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soc exam 1

sociology exam 1 chapters 1-4

Sociology the systematic study of human society
Sociological perspective the special point of view of sociology that sees general patterns of society in the lives of particular people
Global perspective the study of the larger world and our society’s place in it
Auguste Comte named sociology in 1838 to describe a new way of looking at society
Theory a statement of how and why specific facts are related
Theoretical approach a basic image of society that guides thinking and research
Structural-functional approach a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability
Social structure any relatively stable pattern of social behavior
Manifest functions the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern
Latent functions the unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern
Social dysfunction any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of society
Social-conflict approach a framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change
Macro-level orientation a broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole
Micro-level orientation a close-up focus on social interaction in specific situations
Symbolic-interaction approach a framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals
Science a logical system that bases knowledge on direct, systematic observation
Empirical evidence information we can verify with our senses
Variable a concept whose value changes from case to case
Measurement a procedure for determining the value of a variable in a specific case
Operationalize a variable specifying exactly what is to be measured before assigning a value to a variable
Reliability consistency in a measurement
Cause and effect a relationship in which change in one variable causes change in another
Independent variable the variable that causes the change
Dependent variable the variable that changes
Correlation a relationship in which two (or more) variables change together
Spurious correlation an apparent but false relationship between two (or more) variable that is caused by some other variable
Objectivity personal neutrality in conducting research
Research method a systematic plan for doing research
Experiment a research method for investigating cause and effect under highly controlled conditions
Hypothesis a statement of a possible relationship between two (or more) variables
Hawthorne effect a change in a subject’s behavior caused simply by the awareness of being studied
Survey a research method in which subjects respond to a series of statements or questions in a questionnaire or an interview
Population the people who are the focus of the research
Sample a part of a population that represents the whole
Participant observation a research method in which investigators systematically observe people while joining them in their routine activities
Culture the ways of thinking, the ways of acting, and the material objects that together form a people’s way of life
Symbol anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture
Language a system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another
Sapir-Whorf thesis the idea that people see and understand the world through the cultural lens of language
Values culturally defined standards that people use to decide what is desirable, good, and beautiful and that serve as broad guidelines for social living
Beliefs specific thoughts or ideas that people hold to be true
Norms rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members
Mores norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance
Folkways norms for routine or casual interactions
Subculture cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society’s population
Multiculturalism a perspective recognizing the cultural diversity of the United States and promoting equal standing for all cultural traditions
Eurocentrism the dominance of European (especially English) cultural patterns
Counterculture cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society
Ethnocentrism the practice of judging another culture by the standards of one’s own culture
Society people who interact in a defined territory and share a culture
Sociocultural evolution Lenski’s term for the changes that occur as a society gains new technology
Hunting and gathering making use of simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetation for food
Horticulture the use of hand tools to raise crops
Pastoralism the domestication of animals
Agriculture large-scale cultivation using plows harnessed to animals or more powerful energy sources
Industrialism the production of goods using advanced sources of energy to drive large machinery
Postindustrialism the production of information using computer technology
Social conflict the struggle between segments of society over valued resources
Capitalists people who own and operate factories and other businesses in pursuit of profits
Proletarians people who sell their labor for wages
Social institutions the major spheres of social life, or societal subsystems, organized to meet human needs
Class conflict conflict between entire classes over the distribution of a society’s wealth and power
Alienation the experience of isolation and misery resulting from powerlessness
Tradition values and beliefs passed from generation to generation
Rationality a way of thinking that emphasizes deliberate, matter-of-fact calculation of the most effient way to accomplish a particular task
Anomie Durkheim’s term for a condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals
Mechanical solidarity Durkheim’s term for social bonds, based on common sentiments and shared moral values, that are strong among members of preindustrial societies
Organic solidarity Durkheim’s term for social bonds based on specialization and interdependence, that are strong among members of industrial societies
Division of labor specialized economic activity
Materialist Approach claims that societies are defined by their economic systems: how humans produce material goods shapes their experiences
Karl Marx Materialist Approach/Social Conflict
Max Weber Idealist Approach/Symbolic Interaction
Emile Durkhiem Structural Functionalism
Idealist Approach emphasizes the pwer of ideas to shape society
Created by: kar527