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APHY101 Chapter 16

QuestionAnswer
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/2808225_dynB.jpg Hormonal Humoral >>Neural
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/2808225_dynC.jpg >>Hormonal Humoral Neural
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/2808226_dynA.jpg Hypophyseal portal veins Primary capillary plexus Secondary capillary plexus Secretory cells of the adenohypophysis >>Neurons in the ventral hypothalamus
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/2808226_dynB.jpg Hypophyseal portal veins >>Primary capillary plexus Secondary capillary plexus Secretory cells of the adenohypophysis Neurons in the ventral hypothalamus
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/2808226_dynC.jpg >>Hypophyseal portal veins Primary capillary plexus Secondary capillary plexus Secretory cells of the adenohypophysis Neurons in the ventral hypothalamus
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/2808226_dynD.jpg Hypophyseal portal veins Primary capillary plexus >>Secondary capillary plexus Secretory cells of the adenohypophysis Neurons in the ventral hypothalamus
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/2808226_dynE.jpg Hypophyseal portal veins Primary capillary plexus Secondary capillary plexus >>Secretory cells of the adenohypophysis Neurons in the ventral hypothalamus
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/2808227_dynA.jpg Iodine is attached to tyrosine in colloid >>Thyroglobulin synthesized/discharged into follicle lumen Iodinated tyrosines are linked to form T3 & T4 Enzymes cleave T3 & T4 from colloid/hormones diffuse into blood Thyroglobulin colloid is combined with lysosome
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/2808227_dynB.jpg Iodine is attached to tyrosine in colloid Thyroglobulin synthesized/discharged into follicle lumen Iodinated tyrosines are linked to form T3 & T4 Thyroglobulin colloid is combined with lysosome >>Iodide is actively transported in
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/2808227_dynC.jpg >>Iodine is attached to tyrosine in colloid Thyroglobulin synthesized/discharged into follicle lumen Thyroglobulin colloid is combined with lysosome Enzymes cleave T3 & T4 from colloid/hormones diffuse into blood Iodide is actively transported in
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/2808227_dynD.jpg Iodine is attached to tyrosine in colloid Thyroglobulin colloid is combined with lysosome >>Iodinated tyrosines are linked to form T3 & T4 Enzymes cleave T3 & T4 from colloid/hormones diffuse into blood Iodide is actively transported in
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/2808227_dynE.jpg >>Thyroglobulin colloid is combined with lysosome Thyroglobulin synthesized/discharged into follicle lumen Iodinated tyrosines are linked to form T3 & T4 Enzymes cleave T3 & T4 from colloid/hormones diffuse into blood Iodide is actively transported in
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/2808227_dynF.jpg Iodine is attached to tyrosine in colloid Thyroglobulin synthesized/discharged into follicle lumen Iodinated tyrosines are linked to form T3 & T4 >>Enzymes cleave T3 & T4 from colloid/hormones diffuse into blood Iodide is actively transported in
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/2808228_dynA.jpg Cortex Zona reticularis Adrenal medulla cells Zona glomerulosa >>Medulla
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/2808228_dynB.jpg >>Cortex Zona reticularis Adrenal medulla cells Zona glomerulosa Zona fasciculata
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/2808228_dynC.jpg Cortex Zona reticularis Zona fasciculata >>Zona glomerulosa Medulla
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/2808228_dynD.jpg >>Zona fasciculata Zona reticularis Adrenal medulla cells Zona glomerulosa Medulla
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/2808228_dynE.jpg Cortex >>Zona reticularis Zona fasciculata Zona glomerulosa Medulla
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/2808228_dynF.jpg Zona fasciculata Zona reticularis >>Adrenal medulla cells Zona glomerulosa Medulla
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/2808229_dynA.jpg Blood glucose levels rise >>Rising blood sugar Insulin Declining blood glucose level Glucagon
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/2808229_dynB.jpg Blood glucose levels rise Rising blood sugar >>Insulin Glucagon Blood glucose levels fall to normal range
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/2808229_dynC.jpg Blood glucose levels rise Glucagon Insulin Declining blood glucose level >>Blood glucose levels fall to normal range
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/2808229_dynD.jpg Glucagon Rising blood sugar Insulin >>Declining blood glucose level Blood glucose levels fall to normal range
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/2808229_dynE.jpg Blood glucose levels rise Rising blood sugar >>Glucagon Declining blood glucose level Blood glucose levels fall to normal range
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/2808229_dynF.jpg >>Blood glucose levels rise Rising blood sugar Insulin Declining blood glucose level Blood glucose levels fall to normal range
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/Fig161A.jpg >>Produces hormones and is considered a neuroendocrine organ. Storehouse for the hormones produced by the hypothalamus of the brain. Produce steroid hormones and glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Produces the hormones that promote the development of the female secondary sexual characteristics at puberty. Produces the hormones that direct the production of the secondary male sex characteristics.
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/Fig161B.jpg >>Storehouse for the hormones produced by the hypothalamus of the brain. Produces hormones and is considered a neuroendocrine organ. Produce steroid hormones and glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Produces the hormones that promote the development of the female secondary sexual characteristics at puberty. Produces the hormones that direct the production of the secondary male sex characteristics.
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/Fig161C.jpg >>Produce steroid hormones and glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Produces hormones and is considered a neuroendocrine organ. Storehouse for the hormones produced by the hypothalamus of the brain. Produces the hormones that promote the development of the female secondary sexual characteristics at puberty. Produces the hormones that direct the production of the secondary male sex characteristics.
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/Fig161D.jpg >>Produces the hormones that promote the development of the female secondary sexual characteristics at puberty. Produces hormones and is considered a neuroendocrine organ. Storehouse for the hormones produced by the hypothalamus of the brain. Produce steroid hormones and glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Produces the hormones that direct the production of the secondary male sex characteristics.
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/Fig161E.jpg >>Produces the hormones that direct the production of the secondary male sex characteristics. Produces hormones and is considered a neuroendocrine organ. Storehouse for the hormones produced by the hypothalamus of the brain. Produce steroid hormones and glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Produces the hormones that promote the development of the female secondary sexual characteristics at puberty.
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/Fig162A.jpg >>Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). Prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH). Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH).
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/Fig162B.jpg >>Prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH). Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH).
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/Fig162C.jpg >>Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). Prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH). Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH).
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/Fig162D.jpg >>Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). Prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH). Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH).
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/Fig162E.jpg >>Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). Prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH). Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH).
Which of the following is a steroid hormone? >>Testosterone Epinephrine TSH ACTH PTH
Which of the following is NOT a major endocrine organ, but produces hormones in addition to its major function? Pituitary Pancreas >>Kidneys Thymus
Acromegaly is a condition resulting from the over-secretion of thyroid hormones. thymus gland hormones. parathyroid hormones. >>the growth hormone. adrenal cortex hormones.
Hormonal action is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT selectivity for specific protein receptors. cooperative effect with other hormones. >>degrading and removal of other hormones. antagonistic effects between some hormones. mechanism of up-regulating or down-regulating.
Steroid hormones influence cellular activities by changing the permeability of the cell membrane. activating cyclic AMP located outside the cell. activating cyclic AMP located inside the cell. >>binding to DNA and forming a gene-hormone complex. using calcium ions as a second-messenger.
Sympathetic nerve stimuli are responsible for the release of aldosterone. >>epinephrine. thyroid hormone. estrogen. insulin.
The action of hormones on living cells does NOT include control of the secretory functions of the cell. activation or deactivation of enzymes. >>alteration of the structure of the plasma membrane. changing the permeability of the plasma membrane. regulation of mitotic activity of the cell.
The adrenal gland produces the following hormones EXCEPT cortisone. epinephrine. aldosterone. >>renin. androgens.
The chemical classification of hormones does NOT include amino acid-based hormones. >>glucose-containing hormones. cholesterol containing hormones. steroid hormones. protein-based hormones.
The growth-promoting functions of GH do NOT include >>increasing the rate of glucose uptake. increasing the cellular uptake of amino acids. increasing the uptake of sulfur into the cartilage matrix. increasing the blood levels of fatty acids.
The hypothalamus DIRECTLY controls the secretions of the mammary gland. adrenal gland. gonads. thyroid gland. >>pituitary gland.
The metabolic rate of most body tissues is controlled directly by >>TH. TSH. ACTH FSH. ADH.
The secretion of parathyroid hormone is a good example of neural stimuli. >>humoral stimuli. hypothalamic stimuli. pituitary gland stimuli. hormonal stimuli.
The stimulus for producing insulin is low glycogen concentration. >>high blood glucose concentration. low blood fatty acid concentration. low blood glucose concentration. low blood amino acid concentration.
The transcription of new messenger RNA is a function of catecholamines. amino acid-based hormones. pancreatic hormones. >>steroid hormones. pituitary gland hormones.
What is the life span of most hormones? >>0 - 30 minutes 12 - 24 hours One week 1 - 5 hours One month
Which hormone is NOT secreted by the anterior pituitary gland? GH ACTH FSH TSH >>ADH
Which of the following elements is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormone? >>Iodine Iron Sulfur Copper Zinc
Which of the following organs do NOT have a known endocrine function? Stomach Heart Kidneys Thyroid >>Spleen
The general function of parathyroid hormones is regulation of blood levels of glucose. synthesis of Vitamin D. regulating blood pressure. regulation of menstrual cycle. >>regulation of blood levels of calcium.
The hypophyseal portal system transports releasing and inhibiting hormones from the hypothalamus to the ovaries. parathyroid glands. adrenal glands. thyroid gland. >>anterior pituitary gland. (adenohypophysis)
Which of the following hormones is produced by the posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) and causes uterine contractions during childbirth? Growth hormone >>Oxytocin Insulin Epinephrine Thyroid hormone
Adrenal hormones that help control the balance of minerals and water in the blood are mineralocorticoids produced by the adrenal medulla. norepinephrine . glucocorticoids produced by the adrenal cortex. >>mineralocorticoids produced by the adrenal cortex. Epinephrine
A hormone produced by the pancreas that decreases blood sugar levels is thyroid hormone. calcitonin. aldosterone. glucagon. >>insulin.
Which of the following signals would affect local cells by releasing chemicals into the extracellular fluid? Neural Endocrine Autocrine >>Paracrine
Which of the following is the property in which a hormone can NOT exhibit its full effect without another hormone? Synergism Assertiveness Antagonism >>Permissiveness
Which of the following is NOT a true hormone, but rather a trophic substance? Aldosterone Calcitonin Thyroid hormone >>TSH Glucagon
Which of the following organs is considered a neuroendocrine organ? the adrenal gland >>the hypothalamus the pituitary the pancreas
Eicosanoids are not true hormones because they >>they act locally, not on distal organs like true hormones. mediate inflammatory reactions. are lipid in nature. don't have target organs.
All of the following apply to water soluble hormones except that they are coupled with one or more intracellular messengers. they act on receptors in the plasma membrane. >>they can turn genes on. they work through G proteins.
Which of the following hormones could enter the cell? >>thyroxine leptin the growth hormone insulin
How do protein kinases affect enzymes? They increase the secretion of an enzyme. >>They add a phosphate group (phosphorylation) to the enzyme. They increase the release of an enzyme. They break down the enzyme.
The " hormone response element" is located on the cell membrane. RNA. enzymes. >>DNA.
The binding of a hormone to its "hormone response element" would lead to the direct activation of enzymes in the cell. formation of cAMP. direct activation of second messenger agents in the cell. >>transcription of the DNA for the gene that is "turned on" by this event.
Water-soluble hormones exhibit the shortest molecule. activation time. >>half-life. chain of amino acids.
The normal endocrine controls can be directly over-ridden by the _________ system. circulatory >>nervous digestive reproductive
POMC is a prohormone for insulin. growth hormone. >>ACTH. thyroxin.
Insulin-like growth factors stimulate the uptake of calcium. iron. >>sulfur. potassium.
Excess growth hormone would cause all the following except >>suppression of cancer. acromegally in adults. diabetes. giantism in children.
Hypersecretion of ADH can occur in all of the following situations except >>damage to the pineal gland. after general anesthesia. ectopic ADH secretion by pulmonary cancer. following neurosurgery.
Which of the following organs is not affected by thyroxin? kidney liver ovaries >>spleen
Iodination of thyroid hormones is mediated by lysosomes in the cell. the Golgi apparatus. >>peroxidase enzymes. colloid endocytosis.
A congenital condition that includes mental retardation, short disproportional body size and a thick tongue and neck is due to deficiency of thymosin. >>deficiency of thyroxin. excess of synthetic growth hormone. insulin deficiency.
Osteitis fibrosa cystica is due to >>an increase in the parathyroid hormone. an increase in calcitonin. an increase in ADH. an increase in the growth hormone in an adult.
Insulin enhances the membrane transport of glucose in all of the following except the >>brain. myocardium. adipose. skeletal muscle.
Which of the following hormones would suppress insulin release? thyroxine >>somatostatin epinephrine growth hormone
All of the following statements about melatonin are true except: It is derived from serotonin. >>Its level in the blood peaks during the day. It is secreted in a diurnal cycle. It is a powerful antioxidant.
Resistin, an insulin antagonist, is a hormone produced by the >>adipose tissue. heart. liver. hypothalamus.
Which of the following hormones is not a peptide? gastrin leptin >>cholecalciferol renin
Which of the following hormones does the skin produce? erythropoietin renin >>cholecalciferol melatonin
Somatostatin is considered paracrine because it acts on >>acts locally on cells other than those that secrete it. the cells that secrete it. the hypothalamus to inhibit or activate the secretion of other hormones. distant target organs.
Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of aldosterone insulin secretin >>cortisol
Normal development of the immune response is due in part to hormones produced by the adrenal medulla pancreas thyroid gland >>thymus gland
Virtually all of the protein or amino acid-based hormones exert their effects through intracellular ions deactivators nucleotides >>second messengers
Which of the following is not a category of endocrine gland stimulus? >>enzyme humoral neural hormonal
Chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body are called enzymes antibodies proteins >>hormones
The hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract connects the hypophysis to the pituitary gland >>is partly contained within the infundibulum conducts aldosterone to the hypophysis is the site of prolactin synthesis
Tropic hormones >>include ACTH and TSH do not regulate the function of other endocrine glands exert their effects on cells by direct gene activation include GH and PRL
Growth hormone is also called somatostatin is regulated by humoral mechanisms secretion results in a decrease in muscle mass >>promotes long bone growth during the formative years
Oxytocin >>release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism is an adenohypophyseal secretion exerts its most important effects during menstruation controls milk production
ADH increases urine production promotes dehydration is produced in the adenohypophysis >>is inhibited by alcohol
Thyroid hormone exerts its influence by >>entering some cells and binding to intracellular receptors within the nuclei exerting only a minor effect on body metabolism causing a reduction in the number of blood vessel adrenergic receptors, and therefore decreasing blood pressure acting to decrease basal metabolic rate
Gonadocorticoid(s) synthesized by the adrenal medulla are primarily androgens >>production by the adrenal gland is insignificant compared with sex hormone release from the gonads during late puberty secretion inhibition is highly dependent on a negative feedback loop involving ACTH hypersecretion can result in adrenogenital syndrome, also called feminization
Sometimes prolonged excessive exposure to high hormone concentrations causes a phenomenon known as diabetes mellitus cellular inhibition >>down-regulation metabolism of protein kinases
Which of the following is not a change that may be caused by hormonal stimulus? a change in membrane potential the stimulation of a genetic event resulting in protein synthesis an increase in enzymatic activity >>direct control of the nervous system
The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on the location of the tissue or organ with respect to the circulatory path the membrane potential of the cells of the target organ >>the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ nothing–all hormones of the human body are able to stimulate any and all cell types because hormones are powerful and nonspecific
Several hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus and transported to the anterior pituitary gland. The mechanism of transportation from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary gland is through the hepatic portal system general circulatory system >>hypophyseal portal system feedback loop
The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because it is strictly a part of the neural system and has little or nothing to do with hormonal release embryonically it was an endocrine tissue, but in the adult human it is no longer functional it is unable to function as an endocrine tissue because it is actually part of the neural system due to its location >>it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release
Insulin, a small (51-amino-acid) protein, is synthesized by the beta cells of the pancreas. This hormone is released in excessive amounts in obese people in response to severe physical stress (i.e., a ten -mile run) >>when the body's glucose level rises when the body's glucose level drops
Steroid hormones exert their action by >>entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene finding an appropriate cell receptor and initiating cAMP activity stimulating the synthesis of a glycogen increasing blood pressure
The second-messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by synthesizing more of the hormone than is actually needed increasing the basal metabolic rate in the target organ not responding to a feedback mechanism >>binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP
Hormones often cause a cell to elicit multiple responses; this is because there are thousands of receptors on the cell membrane the receptors bind to several hormones at the same time the protein kinases are rapidly metabolized >>during protein kinase activation, enzymes phosphorylate many other enzymes
Cells that respond to peptide hormones usually do so through a sequence of biochemical reactions involving receptor and kinase activation. In order for cells to respond, it is necessary for first and second messengers to communicate. This is possible beca peptide hormones always enter the cell membrane and elicit a response without assistance from other messengers hormones alter cellular operations through stimulation of a gene directly >>G protein acts as the link between first and second messengers the hormone receptor complex moves into the cytoplasm as a unit
Thyroid hormone (a small iodinated amine) enters target cells in a manner similar to insulin, because insulin is a small peptide >>steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily into target cells growth hormone, because the thyroid works synergistically with thyroid hormone glucagon, because the structure of glucagon is similar to that of thyroid hormone
When it becomes necessary to enlist the fight -or-flight response, a hormone that is released during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome is estrogen >>epinephrine angiotensinogen renin
One of the least complicated of the endocrine control systems directly responds to changing blood levels of ions and nutrients. Which of the following describes this mechanism? the rapid oxidation of carbohydrates catabolic inhibition protein synthesis >>humoral stimulation
The major targets of growth hormone are the blood vessels the adrenal glands the liver >>bones and skeletal muscles
The parathyroid glands maintain adequate levels of blood calcium. This is accomplished through blocking the action of growth hormone >>targeting the bone and activating osteoclasts so that calcium will be released antagonizing the synthesis of calcitonin slowing the activity of tissues that require calcium for activity
Which organ is responsible for synthesizing ANP? >>the heart the kidney the skin the spleen
Mineralocorticoid is to aldosterone as glucocorticoid is to testosterone estrogen >>cortisol epinephrine
Leptin is secreted by lymphocytes >>adipocytes goblet cells fibroblasts
The most important regulator of electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is insulin >>aldosterone glucagon cortisol
Which of the following is not a steroid-based hormone? estrogen aldosterone >>epinephrine cortisone
Which of the following does not act as a second messenger in second-messenger systems of hormone action? cyclic AMP >>calmodulin cyclic GMP inositol triphosphate
Select the correct statement about the structure or function of chemical messengers. Prostaglandins are biologically active peptides. Modified cholesterol forms the main structural component of the peptone hormones. >>An amino acid derivative can be a hormone. An example of a paracrine is testosterone.
Which of the following would be associated with the action of steroids on cells? extracellular receptors with a specificity for only a single amino acid sequence on the hormone an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cyclic AMP second-messenger systems >>a hormone-receptor complex that interacts directly with the cell's DNA
Cellular responses to hormones that initiate second -messenger systems include >>possible activation of several different second -messenger systems cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase formation of an active second messenger formation of a specific protein kinase that acts on a series of extracellular intermediates hormone binding to intracellular receptors
Regulating hormones from the hypothalamus enter venous circulation and travel to the heart, which pumps the hormone -containing blood to the pituitary enter the hepatic portal system, which feeds the pituitary travel by arteries to the pituitary >>first enter into the hypophyseal portal system
ACTH is secreted by the posterior pituitary >>secretion is regulated by a hypothalamic secretion causes the release of hormones from the adrenal medulla is not a tropic hormone
Which of the following is true about calcium homeostasis? Increased calcitonin levels will cause increased blood calcium levels. High calcium levels cause bone resorption. Parathyroid hormone causes an increase in osteoblast activity. >>Parathyroid hormone is the single most important regulator of calcium levels in the blood.
Aldosterone is secreted by the neurohypophysis >>functions to increase sodium reabsorption presence increases potassium concentration in the blood production is greatly influenced by ACTH
The only amine hormone to act like a steroid is >>TH ACTH GH ADH
Which organ does not have hormone production? heart kidney >>liver skin
In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased levels of a hormone, the DNA of target cells will specify the synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the cells of the target organ. This is known as the cell's sensitivity reaction cellular affinity >>up-regulation a reaction to a stressor
Eicosanoids do not include paracrines leukotrienes >>hydrocortisones prostaglandins
A man has been told that he is not synthesizing enough follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and for this reason he may be unable to father a child. Choose the correct statement to explain this problem. FSH stimulates estrogen secretion by ovarian cells; therefore it is not synthesized by males. The physician is wrong–a hormone made in the adenohypophysis could not influence fertility. >>FSH stimulates sperm production in the testes. The man must be producing progesterone, which inhibits the synthesis of FSH.
Which of the following organs is affected by thyroid hormone in adults? >>liver spleen thyroid gland brain
Thyroxine is a peptide hormone, but its mechanism is different from other peptide hormones. Which of the following statements is true concerning this difference? It causes positive feedback. >>It does not require a second messenger to effect a response. It is very specific in the cell type it targets. It is a stimulant of cellular metabolism and targets all cells.
Factors that inhibit TSH release do not include growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) rising levels of glucocorticoids somatostatin >>excessively high blood iodine concentrations
Glucocorticoids enable the body to deal appropriately with stress. They accomplish this by >>increasing blood glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid levels and enhancing blood pressure decreasing the heart rate, thus decreasing blood pressure stimulating the pancreas to release insulin blocking the neurotransmitters that prepare the body for the stress response
What ion is sometimes used as a second messenger of amino acid -base hormones? Iron >>Calcium Sodium Chlorine
Adenohypophysis ADH Aldosterone >>TSH Calcitonin Melatonin
Neurohypophysis >>ADH Aldosterone TSH Calcitonin Melatonin
Thyroid gland ADH Aldosterone TSH >>Calcitonin Melatonin
Adrenal gland ADH >>Aldosterone TSH Calcitonin Melatonin
Pineal gland ADH Aldosterone TSH Calcitonin >>Melatonin
FSH >>Stimulates development of the follicle in the ovaries Stimulates the kidney tubules to reabsorb water from urine Stimulates the thyroid gland Stimulates the adrenal cortex Mobilizes fats, spares glucose, and promotes the protein synthesis necessary for growth
GH Stimulates development of the follicle in the ovaries Stimulates the kidney tubules to reabsorb water from urine Stimulates the thyroid gland Stimulates the adrenal cortex >>Mobilizes fats, spares glucose, and promotes the protein synthesis necessary for growth
ACTH Stimulates development of the follicle in the ovaries Stimulates the kidney tubules to reabsorb water from urine Stimulates the thyroid gland >>Stimulates the adrenal cortex Mobilizes fats, spares glucose, and promotes the protein synthesis necessary for growth
TSH Stimulates development of the follicle in the ovaries Stimulates the kidney tubules to reabsorb water from urine >>Stimulates the thyroid gland Stimulates the adrenal cortex Mobilizes fats, spares glucose, and promotes the protein synthesis necessary for growth
ADH Stimulates development of the follicle in the ovaries >>Stimulates the kidney tubules to reabsorb water from urine Stimulates the thyroid gland Stimulates the adrenal cortex Mobilizes fats, spares glucose, and promotes the protein synthesis necessary for growth
Insulin Decrease in body metabolism >>High levels of blood sugar Decrease in blood Ca2+ levels Loss of body fluids Loss of Na+ from extracellular fluids
ADH Decrease in body metabolism High levels of blood sugar Decrease in blood Ca2+ levels >>Loss of body fluids Loss of Na+ from extracellular fluids
Aldosterone Decrease in body metabolism High levels of blood sugar Decrease in blood Ca2+ levels Loss of body fluids >>Loss of Na+ from extracellular fluids
Thyroxine >>Decrease in body metabolism High levels of blood sugar Decrease in blood Ca2+ levels Loss of body fluids Loss of Na+ from extracellular fluids
Parathyroid hormone Decrease in body metabolism High levels of blood sugar >>Decrease in blood Ca2+ levels Loss of body fluids Loss of Na+ from extracellular fluids
Thyroid stimulating hormone Increases contractions of uterine smooth muscle Causes the adrenal cortex to produce hormones >>Stimulates the production of thyroxine Affects functions of the ovaries and testes Causes cells to undergo mitosis and increase in size
Growth hormone Increases contractions of uterine smooth muscle Causes the adrenal cortex to produce hormones Stimulates the production of thyroxine Affects functions of the ovaries and testes >>Causes cells to undergo mitosis and increase in size
Oxytocin >>Increases contractions of uterine smooth muscle Causes the adrenal cortex to produce hormones Stimulates the production of thyroxine Affects functions of the ovaries and testes Causes cells to undergo mitosis and increase in size
Adrenocorticotropic hormone Increases contractions of uterine smooth muscle >>Causes the adrenal cortex to produce hormones Stimulates the production of thyroxine Affects functions of the ovaries and testes Causes cells to undergo mitosis and increase in size
Follicle-stimulating hormone Increases contractions of uterine smooth muscle Causes the adrenal cortex to produce hormones Stimulates the production of thyroxine >>Affects functions of the ovaries and testes Causes cells to undergo mitosis and increase in size
TSH Released from posterior pituitary; causes kidneys to conserve water Released from anterior pituitary; causes ovarian follicles to grow and produce estrogen and spermatogenesis in the testes. >>Released from anterior pituitary; causes thyroid gland to synthesize thyroxine Released from anterior pituitary; causes ovulation and interstitial cells to produce testosterone in the testes Released from posterior pituitary; causes uterine contractions
FSH Released from posterior pituitary; causes kidneys to conserve water >>Released from anterior pituitary; causes ovarian follicles to grow and produce estrogen and spermatogenesis in the testes. Released from anterior pituitary; causes thyroid gland to synthesize thyroxine Released from anterior pituitary; causes ovulation and interstitial cells to produce testosterone in the testes Released from posterior pituitary; causes uterine contractions
LH Released from posterior pituitary; causes kidneys to conserve water Released from anterior pituitary; causes ovarian follicles to grow and produce estrogen and spermatogenesis in the testes. Released from anterior pituitary; causes thyroid gland to synthesize thyroxine >>Released from anterior pituitary; causes ovulation and interstitial cells to produce testosterone in the testes Released from posterior pituitary; causes uterine contractions
Oxytocin Released from posterior pituitary; causes kidneys to conserve water Released from anterior pituitary; causes ovarian follicles to grow and produce estrogen and spermatogenesis in the testes. Released from anterior pituitary; causes thyroid gland to synthesize thyroxine Released from anterior pituitary; causes ovulation and interstitial cells to produce testosterone in the testes >>Released from posterior pituitary; causes uterine contractions
ADH >>Released from posterior pituitary; causes kidneys to conserve water Released from anterior pituitary; causes ovarian follicles to grow and produce estrogen and spermatogenesis in the testes. Released from anterior pituitary; causes thyroid gland to synthesize thyroxine Released from anterior pituitary; causes ovulation and interstitial cells to produce testosterone in the testes Released from posterior pituitary; causes uterine contractions
Prolactin Raises blood Ca2+ levels Stimulates milk ejection from mammary glands Increases metabolic rate Lowers blood Ca2+ levels >>Stimulates milk production
Oxytocin Raises blood Ca2+ levels >>Stimulates milk ejection from mammary glands Increases metabolic rate Lowers blood Ca2+ levels Stimulates milk production
Thyroxine Raises blood Ca2+ levels Stimulates milk ejection from mammary glands >>Increases metabolic rate Lowers blood Ca2+ levels Stimulates milk production
Calcitonin Raises blood Ca2+ levels Stimulates milk ejection from mammary glands Increases metabolic rate >>Lowers blood Ca2+ levels Stimulates milk production
Parathyroid hormone >>Raises blood Ca2+ levels Stimulates milk ejection from mammary glands Increases metabolic rate Lowers blood Ca2+ levels Stimulates milk production
Calcitonin Adrenal cortex >>Thyroid gland Adrenal medulla Pituitary gland Parathyroid glands
Parathyroid hormone Adrenal cortex Thyroid gland Adrenal medulla Pituitary gland >>Parathyroid glands
Adrenocorticotropic Hormones Adrenal cortex Thyroid gland Adrenal medulla >>Pituitary gland Parathyroid glands
Glucocorticoids >>Adrenal cortex Thyroid gland Adrenal medulla Pituitary gland Parathyroid glands
Epinephrine Adrenal cortex Thyroid gland >>Adrenal medulla Pituitary gland Parathyroid glands
Pineal gland >>Melatonin Atrial natriuretic peptide Testosterone HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) Thymosin
Testes Melatonin Atrial natriuretic peptide >>Testosterone HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) Thymosin
Thymus Melatonin Atrial natriuretic peptide Testosterone HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) >>Thymosin
Heart Melatonin >>Atrial natriuretic peptide Testosterone HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) Thymosin
Placenta Melatonin Atrial natriuretic peptide Testosterone >>HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) Thymosin
Melatonin Associated with sexual maturity in males; needed for normal sperm production Reduces blood volume, blood pressure, and blood sodium concentration by signaling the kidneys >>Associated with drowsiness at night Helps to sustain pregnancy Essential for normal immune response
Testosterone >>Associated with sexual maturity in males; needed for normal sperm production Reduces blood volume, blood pressure, and blood sodium concentration by signaling the kidneys Associated with drowsiness at night Helps to sustain pregnancy Essential for normal immune response
Thymosin Associated with sexual maturity in males; needed for normal sperm production Reduces blood volume, blood pressure, and blood sodium concentration by signaling the kidneys Associated with drowsiness at night Helps to sustain pregnancy >>Essential for normal immune response
Atrial natriuretic peptide Associated with sexual maturity in males; needed for normal sperm production >>Reduces blood volume, blood pressure, and blood sodium concentration by signaling the kidneys Associated with drowsiness at night Helps to sustain pregnancy Essential for normal immune response
HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) Associated with sexual maturity in males; needed for normal sperm production Reduces blood volume, blood pressure, and blood sodium concentration by signaling the kidneys Associated with drowsiness at night >>Helps to sustain pregnancy Essential for normal immune response
Adipose tissue Erythropoietin Gastrin Cholecystokinin >>Leptin Cholecalciferol
Skin Erythropoietin Gastrin Cholecystokinin Leptin >>Cholecalciferol
Kidney >>Erythropoietin Gastrin Cholecystokinin Leptin Cholecalciferol
Duodenum of small intestine Erythropoietin Gastrin >>Cholecystokinin Leptin Cholecalciferol
Stomach Erythropoietin >>Gastrin Cholecystokinin Leptin Cholecalciferol
Leptin Stimulates the stomach to release hydrochloric acid >>Binds to CNS neurons concerned with appetite control Stimulates the release of bile Activated by the kidneys to Vitamin D; stimulates active absorption of Ca2+ by intestinal cells Stimulates the production of red blood cells
Cholecalciferol Stimulates the stomach to release hydrochloric acid Binds to CNS neurons concerned with appetite control Stimulates the release of bile >>Activated by the kidneys to Vitamin D; stimulates active absorption of Ca2+ by intestinal cells Stimulates the production of red blood cells
Erythropoietin Stimulates the stomach to release hydrochloric acid Binds to CNS neurons concerned with appetite control Stimulates the release of bile Activated by the kidneys to Vitamin D; stimulates active absorption of Ca2+ by intestinal cells >>Stimulates the production of red blood cells
Cholecystokinin Stimulates the stomach to release hydrochloric acid Binds to CNS neurons concerned with appetite control >>Stimulates the release of bile Activated by the kidneys to Vitamin D; stimulates active absorption of Ca2+ by intestinal cells Stimulates the production of red blood cells
Gastrin >>Stimulates the stomach to release hydrochloric acid Binds to CNS neurons concerned with appetite control Stimulates the release of bile Activated by the kidneys to Vitamin D; stimulates active absorption of Ca2+ by intestinal cells Stimulates the production of red blood cells
Glucagon >>Pancreas Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) Kidneys Thyroid gland
TSH Pancreas Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) >>Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) Kidneys Thyroid gland
Thyroxine Pancreas Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) Kidneys >>Thyroid gland
Renin Pancreas Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) >>Kidneys Thyroid gland
ADH Pancreas >>Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) Kidneys Thyroid gland
Glucagon >>Increases the blood sugar level by stimulating the liver Increases water reabsorption in kidney tubules Increases red blood cell production Stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine Increases the metabolic rate
TSH Increases the blood sugar level by stimulating the liver Increases water reabsorption in kidney tubules Increases red blood cell production >>Stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine Increases the metabolic rate
Thyroxine Increases the blood sugar level by stimulating the liver Increases water reabsorption in kidney tubules Increases red blood cell production Stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine >>Increases the metabolic rate
Erythropoietin Increases the blood sugar level by stimulating the liver Increases water reabsorption in kidney tubules >>Increases red blood cell production Stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine Increases the metabolic rate
ADH Increases the blood sugar level by stimulating the liver >>Increases water reabsorption in kidney tubules Increases red blood cell production Stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine Increases the metabolic rate
FSH & LH Gonadocorticoids >>Gonadotropins Glucocorticoids Mineralocorticoids
Cortisol Gonadocorticoids Gonadotropins >>Glucocorticoids Mineralocorticoids
Androgens >>Gonadocorticoids Gonadotropins Glucocorticoids Mineralocorticoids
Aldosterone Gonadocorticoids Gonadotropins Glucocorticoids >>Mineralocorticoids
Gonadotropins Increase blood levels of glucose, fatty acids and amino acids during stress Produce masculinizing effects when produced in large quantities >>Regulate functions of gonads in both sexes Regulate Na+ reabsorption by the kidneys and thereby regulates other electrolyte levels
Glucocorticoids >>Increase blood levels of glucose, fatty acids and amino acids during stress Produce masculinizing effects when produced in large quantities Regulate functions of gonads in both sexes Regulate Na+ reabsorption by the kidneys and thereby regulates other electrolyte levels
Androgens Increase blood levels of glucose, fatty acids and amino acids during stress >>Produce masculinizing effects when produced in large quantities Regulate functions of gonads in both sexes Regulate Na+ reabsorption by the kidneys and thereby regulates other electrolyte levels
Mineralocorticoids Increase blood levels of glucose, fatty acids and amino acids during stress Produce masculinizing effects when produced in large quantities Regulate functions of gonads in both sexes >>Regulate Na+ reabsorption by the kidneys and thereby regulates other electrolyte levels
Posterior pituitary Aldosterone Epinephrine Insulin >>Antidiuretic hormone Growth hormone
Anterior pituitary Aldosterone Epinephrine Insulin Antidiuretic hormone >>Growth hormone
Pancreas Aldosterone Epinephrine >>Insulin Antidiuretic hormone Growth hormone
Adrenal cortex >>Aldosterone Epinephrine Insulin Antidiuretic hormone Growth hormone
Adrenal medulla Aldosterone >>Epinephrine Insulin Antidiuretic hormone Growth hormone
Antidiuretic hormone >>Causes kidneys to conserve water Stimulates embryonic cells (stem cells) to undergo mitosis Increases Na+ reabsorption in the kidneys Increases cell reactions during sympathetic response Facilitates glucose transport into cells
Growth hormone Causes kidneys to conserve water >>Stimulates embryonic cells (stem cells) to undergo mitosis Increases Na+ reabsorption in the kidneys Increases cell reactions during sympathetic response Facilitates glucose transport into cells
Insulin Causes kidneys to conserve water Stimulates embryonic cells (stem cells) to undergo mitosis Increases Na+ reabsorption in the kidneys Increases cell reactions during sympathetic response >>Facilitates glucose transport into cells
Aldosterone Causes kidneys to conserve water Stimulates embryonic cells (stem cells) to undergo mitosis >>Increases Na+ reabsorption in the kidneys Increases cell reactions during sympathetic response Facilitates glucose transport into cells
Epinephrine Causes kidneys to conserve water Stimulates embryonic cells (stem cells) to undergo mitosis Increases Na+ reabsorption in the kidneys >>Increases cell reactions during sympathetic response Facilitates glucose transport into cells
Lowered levels of Ca2+ in the blood. (is Restored By) Aldosterone Calcitonin Glucagon Insulin >>Parathyroid hormone
Too much Ca2+ in the blood (is Restored By) Aldosterone >>Calcitonin Glucagon Insulin Parathyroid hormone
Elevated levels of blood sugar (is Restored By) Aldosterone Calcitonin Glucagon >>Insulin Parathyroid hormone
Decreased levels of blood sugar (hypoglycemia) (is Restored By) Aldosterone Calcitonin >>Glucagon Insulin Parathyroid hormone
Excessive loss of Na+ in extracellular fluids (is Restored By) >>Aldosterone Calcitonin Glucagon Insulin Parathyroid hormone
The end of a nine month pregnancy (is Restored By) Adrenal cortex Pancreas Parathyroid gland >>Posterior pituitary Anterior pituitary
Loss of Na+ from profuse sweating (is Restored By) >>Adrenal cortex Pancreas Parathyroid gland Posterior pituitary Anterior pituitary
High blood sugar due to eating too many sweets (is Restored By) Adrenal cortex >>Pancreas Parathyroid gland Posterior pituitary Anterior pituitary
Drop in blood levels of Ca2+ due to extreme inactivity (is Restored By) Adrenal cortex Pancreas >>Parathyroid gland Posterior pituitary Anterior pituitary
Delayed or stunted growth (is Restored By) Adrenal cortex Pancreas Parathyroid gland Posterior pituitary >>Anterior pituitary
Gigantism Oversecretion of catecholamines Insulin deficiency Hyposecretion of ADH >>Overproduction of GH Hypersecretion of thyroid hormone
Diabetes mellitus Oversecretion of catecholamines >>Insulin deficiency Hyposecretion of ADH Overproduction of GH Hypersecretion of thyroid hormone
Sympathetic nervous system overactivity >>Oversecretion of catecholamines Insulin deficiency Hyposecretion of ADH Overproduction of GH Hypersecretion of thyroid hormone
Grave''s disease Oversecretion of catecholamines Insulin deficiency Hyposecretion of ADH Overproduction of GH >>Hypersecretion of thyroid hormone
Diabetes insipidus Oversecretion of catecholamines Insulin deficiency >>Hyposecretion of ADH Overproduction of GH Hypersecretion of thyroid hormone
Zona reticularis Mineralocorticoids Glucocorticoids >>Androgens Insulin Glucagon
Zona glomerulosa >>Mineralocorticoids Glucocorticoids Androgens Insulin Glucagon
Zona fasciculata Mineralocorticoids >>Glucocorticoids Androgens Insulin Glucagon
Beta cells Mineralocorticoids Glucocorticoids Androgens >>Insulin Glucagon
Alpha cells Mineralocorticoids Glucocorticoids Androgens Insulin >>Glucagon
Humoral Axons cause hormone release Hormone release is dependent upon other hormone levels >>Monitoring blood levels of substances and correct them
Neural >>Axons cause hormone release Hormone release is dependent upon other hormone levels Monitoring blood levels of substances and correct them
Hormonal Axons cause hormone release >>Hormone release is dependent upon other hormone levels Monitoring blood levels of substances and correct them
An autoimmune problem involving the thyroid gland. Pituitary dwarfism Diabetes mellitus Addison's disease >>Graves' disease Acromegaly
Hyposecretion of growth hormone. >>Pituitary dwarfism Diabetes mellitus Addison's disease Graves' disease Acromegaly
Hyposecretion of the pancreas. Pituitary dwarfism >>Diabetes mellitus Addison's disease Graves' disease Acromegaly
Hyposecretion of the adrenal cortex. Pituitary dwarfism Diabetes mellitus >>Addison's disease Graves' disease Acromegaly
Hypersecretion of growth hormone. Pituitary dwarfism Diabetes mellitus Addison's disease Graves' disease >>Acromegaly
Hyposecretion of the thyroid in adults. Cretinism >>Myxedema Cushing's disease Acromegaly
Hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex. Cretinism Myxedema >>Cushing's disease Acromegaly
Hypersecretion of growth hormone. Cretinism Myxedema Cushing's disease >>Acromegaly
Hyposecretion of the thyroid in infants. >>Cretinism Myxedema Cushing's disease Acromegaly
The size and shape of a pea; produces hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands. Parathyroid Adrenal medulla Pancreas Thyroid >>Hypophysis
The gland that controls the fight-or-flight reaction. Parathyroid >>Adrenal medulla Pancreas Thyroid Hypophysis
Produces hormones that regulate glucose levels in the body. Parathyroid Adrenal medulla >>Pancreas Thyroid Hypophysis
Produces a hormone that controls blood levels of calcium and potassium by their removal from bone tissue. >>Parathyroid Adrenal medulla Pancreas Thyroid Hypophysis
Produces the body's major metabolic hormones. Parathyroid Adrenal medulla Pancreas >>Thyroid Hypophysis
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/2808224_dynA.jpg Receptor-hormone complex >>Receptor-chaperonin complex Molecular chaperones
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/2808224_dynB.jpg Receptor-hormone complex Receptor-chaperonin complex >>Molecular chaperones
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/2808224_dynC.jpg >>Receptor-hormone complex Receptor-chaperonin complex Molecular chaperones
http://www.ywmarketing.com/APHY102/2808225_dynA.jpg Hormonal >>Humoral Neural
Created by: yellowwood on 2009-07-08



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