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Bone and stuff

For musculoskeletal system Terms

periosteum: outermost layer of the bone, made up of fibrous tissue
compact bone: dense, hard layers of bone tissue that lie underneath the periosteum
cancellous (spongy) bone: contains small spaces like a sponge and is encased in the layers of compact bone
endosteum: membranous lining of the hollow cavity of the bone
diaphysis: shaft of the long bones
epiphysis: ends of the long bone
bone marrow: material found in the cavities of bones
red marrow: thick, blood-like material found in flat bones and the ends of long bones (location of blood cell formation)
yellow marrow: soft, fatty material found in the medullary cavity of long bones
Long bones: such as the femur, are every strong and have large surface areas for muscles to attach.
Short bones: such as the carpals in the hand, are grouped together to help provide movement.
Flat bones: such as the ribs, cover and protect soft body parts.
Sesamoid bones: such as the kneecap, are small and rounded; they are found near joints to increase the efficiency of the muscles near that joint.
Haversian canals: channels in compact bone that contain blood vessels
Medullary cavity: central shaft of long bones that contains yellow bone marrow that is made up of mostly fat cells
Fossa: shallow cavity in a bone
Foramen: opening in a bone for blood vessels and nerves
Fissure: deep, narrow slit in a bone
Sinus: hollow cavity in a bone
Maxilla: upper jaw bone
Mandible: Lower jaw bone
cervical vertebrae first set of 7 forming the neck
thoracic vertebrae second set of 12 vertebrae
lumbar vertebrae third set of 5 larger vertebrae, which forms the inward curve of spine
joint: holds bones together and makes movement possible
articular cartilage: smooth layer of gristle covering the contacting surface of joints
meniscus: crescent-shaped cartilage found in the knee
intervertebral disk: cartilagionous pad found between the vertebrae in the spine
pubic symphysis: cartilaginous joint at which two public bones fuse together
synovia: fluid secreted by the synovial membrane and found in joint cavities
bursa: fluid-filled sac that allows for easy movement of one part of a joint over another
ligament: flexible, tough band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches one bone to another at a joint
tendon: band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone
aponeurosis: strong sheet of tissue that acts as a tendon to attach muscles to bone.
skeletal muscles (striated): attached to bones by tendons and make body movement possible.
smooth muscles (unstriated): located in internal organs such as the walls of blood vessels and the digestive tract. involuntary they respond to impulses from the autonomic nerves
cardiac muscle: forms most of the wall of the heart. Its involuntary contraction produces the heartbeat.
Striated: made up of voluntary muscles that move all bones, Muscle fibers are arranged in bundles.
clavicle collarbone(2)
scapula shoulder blade(2)
sternum: breastbone
upper extremities humerus(2) phalanges (28) ulna (2) metacarpals (10) radius (2) carpals (16))
pelvic bones (3 pairs fused together) illium (2) ischium (2) pubis (2)
lower extremities: femur (2) tarsals(4) patella (2) metatarsals(10) tibia(2) phalanges(28) fibula(2)
Created by: swise1