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Infectious disease_P

Poola's 2nd exam review- infectious diease and epidemiology

• Infectious disease “An illness due to a specific infectious agent or its toxic products that arises through transmission of that agent or its products from an infected person, animal, or reservoir to a susceptible host, either directly or indirectly through an intermediate
• Parasitic disease An infection caused by a parasite, which “…is an organism that lives on or in a host organism and gets its food from or at the expense of its host.” Example: amebiasis
• Epidemiologic triangle agent, host, environment
- agent A factor—such as a microorganism, chemical substance, or form of radiation—whose presence, excessive presence, or (in deficiency diseases) relative absence is essential for the occurrence of a disease….”
- Host A person or other living animal, including birds and arthropods, that affords subsistence or lodgment to an infectious agent under natural conditions
- Environment The domain in which disease-causing agents may exist, survive, or originate
• infectious disease agents bacteria, rickettsia, viruses, fungi, parasites, and prions• vector: any animate living insect or animals that is involved with transmission of disease agent
• vector any animate living insect or animals that is involved with transmission of disease agent
• Infectivity The capacity of an agent to enter and multiply in a susceptible host and thus produce infection or disease
• Virulence severity of the disease produced, i.e., whether the disease has severe clinical manifestations or is fatal in a large number of cases.
• Toxin Some infectious disease agents, instead of acting directly, produce a toxin that causes illness. usually refers to a toxic substance made by living organisms. ( botulism)
• Immunity refers to the host’s ability to resist infection by the agent ( may be active or passive)
• Antigen A substance that stimulates antibody formation, e.g., a microbial agent
• Herd immunity The resistance of an entire community to an infectious agent as a result of the immunity of a large proportion of individuals in that community to the agent
• Incubation period Time interval between invasion by an infectious agent and the appearance of the first sign or symptom of the disease•
Subclinical Infection= inapparent infection An infection that does not show obvious clinical signs or symptomseg. hepatitis A infections among children
Generation Time The time interval between lodgment of an infectious agent in a host and the maximal communicability of the host
Carrier “A person or animal that harbors a specific infectious agent without discernible clinical disease, and which serves as a potential source of infection.”
Index Case Used in an epidemiologic investigation of a disease outbreak to denote the first case of a disease to come to the attention of authorities
The first case of a disease to come to the attention of authorities is the index case
Endemic a infectious disease agent that is habitually present in an environment (either geographic or population group)Example: Plague is endemic among certain species of rodents in the western U.S
Reservoir A place where infectious agents normally live and multiplyCan be human beings, animals, insects, soils, or plants
Zoonosis An infection or infectious agent transmissible under natural conditions from vertebrate animals to humans
portal of exit site from which the agent leaves that person's body eg. respiratory passages, alimentary canal, genitourinary system, skin lesions
vehicle-borne infections result from contact with vehicles- contaminated, nonmoving obejcts (fomites, unsanitary food, impure water)
portal of entry site where the agent enters the body eg. skin wound
fomite an inanimate object that carries infectious disease agents eg. classroom doorknob, discarded tissues
airborne infections invove the spread of droplet nuclei (particles) that are present in the air eg. infections caused by stirring up dust that carries fungi or microbes
vector-borne infection transmission of an infectious disease agent may happen when the vector feeds on a susceptible host
vector an animate, living insect or animal that is involved with the transmission of disease agents
sexually transmitted diseases examples HIV/AIDS, gonococcal infections, chlamydial genital infections
foodborne illness biologic agents of foodborne illness include bacteria, parasites, viruses, and prions ( linked to mad cow disease)
bacterial agents campylobacter, clostridium botulinum, salmonella
vector-borne disease examples bacterial: lyme disease (tick)arthropod-borne (arboviral) disease: eastern equine encephalitis ( mosquito)parasitic disease: malaria (mosquito)
vaccine-Preventable diseases (VPDs) conditions that can be prevented by vaccination ( immunization) eg. diptheria, tetanus, whooping cough, hep A and B
zoonotic disease diseases transmitted from vertebrae animals to human beings eg. rabies, antrhax, avian influenza, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, toxoplasmosis, tularemia ( rabbit fever)
Emerging Infectious Diseases (Emerging Infections) an infectious disease that has newly appeared in a population or that has been known for some time but is rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range eg. hepatitis, E.coli O157:H7
Bioterrorism-Related Diseases aka. bioterrorism attack, the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria, or other germs used to cause illness or death in people, animals, or plants eg.anthrax
epidemic curve a graphing plotting of the distribution of cases by time of onset. may reflect a common-source epidemic or a point-source epidemic
methods of outbreak investigation clinical observations, epidemic curve, incubation period, attack rate, case mapping, hypothesis formulation and confirmation, draw conclusion
Case mapping Some investigations may use computer software to show the location of cases.
Hypotheses Using the information that has been gathered, the epidemiologist may formulate a hypothesis regarding the causative agent.
Draw a conclusion Plan for the prevention of future outbreaks.
surveillance primary way to track diseases over time, allowing us to compare places, time periods, and assess presence of outbreaks; ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation of data regarding health-related event for use and to improve health
cancer research, health services access, environmental exposure, behavior, adverse events following receipt of drugs, vaccines etc surveillance can be used in
characteristics of a good surveillance system simplicity, flexibility, data quality, acceptability, sensitivity, predictive value positive, representativeness, timeliness, stability
biases encountered by surveillance system reporting bias, interviewer bias, ascertainment bias, volunteer bias, other selection biases, social desirability bias, misclassification, due to issues with case definition
Created by: yseo