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Communication Quiz 2

Chapters 3 & 4

Language The system of symbols (words) that we use to think about and communicate experiences and feelings.
Denotative Meaning the basic definition of a word (accepted definition)
Connotative Meaning the emotional or attitudinal response people have to it.
Cognitive Language specific system of symbols that you use to describe people, things, and situations in your mind. *Richard's idea of a good restaurant, and Norah's ideas of a good restaurant.
Grammar system of rules of a language that serves as a mechanism for the creation of words, phrases, and sentences (ABSOLUTELY IMPORTANT).
Communication Acquisition we learn how to use the language appropriately and effectively in the context of the situation.
Informing using language to give and receive information. *telling where it hurts. *Questioning *Describing *Reinforcing *Withholding
Feeling Emotions we express; love, respect, hostility, pride, etc.
Imagining MOST COMPLEX functional competency. *ability to think, play, and be creative in communication. *child imagining being a superhero
Ritualizing learning the rules for managing conversations and relationships. *saying "hi" or "bye"
Abstraction Ladder Higher Level: most general and vague. Lower Level: more specific and can help you understand more precisely what people mean. *High= "You're useless" Low= "I noticed you didn't take out the trash in the kitchen...Every Monday & Thursday evening..."
Evasion Highly-Abstract language --- avoid being specific. *teenage says: "I'm going out with friends"
Equivocation High-level abstraction -- using words that have unclear or misleading definitions. *it's ... colorful" (when you don't like it)
Euphemisms Highly-abstract -- offensive words or phrases that substitute for terms that might be perceived as upsetting. *using "passed away" instead of "died"
Slang informal, nonstandard language.
Jargon technical language that is specific to members of a certain profession/interest.
Semantics meaning that words have.
Pragmatics ability to use words appropriately.
Biased Language influence our perceptions about the subject. *calling woman a "girl", but saying "you go girl"
Politically Correct Language saying firefighter, police officer, chair-person instead of fireman, policeman, chairman.
Fact true and verifiable.
Opinions personal evaluations.
Inferences deductions or conclusions that we make about the facts we observe.
Speech Repertoires most effective/appropriate language to meet the demands of a given environment.
High Language more formal, polite; business!
Low Language often involving slang; watching a football game!
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis claim that the words a culture uses/doesn't use influence thinking.
Linguistic Determinism idea that language influences how we see the world around us.
Linguistic Relativity speakers of different language have different view of the world.
High-Context Cultures uses contextual clues; we have to "guess" *actions
Low-Context Cultures direct language.
Accommodation changing our communication behavior to adapt to the other person. *changing our tone, vocabulary, etc.
Code Switching & Style Switching communicators change their regular language and slang, as well as their vocabulary and tone to fit into a particular group.
Non-Verbal Communication intentionally or unintentionally signaling meaning through behavior other than words.
Channel Discrepancy one set of behaviors says one thing and another set says something different. *saying "My life is great. No problem here!" while being depressed.
Repeating offering a clear non-verbal cue that repeats the verbal message. *waving your finger while saying "no" to a toddler. *holding 3 fingers up while saying "three"
Complementing non-verbal behavior that matches the verbal message. *patting your friend on the back while saying "great job!"
Accenting clarifying or emphasizing specific information in a verbal message. *writing: "Wash the dishes TODAY!!"
Substituting replacing words. *traffic officer stretching out his palm to signal STOP!
Contradicting conveys the opposite meaning. *people looking for sympathy might answer that nothing is wrong when you ask.
Regulating coordinating verbal interactions. *answering the phone and saying "hello" then pausing for the other person to speak.
Immediacy feeling of closeness, involvement, and warmth between people. *how close to others you sit or stand and how often you look at them, smile, etc.
Deception attempt to convince others of something that is false. *telling your sick friend that he look great, although he is pale and lying on the couch.
Kinesics reading someones body language.
Kinesics -- Emblems substitute for verbal messages. *signaling "okay" with the fingers (okay sign) to imply that you're well.
Kinesics -- Illustrators *holding your hands apart to describe "how large the fish was"
Kinesics -- Regulators *raising your head and lifting your head up to indicate that you want to speak.
Kinesics -- Adaptors *rubbing your eyes to indicate that you're tired. *twisting your hair when you're nervous or bored.
Kinesics -- Affect displays *slumping in a chair may indicate fatigue or boredom. *a sad face may reflect a recent argument with someone.
Masking *smile while congratulating your friend in her engagement, although you detest the person she's marrying.
Oculesics using eyes to communicate. *making eye contact with the manager during an interview.
Paralanguage powerful non-verbal vocal messages. *degree of hoarseness, smoothness, or deepness of your voice. *angry, demanding voice = annoying
Vocalizations cues that give information about the speaker's emotional/physical state. *laughing, yawning, sighing, gasping, etc.
Artifacts accessories carried/used on the body for decoration or identification. *briefcases, tattoos, expensive Rolex watch, engagement ring, wedding ring, etc.
Proxemics the way we use and communicate with space. *feeling uncomfortable when someone talks to you extremely close all the time (you try to avoid the occurrence.
Territoriality claiming of an area (not literally) *favorite living room chair, seat in class, a parking space, usual table at a restaurant, etc.
Haptics touch as a form of communication. *hugging when we're happy. *caressing your spouse to show love. *holding someones hand in times of worry.
Chronemics people perceive the use of time and how they structure time in their relationships.
Time Orientation determines the importance that people ascribe to conversations. *cutting your mom off often shows that you're uninterested in what she has to say.
Contact Cultures depend on touch as an important part of communication. *Arabians kiss when they greet.
Non-Contact Cultures less touch-sensitive or even tend to avoid touch. *American only give each other handshakes when greeting.
Public-Private Dimension *touching/caressing your spouse's hand at your kitchen (home), but not at a town hall meeting.
Informal-Formal Dimension formal/informal behaviors. *arriving promptly at 2 for a wedding, and arriving sometime after 6 for a BBQ.
Non-Verbal Codes *raising your eyebrow and gasping to show a surprised or shocked look.
Created by: kserrano005