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CSET Science

CSET Multiple Subject Science notes

a chemical change occurs when... a burner on a propane stove is lighted to heat water
Periodic table layout 1)A higher atomic weight than the one on its lft. 2)Similar chemical properties to other elements in the same column; Elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number (i.e., the number of protons in the atomic nucleus). Rows are arranged w/similar
Which is more acidic and will have lowest pH? milk, household ammonia, distilled water, vinegar vinegar
difference between C 14 and C 12? (both have atomic number of six) C 14 has eight neutrons and C 12 has six neutrons
mass, charge, and location of a proton Mass = 1; charge = positive; location = nucleus
example of refraction of light waves light waves passing through raindrops produces a rainbow
Newtons 3rd law of motion: every action there is an equal and opposite reaction inflated balloon moving through the air when it is not tied and it is let go
Thermal energy vs temperature a cup of water at 50 degrees Celcius contains less thermal energy than a bathtub full of water at 10 degrees Celcius
Fresh cut white flowers are put in water with blue dye. 24 hours later, 2 tablespoons of salt are added. What will happen to the flowers after another 24 hours wilted and light blue
Left ventricle of the heart primarily responsible for pumping blood to most of the organs and tissues of the body
Role of carbon in the functioning of biological systems carbon combines with a large number of other elements to form a variety of useful compounds
Mutualism a biological interaction between two organisms, where each individual derives a fitness benefit
genetic material is halved when... a cell in the testes of a male sparrow divides and produces four sperm
roots grown down and shoots grow up, even if the seed is upside down due to... gravity
shape of the Milky Way galaxy is... a flat central disk with rotating spiral arms
barometers are used to compare what weather conditions air pressure
Summer thunderstorms in Calif are caused by a cold front moving through the area forcing warm air up, causing condensation of water and forming thunderheads
the inside, northern portion of Baja Calif would... experience the greatest daily difference between high tide and low tide
High salinity of saltwater lakes is caused by... water does not drain out of saltwater lakes and is removed mainly by evaporation leaving salt behind
Primary data source for research of the effects of logging on lakes and streams would be... topographical maps of the area showing logging roads and areas of clear cutting
position the location of an object
displacement how far an object has moved
speed the time-rate displacement
velocity speed with a specified direction
acceleration the rate of velocity change
energy the ability to do work
potential energy energy stored within a physical system
kinetic energy energy of motion
activation energy energy needed by a system to initiate a particular process
force either a push or pull on an object
work exerting a force on an object over a distance
energy sources heat, light, solar radiation, chemical, electrical, magnetic, and sound
conservation of energy energy never disappears, it just changes forms
temperature a measure of aggregate atomic or molecular activity within an object
thermometers measure temperature by... expansion of properties of the fluids (such as mercury or alcohol) because the fluid expands at a specific rate
ways to measure temperature thermometers, thermocouples, optical
conduction transfer of heat when two objects differing in temperature are placed in contact
radiation transfer of heat occurs in a vacuum where there is no possibility of conduction - such as the heat from an iron
convection transfer of heat when heating and circulation of a substance that changes its density when heated. (hot air over land near coastal areas)
light sources either mixtures of multiple wavelengths or a single wavelength
white light the entire spectrum of visible colors
vision light in the visible spectrum interacts with the rods and cones of the human eye, producing electrical signals which the brain interprets as color
photosynthesis process of chlorophyll-containing organisms (green plants, algae, some bacteria) capture energy in the form of light and convert it to chemical energy
photoemission light interacts with certain types of materials(usually alkali metals or combinations thereof)
tranverse waves the wave disturbance (amplitude) is perpendicular to the direction of the propagation
longitudinal waves the wave disturbance (amplitude) is parallel to the direction of the propagation
reflection/reflected waves wave incident bounces off the surface and is redirected
refraction/refracted waves wave penetrates the surface
cell the fundamental unit of all living organisms; composed mainly of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen
cytoplasm part of a cell that is enclosed within the plasma membrane
membrane separates the interior of a cell from the outside environment
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid; cannot leave the nucleus; tightly coiled as a chromosome
somatic nervous system allows voluntary control over the skeletal muscle
autonomic nervous systems controls involuntary movements such as cardiac and glandular functions
exteroceptors nerve receptors for pain, temperature, touch, and pressure
interoceptors internal environment receptors
proprioceptors movement, position, and tension receptors
circulatory system pumps blood;
lympthocytes and antibody molecules part of the immune system to defend against foreign proteins and infectious microorganisms
respiration expansion and contraction of the lungs; oxygen enters tiny capillaries combining with hemoglobin in red blood cells and is carried to tissues; carbon dioxide passes thru capillaries into the lungs
digestion food is chewed and mixed w/saliva, then moves thru the esophogus to the stomach; involuntary muscle movements called peristalsis continues moving the food thru
eukaryotic cells an organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within membranes. Almost all species of large organisms are eukaryotes, including animals, plants and fungi,
ecology the study of the relationship of plants and animals to their physical and biological environment
ecosystems 4 major parts: producers(green plants), consumers (herbivores and carnivores), decomposers (fungi and bacteria), nonliving or abiotic components(dead organic matter and nutrients in soil and water)
ecosystem inputs solar energy, water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, other elements and compounds
ecosystem outputs heat of respiration, water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrient losses
habitat place where particular animals or plants live
niche the functional role of a species in a community (a lion's niche is preying on the animals in his habitat)
population growth factors birth rate vs. death rate;competition, predation, and coevolution
predation consumption of one living organism, plant, or animal by another
coevolution joint evolution of two unrelated species that have a close ecological relationship; the evolution of one species depends in part on the evolution of the other
reproduction process whereby living plant or animal cells or organisms produce offspring
asexual animal propogation reproductive processes in which only one parent gives rise to offspring; offspring are identical to the parent
fission the parent organism splits into two or more daughter organisms
sexual animal propogation sperm uniting with ova for fertilization; by means of insemination/copulation or cross fertilization (such as sperm and ova deposited in water by fish)
evolution change in the genetic material of a population of organisms from one generation to the next
Darwin 1809-1892; evolution proceeds by the natural selection of well adapted individuals over a span of many generations
Gregor Mendel laws of heredity; pea plants; genetic discoveries
solar system the sun and the eight orbiting planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune)
asteroids generally carbonaceous or rocky-metallic
comets ices and water; dirty snowballs
earth's rotation 24 hour spinning
earth's revolving 365ish day turning around the sun
the sun medium sized star; one of billions of stars in the Milky Way galaxy
galaxies large collections of stars which are composed of not just stars but also hydrogen, dust particles, and other gases
stars large masses of hydrogen pulled together under the influence of gravity
minerals most common form of solid material in the earth's crust; the element must be found in nature and must neven have been part of any living organism; quartz, calcite, mica
rock igneous (granite); metamorphic (marble); sedimentary (limestone)
igneous rock fire rock; magma that hardens and solidifies
metamorphic rock rocks that changed from igneous or sedimentary rocks
sedimentary rock formed over thousands of years when little pieces of earth are broken down and worn away by wind and water
layers of the earth 1) atmosphere (gaseous); 2)hydrosphere (liquid); 3)lithosphere (largely solid); 4)mantle (largely solid); 5)core (largely solid)
plate tectonics movement of lithospheric plates
volcano mountain that shoots out magma which then hardens into lava; created when two tectonic plates collide, form a mtn. and blow their tops
weather due to heating from the sun
hydrologic cycle storage, evaporation, precipitation, and runoff
river large, flowing body of water that usually empties into a sea or ocean
estuary where a river meets an ocean or sea
ocean large body of salt water that surrounds a continent; cover more than 2/3 of the earth's surface
lake large body of water surrounded by land on all sides
tides alternating rise and fall in sea level; produced by the gravitional attraction of the moon and sun
hypotheses an educated guess that states there is some measurable relationship between two quantifiable variables
observation act of sensing some measurable phenomenon
organization relating parts to a coherent whole
experimental testing the effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable in a controlled environment
inference deducing a conclusion from a measurement or observation that is not explicit to either
prediction stating the outcome of an experiment in advance of doing it
evidence data or observations that are relevant factors in testing hypotheses
opinion an explanation of phenomena that may or may not be supported by evidence
theory systematically organized knowledge that explains scientific phenomena
law statement of observable behavior based on consistent experience (the law of gravity)
cell smallest amount of life that is capable of reproductions; plant and animal cells have membranes; reproduce in 5 stages
prokaryotes cells that are bacteria, including cyanobacteria
eukaryotes plant and animal cells
nucleus the cell's brain; contains genetic material
cytoplasm gel-like substance in the interior of the cell contains organelles
prophase mitosis begins as the cell begins to divide
metaphase chromosomes align around the equator of the cell
anaphase sister chromosomes are formed and move toward opposite ends of the cells
telophase mitosis ends as two new nuclei are formed
cytokinesis cell splits into 2 daughter cells in the final stage of reproduction
meisosis creates sperm cells and egg cells, each with half the # of chromosomes (haploid) found in the human cell
zygote when a sperm cell and an egg cell combine, creating a complete set of chromosomes
chlorophyll in a plant's chloroplasts captures energy from the sun; the solar energy combines the CO2 (carbon dioxide) from the atmosphere with H2O (water)to make glucose (sugar)
respiration energy created through cells
aerobic respiration the oxidation of food, which takes place in the presence
anaerobic respiration like fermentation which takes place without respiration
ingestion take in food
digestion break down food to usable forms
secretion create and release useful substances
excretion eliminate waste material
homeostasis maintain the cell's equilibrium
chromosome a rodlike structure in the cell nucleus
RNA ribonucleic acid; the messenger that carries the genetic code thru out the cell
vertebrate animals with backbone
invertebrate animals without backbone
bacilli rod-shaped bacteria
cocci circular or spherical bacteria
spirilla coiled bacteria
angiosperms largest groups of plants; have flowers and true leaves
gymnosperms plants that have no flowers and have needles for leaves
flower reproductive unit of most plants
arthropods include insects (ants, beetles, butterflies), arachnids (spiders), and crustaceans (crabs, lobsters)
insects cold blooded; mature insects have 3 body parts-head, thorax, abdomen; make up 25% of all animals on earth;
metamorphosis distinct changes of individual development from an egg to an adult; stages- 1)egg, 2) larva emerges from egg 3)pupa (cocoon) 4) adult (emerges from cocoon0
23 pairs of chromosomes # of chromosome pairs humans have; females have 23 similar pairs including a pair of X chromosomes; males have 22 similar pairs plus and X and Y chromosome
bones consist of living marrow, blood vessels, and nerves surrounded by a hard calcium exterior
thorax the ribs and the sternum
pelvis hip bones and the sacrum
patella kneecap
tibia shinbone
tarsal seven anklebones
metatarsals the sole and instep of the foot
clavicle the shoulder bone
scapula shoulder blade
humerus upper arm bone
radius and ulna the two bones that form the forearm
carpal the eight wrist bones
metacarpal the five bones that form the palm
joint where two or more bones meet; held together by ligaments;
cartilage substance between the bones that absorbs the shock of the bones moving against one another
cranium skull atop the body that contains the brain
spinal column vertebra; partitioned into cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, and coccyx sections
central nervous system the brain and the spinal cord
cerebrum 3/4 of the brain's mass; partitioned into left and right hemispheres; temporal lobe controls hearing and smell, occipital lobe controls sight
cerebral cortex surrounds the cerebrum
cerebellum controls muscle activity and is located below the cerebrum
respiratory system introduces oxygen into the body from the air
pharynx the throat
trachea the windpipe
atrium upper portion of the heart
ventricle lower portion of the heart
heart contracts oxygen poor blood goes from right ventricle thru lungs to left atrium; oxygen rich blood goes from left ventricle thru lungs to right atrium
heart relaxes oxygen-rich blood enters left atrium from lungs; oxygen poor blood enters right atrium from the body
arteries strong tubes that carry blood away from the heart
capillaries tiny blood vessels that carry oxygen to individual cells
plasma transports red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
red blood cells carry oxygen
white blood cells part of the immune system
platelets aid in clotting
3 types of muscles skeletal muscles; smooth muscles; cardiac muscles
skeletal muscles control voluntary acts such as chewing, jumping, and turning the head
smooth muscles control involuntary activities and are found in blood vessels and the urinary tract
cardiac muscles found only in the heart
pituitary gland near the brain; controls other endocrine glands, sex glands, milk production, and pigmentation
adrenal glands near the kidney; affect heart rate, blood pressure, blood vessels, and blood sugar
thyroid in the neck; regulates mental and physical alertness
antigens disease causing agents
lymphocytes control the immune system and kill antigens directly
granulocytes numerous; ingest antigens already killed by cell enzymes
monocytes small numbers; ingest and kill antigens, alter antigens in a way that makes it easier for lymphocytes to destroy them
immunoglobins antibodies; combine with antigens to disable them
cytokines complement proteins and aid the immune response
ecology the relationship between organisms and their ecosystem
aquatic biomes ocean, shallow water, tidal marshes
land biomes forest, grassland, and desert
water cycle evaporation, condensation, and precipitation
evaporation when heat from the sun changes ocean water and other sources into water vapor
condensation when water vapor turns into water droplets which form clouds
precipitation when the droplets become too heavy and water falls as rain, snow, sleet, or hail
astronomy study of space and the relationship of objects in space
sun a turbulent mass of incredibly hot gases exploding with repeated nuclear fusion reactions; about 1,000,000 earths could fit inside it; surface temp 10,000 degrees Fah.
earth third planet from the sun; about 91-95,000,000 miles from sun; 7,900 miles in diameter; tilted at about 23 degrees
lunar eclipse when the moon is in the earth's shadow
solar eclipse when the sun is 'hidden' behind the moon
cosmology the study of the universe
andromeda galaxy over 2 million light years from earth
meteorology the study of the earth's atmosphere
high pressure systems usually associated with good weather
low pressure systems usually associated with bad weather
humidity the percent of water vapor in the air
dew point the temp below which the air will become so humid that it is saturated with water
fog a cloud that touches the ground
stratus clouds low hanging clouds; rain or snow may fall from nimbostratus clouds ; a few thousand feet above ground
cumulus clouds puffy, cotton like; strong convective, upward wind currents; about 1 mile above ground
cirrus clouds high wispy clouds made up of ice crystals; frequently 3-5 miles above ground
lightning an instantaneous, high energy electrical discharge in the atmosphere; occurs when positive and negative charges are separated in the atmosphere; can be from cloud to cloud or cloud to ground
warm front the air behind the front is warmer than the air in front
cold front the air behind the front is colder than the are in front
oceanography study of the worlds oceans and ocean beds; encompasses about 71% of earth's surface
seawater 3.5% salt; the sea provides about 25% of the protein needed in the world
geology the study of the earth, its development and origin
earth's five parts atmosphere, crust, mantle, outer core, and inner core
atmosphere the gaseous region surrounding the earth; 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen, remaining 1%=carbon dioxide, argon, water vapor, and other gases; extends out 650 miles
ozone layer about 20 miles into the atmosphere; protects from ultraviolet rays
hydrosphere layer of water that covers about 3/4 of earth's surface; salt water makes up about 95% of earths water; ocean depth's average 12,400 feet
lithosphere the rigid crust (20 miles thick) and upper mantle (40 miles thick); tectonic plates drift on asthenosphere which separate the lithosphere from the mantle
rigid mantle reaches a depth of 1800 miles
outer core about 1400 miles thick; made of dense rigid materials
inner core radius of 800 miles; very dense and hot w/temps over 10,000 degrees Fah.
chemistry the composition, properties, and interactions of matter
atoms so small they cannot be seen even with microscopes; contain 3 subatomic particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons
nucleus contains positively charged protons and neutrons with a neutral charge; negatively charged electrons revolve around the nucleus
periodic table elements, either natural or artificially produced, that cannot be broken by chemical means into other elements; atoms are the smallest piece of an element
periodic table breakdown each cell shows the atomic symbol and the atomic number of an element; the atomic number shows how many protons are in the nucleus; generally elements have the same # of protons and electrons
atomic mass shows the total number of protons and neutrons
amu atomic mass unit
matter anything that has mass and takes up space; can be solid, liquid, or gas; can change from one form to another; made up of atoms; is conserved - cannot be created or destroyed but can be converted into energy
compound formed when two or more elements unite chemically;
molecule the smallest part of a compound with the properties of that compound
three types of chemical compounds acids, bases, and salt; acids dissolved in water produce hydrogen; bases dissolved in water produce hydroxide; acids and bases combined form salt
a solution formed when elements or compounds are dissolved in another substance (lemon juice + sugar dissolved in water is a solution of lemonade)
chemical reaction when one or more new substances are formed (cement mixed with water creates concrete)
physics seeks to describe nature thru a number of general statements or laws; these laws are often stated in mathematical form
mass the amount of matter in a body; a measure of the body's inertia(resistance to change of motion)
weight the measure of the force of gravity on a body
density how compact the matter is
force energy that causes a change in an objects motion or shape
velocity magnitude (ex: miles per hour) and direction (ex: from 220 degrees)
newtons 1st law of motion (inertia) a body maintains its state of rest or uniform motion unless acted upon by an outside force
newtons 2nd law of motion (constant acceleration) as force is applied to an object, the object accelerates in the direction of the force
newtons 3rd law of motion (conservation of momentum) for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction (if two objects bump into each other, they are both pushed away)
wave frequency the vibrations per second
wavelength the distance between crests
light produced by heated electrons vibrating at high frequencies; travels in straight lines; spreads out as it travels; black surfaces absorb light, white surfaces scatter light
sounds are waves; must travel thru a medium(gas, solid, or liquid) for the human ear to hear it; travels thru air @ 1,110 ft/second, thru water @ 5,000 ft/second, thru stone @ 20,000 ft/second
protons positive charge
neutrons neutral charge
electrons negative charge
electricity like charges repel (ex: 2 positive charges repel); unlike charges attract (ex: positive and negative attract);
volt measures the force of the current
ampere (amp) measures the rate of current flow
ohm tells the resistance in the wire to the flow of electricity
Created by: nuttyandplain