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Functions of the skeletal system Support the body against gravity, storage of minerals and lipids, blood cell production, protection, and leverage
Axial Skeleton Those bones comprising the skull, thorax, and vertebral column
Appendicular Skeleton Those bones of the limbs and girdles [126 bones, mostly paired]
Limbs Arms and Legs; Appendages
Girdles The supporting elements that connect the limbs to the axial skeleton
Upper Appendicular Region Pectoral girdle and upper limbs
Lower Appendicular Region Pelvic girdle and the lower limbs
Surface Markings Features that represent association of the skeletal system with other systems (Tuberosity, Notch, Fossa, Epicondyles, and Foramen)
Tuberosity A roughened region of bone where tendons or ligaments attach (shaft of the bone)
Notch Areas on a bone where two or more bones articulate (move in relation to each other)
Fossa Depressions near articulations
Foramen Openings in the bones through which nerves and blood vessels pass
Bone Strength The interaction between collagen fibers and hydroxapatite crystals is what gives bone it’s high degree of strength, keeps it somewhat flexible and highly resistant to shattering
Compression A force that acts to compress or shorten the thing it is acting on
Tension A force that acts to expand or lengthen the thing it is acting on
Fracture A crack or break in the bone that occurs when bones are overstressed or stressed in their directions of weakness (types: open and closed)
Closed Fracture Simple fracture; fracture that is completely internal
Open Fracture Compound fracture; fracture that is projecting through the skin (more dangerous than closed)
Articulation Where two or more bones meet (joint)
Synarthrosis Articulation with no free movement
Amphiarthrosis Articulation with limited movement
Diarthrosis Articulation with free movement
Fibrous Joint Bones joined by fibrous connective tissue
Cartilaginous Joint Bones joined by cartilaginous connective tissue
Synovial Joint Bones joined by a fluid-filled cavity [most common joint type of the appendicular skeleton]
Bony Joint Two or more bones fused together (Fusion)
Decalcified Bone Slides Produced by removing the mineral matrix (hydroxyapatite, calcium carbonate, sodium, magnesium, fluoride) of the bone and leaving behind only the cells and organic matrix that makes up the bone
Decalcified Bone Most of the features of the bone should be visible except canaliculi (shows marrow, but ground bone does not)
Canaliculi Connect lacunae and lead to the central canal
Ground Bone Slides Inverse of decalcified bone slides – cells and organic matrix have been removed, leaving only the mineral matrix, which is then ground thin enough to allow light to pass through
Ground Bone Can more clearly identify some features of the bone, such as canalliculi (does not show marrow)
Tubercule Rounded projectins at the head of a bone
Fossa Depressions near articulations
Epicondyle Processes (bulges) near articulations
Pelvic Girdle Formed by two os coxae (the ilium, ischium, and pubis fused together)
Pubis Symphysis Place where two os coxae joined anteriorly by a fibrocartilage pad
Acetabulum Located laterally on each os coxae and articulates with the head of the femur
Female Pelvis Larger pelvic inlet and outlet (empty space within the pelvis), wider angle between the pubic bones, a less curved sacrum and coccyx (does not protrude as much into the pelvic outlet), and a generally broader and shallower pelvis (wider and shorter ilium)
Created by: Cyndi1087