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Ch.8 - Terms

Terms & Defs

Nervous System Controls homeostasis.
1st Function of Nervous System: Help detect changes in the internal and external environment.
2nd Function of Nervous System Analyze the change.
3rd Function of Nervous System: Organize the information for immediate use or for future use.
4th Function of Nervous System: Cause a response to the change.
Anatomical Divisions Central Nervous System (CNS) & Peripheral Nervouse System (PNS)
Functional Divisions Sensory division & Motor division
Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain / spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Receptors:nerves / Effectors:muscles & glands.
Sensory Division Takes info about changes from the receptor and sends to the CNS.
Motor Division Takes info from CNS and sends to an effector.
Somatic Nervous System Takes info from our CNS and sends to our skeletal muscle (voluntary).
Autonomic Nervous System Takes N.I. from CNS and sends to cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands.
Neurons The functional unit of the nervous system.
Neurons Transmit neural impulses.
Myelin Sheath Made from lipids and proteins.
Sensory Neurons Carry N.I. from the body to the CNS (from receptors).
Interneurons Receive signals from sensory neurons; transmit them from place to place in CNS, activate motor neurons (Inside CNS).
Motor Neurons Transmit signals to effectors to produce an actions (muscles and glands).
Neuroglia Schwann Cells, Oligodendrocytes, Astrocytes, and Microglial Cells.
Neuroglia located in the PNS. Schwann Cells
Neuroglia located in the CNS. Oligodendrocytes, Astrocytes, and Microglial Cells.
Scwann Cells Makes the myelin sheath around axons in the PNS.
Neurilemma The outermost layer of the myelin sheath in the PNS; allows for regeneration of the axon is damaged.
Oligodendrocytes Makes the myelin sheath around axons in the CNS.
Schwann Cells Has Neurolemma.
Oligodendrocytes Does not have Neurolemma.
Astrocytes Skeletal support for brain and spinal cord.
Astrocytes Help stimulate neuron growth.
Astrocytes Regulates the exchange of oxygen and nutrients between blood and neurons; relays waste to blood from Neuron.
Microglial Cells Phagocytosis in the CNS - eats dead cells and debris.
Irritability Ability to form a N.I. when stimulated.
Conductivity Ability to transmit a N.I. to another cell.
Synapse A junction between an axon and another cell.
Two structures of a synapse. Synaptic Knob, synaptic cleft.
Excitatory Neurotransmitters Cause a N.I. in the next cell.
Inhibitory Neurotransmitters Prevents a N.I. in the next cell.
Cerebrum Largest part of the brain that performs higher brain functions.
Gyri Folds in the brain.
Sulci Grooves in between the folds.
Cerebral Hemisphere Left and right portions of the Cerebrum
Corpus Callosum Connects right and left cerebral hemispheres.
Longitudinal Fissure The space that separates the right and left cerebral hemisperes.
White Matter Located on the inside of the brain and helps transmit N.I.
Grey Matter Made of dendrites, cell bodies, and the ends of axons ; normally found on the surface of the brain but can sometimes be found deep inside white matter.
Grey Matter Also know as the cerebral cortex, the - - - - matter is where you have the ability to analyze and process info.
Structures of Diencephalon Thalamus / Hypothalamus
Thalamus Relay station between cerebrum and the rest of the brain.
Hypothalamus Controls autonomic nervous system ; maintains homeostasis.
3 Components of the brain stem Midbrain, Pons, and Medulla Oblongata.
Midbrain Visual and auditory reflexes.
Pons Connects lower and higher brain areas (relay). Small role in controlling rate and depth of breathing.
Medulla Oblongata Respiratory, cardiac, and vasomotor control center.
Reticular Formation Sends stimulation to cerebral cortex ; Arousal and wakefulness.
Medulla Oblongata Part of brain stem connected to spinal cord.
Damage to the Cerebellum: Loss of equilibrium, muscle coordination, and muscle tone.
2 divisions of ANS Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
Sympathetic Division This division of ANS prepares the body for physical action to meet emergencies.
Parasypathetic Division This division of ANS is dominant under normal, nonstressful conditions of everydaylife.
Created by: Jamiew0282