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# AP Psychology- Ch 2

### Chapter 2 (Reasearch Methods) Vocabulary

Question | Answer |
---|---|

Scientific Method | A five-step process for empirical investigation of a hypothesis under conditions designed to control biases and subjective judgments. |

Empirical Investigations | An approach to research that relies on sensory experience and observation as research data. |

Theory | A testable explanation for a set of facts or observations. In science, a theory is not just speculation or a guess. |

Hypothesis | a statement predicting the outcome of a scientific study; a statement describing the relationship among variables in a study. |

Operational Definition | Specific descriptions of concepts involving the conditions of a specific study. Operational definitions are stated in terms of how the concepts are to be measured or what operations are being employed to produce them. |

Independent Variable (IV) | A stimulus condition so named because the experimenter changes it independently of all other carefully controlled experimental conditions (cause). |

Dependent Variable (DV) | The measured outcome of a study; the responses of the subjects in the study. |

Random Presentation | A process by which chance alone determines the order in which chance alone determines the order in which the stimulus is presented. |

Data | Pieces of information, especially information gathered by researcher to be used in testing a hypothesis. |

Replicate | Doing a study over to see whether the same results are obtained. As a control for bias, replication is often done by someone other than the researcher who performed the original study. |

Experiment | A kind of research in which the researcher controls all the conditions and directly manipulates the conditions, including the independent variable. |

Confounding (extraneous) Variables | Variables, that have an unwanted influence on the outcome of an experiment. |

Controls | Constraints that the experimenter places on the experiment to ensure that each subject has the exact same conditions. |

Random Assignment | Each subject of the sample has an equal likelihood of being chosen for the experimental group of an experiment. |

Ex post facto | Research in which we choose subjects based on a pre-existing condition. |

Correlation Study | A type of research that is mainly statistical in nature. Correlation studies determine the relationship (or correlation) between two variables. |

Survey | A quasi-experimental method in which questions are asked to subjects. |

Naturalistic Observation | A research method in which subjects are observed in their natural environment. |

Longitudinal Study | A type of study in which one group of subjects is followed and observed for an extended period of time. |

Cross-sectional Study | A study in which a representative cross section of population is tested or surveyed at one specific time. |

Cohort-sequential Study | A research method in which a cross section of the population is chosen and then each cohort is followed for a short period of time. |

Personal Bias | The researcher allowing personal beliefs to affect the outcome of a study. |

Expectancy Bias | The researcher allowing his or her expectations to affect the outcome of a study. |

Double-blind Study | An experimental procedure in which both researchers and participants are uninformed about the nature of the independent variable being administered. |

Frequency Distribution | A summary chart, showing how frequently each of the various scores in a set of data occurs. |

Histogram | A bar graph depicting a frequency distribution. The height of the bars indicates the frequency of a group of scores. |

Descriptive Statistics | Statistical procedures used to describe characteristics and responses of groups of subjects. |

Mean | The measure of central tendency most often used to describe a set of data-calculated by adding all the scores and dividing by the number of scores (average). |

Median | A measure of central tendency for a distribution, represented by the score that separates the upper half of scores in a distribution from the lower half. |

Mode | A measure of central tendency for a distribution, represented by the score that occurs more often than any other. |

Range | The simplest measure of variability, represented by the difference between the highest and the lowest values in a frequency distribution. |

Standard Deviation (SD) | A measure of variability that indicates the average difference between the scores and their mean. |

Normal Distribution | A bell-shaped curve, describing the spread of a characteristic throughout a population. |

Correlation | A relationship between variables, in which changes in one variable are reflected in changes in the other variable-as in the correlation between a child’s age and height. |

Correlation Coefficient | A number between -1 and +1 expressing the degree of relationship between two variables. |

Random Sample | A sample group of subjects by chance (without biased selection techniques). |

Representative Sample | A sample obtained in such a way that it reflects the distribution of important variables in the larger population in which the researcher are interested-variables such as age, income level, ethnicity, and geographic distribution. |

Created by:
Mr. Tusow
on 2009-06-23