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Fuel Homeostasis 3

Duke PA physiology

QuestionAnswer
What do glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis and ketone synthesis cause? increased plasma glucose, increased plasma ketones
What is the primary target of glucagon? liver
What is the glucagon receptor? G protein linked receptor
What induces hypoglycemia? long-lasting workout session (250 minutes)
What is the first fuel used in exercise? glycogen
What is the second fuel used in exercise? fat, the preferable fuel
What metabolism occurs when the body is burning fat? catabolic
What do insulin levels do in exercise, in catabolic metabolism? decrease
How do you get insulin in the muscle cells if insulin is low? muscle stretches, GLUT4 transporters go to the surface and allow for glucose entry into cells
How does exercise benefit diabetics? increased entry of glucose into cells during exercise - GLUT4 transporters move to cell membrane and allow for movement of glucose
What does cortisol cause? degradation of fat, muslce, etc. - extremely catabolic. Also causes the liver to produce glucose
Where does the cortisol drain? the medulla of the adrenal gland - sympathetic NS causes epi to be secreted in the adrenal
What does epi do to fat? causes breakdown of fat, sends fat to liver to be converted to glucose
What effect does the sympathetic NS have on insulin? inhibits - no insulin during stress
What does alpha cells do in the absense of insulin? alpha cell secretes glucagon
In stress, which three hormones are present in the plasma? glucagon, epi, cortisol
What do glucagon, epi and cortisol do during stress? mobilize glucose in the blood stream
How does synergy work during stress? each hormone increase blood glucose, but putting epi + glucagon + cortisol = a larger effect
Formula for synergy 1+1+1 = 5
What are types of stress? exercise, other activation of sympathetic NS, trauma, surgery, dehydration, lack of food
What part of the body uses ketones as a fuel source? brain
What hormone does starvation turn on? thyroid hormone
What effect does decrease thyroid hormone have on BMR? decreased
What effect does decreased metabolic rate have on body temperature? decreases
As fat depots shrink, what happens to leptin levels? decrease
What do decreased leptin levels cause? decreaesd TRH, decreasing blood TSH levels
What happens to T4 and T3 in starvation? decrease, switch to T4, rather than T3
What happens to appetite during starvation? increases at first, then decreases
What happens to melanocortin receptors in low leptin conditions? receptors inhibited, inhibition of feeding stops - so, you feed
How does high insulin effect feeding? Signals to the hypothalamus to stop feeding
What effect does low insulin have on feeding? turns on feeding
High leptin, high insulin turn off feeding
low leptin, low insulin turn on feeding
When sympathetic nervous system is on, what does this do to insulin? turns off insulin
Sympathetic NS - turns off insulin, causes feeding or no feeding? feeding - hungry b/c of stress!
Type 1 diabetes causes increased or decreased ketogenesis? increased
In severe hypoglycemia, CNS increases output to adrenal and pancrease, increasing blood levels of what? glucagon and epi
Hypothyroid, pituitary etiology has what effect on basal metabolism? Low TSH, low T4 - decreased basal metabolism
Created by: ges13 on 2009-09-23



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