervention is implemented
Law of Effect Principle of reinforcement theory in which behavior is assumed to be determined by its consequences ex: students complete assignments because this behavior is rewarded
Operant Conditioning establishing behavior (an operation) using the principles of reinforcement ex: students learn to come into the classroom, sit at their desk, and begin work after recess
Positive Reinforcers (rewards) a consequence that increases the probability of the behavior that is made contingent upon ex: good grade; star; teacher praise; teacher attention
Punishment a consequence that decreases the probability of the behavior that is made contingent upon ex: bad grade; loss of privileges; public criticism
Negative Reinforcer a consequence that increases the probability of a behavior if terminated or diminished
Extinguish Terminating a behavior as the result of terminating positive reinforcers ex: students stop doing homework when teacher stops grading it
instrinsic motivation motivation to engage in an activity in the absence of any extrinsic reward or purpose
competence motive natural disposition to engage in tasks and activities that contribute to learning and development
internal locus of Causality perception of engaging in an activity by personal preference
External Locus of Causality Perception of engaging in an activity by personal preference
Discounting principle Discounting a reason for engaging in an activity because another reason is more salient
Task Contingent Rewards Rewards based on engaging in an activity or completing a task
Performance-Contingent Reward Rewards based on achieving a specified level of performance
Individual Interest Relatively stable evaluative orientation toward certain domains
Situational Interest Emotional state aroused by specific features of an activity or task
Trait Anxiety Proneness to a state of anxiety in evaluative contexts - a relatively stable personality characteristic
State Anxiety A temporal state of anxiety in a particular evaluative context
Desensitization Gradual introduction of increasingly threatening images and thoughts along with images and thoughts related to overcoming the threat
instrinsic motivation motivation to engage in an activity in the absence of any extrinsic reward or purpose
competence motive natural disposition to engage in tasks and activities that contribute to learning and development
Internal Locus of Causality Perception of engaging in an activity by personal preference
External Locus of Causality Perception of engaging in an activity for some external reward or for some reason other than personal preference
Discounting Principle Discounting a reason for engaging in an activity because another reason is more salient
Task-Contingent Rewards Rewards based on engaging in an activity or completing a task
Performance-contingent rewards Rewards based on achieving a specified level of performance
Individual Interest Relatively stable evaluative orientation toward certain domains
Situational Interest Emotional state aroused by specific features of an activity or task
Proximal Goals Short term goals that can be achieved relatively quickly
Distal Goals Long term goals that may involve several steps
Attribution Retraining making explicit statements to change a person's perceptions of the cause of failure (usually from ability to effort or strategy)
Undifferentiated task structure students who work on the same tasks at the same time, and the nature of tasks varies little from day to day
unidimensional classroom a classroom with an undifferentiated task structure in which valued performance outcomes are narrowly defined and social comparison information is salient
Differentiated Task structure students work on different tasks at the same time and the nature of tasks varies from day to day
Multidimensional classroom a classroom with a differentiated task structure in which many different kinds of performance are valued and social comparison information is salient
Mastery Learning a program of instruction in which students move through the curriculum at their own pace, as a function of demonstrated mastery
Outcome-Based Education (OBE) an instructional program that is guided by a set of well defined objectives, frequent assessment, and multiple opportunities to achieve the objectives
cooperative task structure students work collaboratively with classmates, usually in small groups
Cooperative incentive structure Students' rewards (eg. grades) are based on their group's performance
Created by: terryle on 2009-10-12



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