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# Grade 8 Chapter 1

### Foundations for Algebra

Question | Answer |
---|---|

absolute value | the distance from o on a number line |

additive inverse | The opposite of a number.ex 4 and -4. The sum of the numbers equal zero. |

algebraic expression | An expression that contains at least one variable. |

axes | Two perpendicular number lines that intersect. |

base | The number in a power that is used as a factor. |

coefficient | A number that multiplied by a variable. Generally the coefficient is in front of the variable in an equation or expression. |

constant | A value that does not change. |

coordinate plane | A plane that is divided into four regions by a horizontal line called the x-axis and a vertical line called the y-axis. |

evaluate | To find the value of an algebraic expression by substituting a number for each variable and simplifying by using the order of operations. |

exponent | The number that indicates how many times the base in a power is used as a factor. |

input | A value that is substituted for the independent variable in a relation or function. |

integers | A member of the set of whole numbers and their opposites. |

irrational numbers | A real number that cannot be expressed as the ratio of two integers. |

like terms | Terms with the same variables raised to the same exponents. |

multiplicative inverse | The reciprocal of the number. |

natural numbers | A counting number. |

numerical expressions | an expression that contains only numbers and operations. |

opposites | A number that is the same distance from zero on a number line. The sum of opposites is Zero. |

order of operations | A process for evaluating expressions: PEMAS |

ordered pair | A pair of numbers (x,y) that can be used to locate a point on a coordinate plane. The first number x indicates the distance to the left or right of the origin, and the second number y indicates the distance above or below the origin. |

origin | The intersection of the x- and y-axes in a coordinate plane. The coordinates of the origin are (0,0) |

output | The result of substituting a value for a variable in a function. |

perfect square | A number whose positive square root is a whole number. |

power | An expression written with a base and an exponent or the value of such an expression. |

quadrant | One of the four regions into which the x- and the y- axes divide the coordinate plane. |

rational numbers | A number that can be written in the form a/b, where a and b are integers and b is not equal to zero. |

real numbers | A rational or irrational number. Every point on the number line represents a real number. |

reciprocal | For a real number a is not equal to zero. The reciprocal of a and 1/a. The product of reciprocals is one. |

repeating decimal | A rational number in decimal form that has a block of one or more digits that repeat continuously. |

square root | A number that is multiplied to itself to form a product is called a square root of that product. |

term | The parts of the expression that are added or subtracted. |

terminating decimal | A rational number in decimal form that has a finite number of digits after the decimal point. |

variable | A symbol used to represent a quantity that can change. |

whole numbers | The set of natural numbers and zero. |

x-axis | The horizontal axis in a coordinate plane. |

x-coordinate | The first number in an ordered pair, which indicates the horizontal distance of a point from the origin on the coordinate plane. |

y-axis | The vertical axis in a coordinate plane. |

y-coordinate | The second number in an ordered pair, which indicates the vertical distance of a point from the origin on the coordinate plane. |

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