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Absolutism 1558-1689

England, Scotland, and Ireland

James I (1603-1625) -- supported absolute divine-right. wrote True Law of Free Monarchy and translated the bible into the KJV. "the wisest fool in Christendom" wanted a pure Anglican government
Charles I claimed divine right and the Theory of Absolutism. Parl made him sign the Petition of Rights.
Hobbes pro-absolutism; pro-"divine-right" monarchy. wrote The Leviathan
Locke rejected absolute governments. basic human rights that no government can take away: life, liberty, and property. the right of the citizen to rebel against a government that violated these basic human rights
Oliver Cromwell leader of roundheads, creates New Model Army and Puritan Army (very modern) he wins, then dissolves Parliament; declares himself "Lord Protector of England"
Restoration 1660 Parl asks Charles to be king
Glorious Revolution "Bloodless Revolution"
Puritan extreme Calvinist;
Presbyterian extreme Puritan, thought Cromwell was too nice to the Catholics
Anglican moderate Protestant
James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England, uniting Scotland and England under one crown
"The True Law of Free Monarchy" written by James I saying that a free monarchy is one without having to deal with parlamint
"tunnage and poundage" rights given to the king by Parl
Archbishop Laud suporter of Charles I, believed in divine right, intolerant of persperterians and puritins, wanted to get them out of the land, as did Charles I, sent to supress the prespetierians in Scotland
ship money tax coastal part of England taxed;
Long Parliament when confronted with more financial problems, Charles I called the Parl together again, and they passed laws and Earl of Strafford executed (walker guy in movie)
Solemn League and Covenant Presbyterian established religion in England, Scotland, and Ireland
Roundheads Puritan Army
Levellers want election for all males (and some females)- they were too radical
Diggers a group of people who continued to ocupy and culvinate the farmland
Fifth Monarchy Men group of people who felt end of world was at hand, 3 empiers of assyria, Persia, Alexander, and Caesar.
Charles II (1660-1685)Stuart Restoration he learned the lessons of his predecessors (Don't mess with Parliament!) religious toleration, but leaned toward the Catholics. Test Act (1673).
Dissenters puritins who refused to acsept the restored Church of England
Treaty of Dover secret treaty Charles II made with Louis XIV in his war against the Dutch, and Louis pay Chales for each year he helps, in hopes that he will rejoin the catholic church
Declaration of indulgence catholics and non-Anglicans are free to worship and hold office
Test Act 1673- no catholich could hole high office
Whigs people who support the Test Act (wanted Monmouth or Mary as monarch)
Tories against Test Act (wanted Duke of York or James for monarch)
William and Mary James II's daughter Mary and husband William of Orange III new monarchs. Protestant and won popular support of English. Passed Bill of Rights
Bill of Rights Monarch cannot be catholic; cannot have army peace unless approved by parl; Must have parl consent in order to tax; Excess bail and cruel and unusual punishment prohibited; trial by jury guarentteed; fair elections for parl
Act of Settlement of 1701 no catholic could be king
Toleration Act guarantee right of public worship for non-conformist but no political office
"divine right of kings" James I;
Guy Fawkes 1605; bomb plot- remember, remember the 5th of November
KJV Bible 1611; James I translation of the Bible
Petition of Rights 1628-1629: No one should pay taxes without consent of Parliament; No quartering of soilders; Martial law cannot be used during peacetime; All citizens have Habeas Corpus; No one can be imprisioned without due process of law;
Writ of Habeas Corpus must be told rights before arrest
National Covenant of Scotland- Laud we affirm our loyalty to the crown, but declare that the king could not reestablish the authority of the Church of England over the church of Scotland
Cavaliers (Royalist) the king, most lords, Catholics, High Churchmen, old gentry, Oxford, navy and ports, London, East and South England
The Rump Parliament 45 Presbyterian Parliament members arrested; 98 more expelled; 60 Puritans admitted
Long Parliament Laws Parl cannot be dissolved without its consent; No more than 3 years can pass between Parl meetings; Star Chamber, High commision and Ship money tax abolished
English Civil War 1642- 1646- "Puritan Revolution" or the "Great Rebellion"
James II (1685-1688) became unpopular because of his open Catholicism and return to absolute rule. James II
Elizabethan Age (1558-1603) Age when Elizabeth I ruled and England flourished; Shakespeare wrote plays during this era
High Commission "Anglican Inquisition" in belief, but not in practice
The Leviathan a book on the evils of mankind and how they need an absolute monarch to control them
Battle of Naseby battle that ended the English Civil War
Act of Uniformity all must externally show alliance to the Church of England, but tolerant of other religions
Puritan Laws no merriment, no theatre, no sporting events
Act of Union combines the crowns of England and Scotland
Created by: sng4fd