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FA Classic Findings

Actinic keratosis Often precedes squamous cell carcinoma
Addison’s disease 1° adrenocortical deficiency
Albright’s syndrome Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty, café-au-lait spots, short stature, young girls
Albuminocytologic dissociation Guillain-Barré (↑ protein in CSF with only modest ↑ in cell count)
Alport’s syndrome Hereditary nephritis with nerve deafness
Anti–basement membrane antibodies Goodpasture’s syndrome
Anticentromere antibodies Scleroderma (CREST)
Anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies (ANA antibodies) SLE (type III hypersensitivity)
Anti–epithelial cell antibodies Pemphigus vulgaris
Antigliadin antibodies Celiac disease
Antihistone antibodies Drug-induced SLE
Anti-IgG antibodies Rheumatoid arthritis
Antimitochondrial antibodies 1° biliary cirrhosis
Antineutrophil antibodies Vasculitis
Antiplatelet antibodies Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
Arachnodactyly Marfan’s syndrome
Argyll Robertson pupil Neurosyphilis
Arnold-Chiari malformation Cerebellar tonsillar herniation
Aschoff bodies Rheumatic fever
Atrophy of the mammillary bodies Wernicke’s encephalopathy
Auer rods Acute myelogenous leukemia (especially the promyelocytic type)
Autosplenectomy Sickle cell anemia
Babinski’s sign UMN lesion
Baker’s cyst in popliteal fossa Rheumatoid arthritis
Bamboo spine on x-ray Ankylosing spondylitis
Bartter’s syndrome Hyperreninemia
Basophilic stippling of RBCs Lead poisoning
Becker’s muscular dystrophy Defective dystrophin; less severe than Duchenne’s
Bell’s palsy LMN CN VII palsy
Bence Jones proteins Multiple myeloma (kappa or lambda Ig light chains in urine), Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia (IgM)
Berger’s disease IgA nephropathy
Bernard-Soulier disease Defect in platelet adhesion
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis Sarcoidosis
Birbeck granules on EM Histiocytosis X (eosinophilic granuloma)
Bloody tap on LP Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Blue bloater Chronic bronchitis
Blue sclera Osteogenesis imperfecta
Blue-domed cysts Fibrocystic change of the breast
Boot-shaped heart on x-ray Tetralogy of Fallot; RVH
Bouchard’s nodes Osteoarthritis (PIP swelling 2° to osteophytes)
Boutonnière deformity Rheumatoid arthritis
Branching rods in oral infection Actinomyces israelii
Brown tumor of bone Hemorrhage causes brown color of osteolytic cysts: 1. Hyperparathyroidism 2. Osteitis fibrosa cystica (von Recklinghausen’s disease)
Bruton’s disease X-linked agammaglobulinemia
Budd-Chiari syndrome Posthepatic venous thrombosis
Buerger’s disease Small/medium-artery vasculitis
Burkitt’s lymphoma 8:14 translocation; associated with EBV; “starry sky” appearance on histology
Burton’s lines Lead poisoning
Café-au-lait spots on skin Neurofibromatosis
Caisson disease Gas emboli
Calf pseudohypertrophy Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy
Call-Exner bodies Granulosa-theca cell tumor of the ovary
c-ANCA, p-ANCA Wegener’s granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis
Cardiomegaly with apical atrophy Chagas’ disease
Cerebriform nuclei Mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma)
Chagas’ disease Trypanosome infection
Chancre 1° syphilis (not painful)
Chancroid Haemophilus ducreyi (painful)
Charcot’s triad Multiple sclerosis (nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech), cholangitis (jaundice, RUQ pain, fever)
Charcot-Leyden crystals Bronchial asthma (eosinophil membranes)
Chédiak-Higashi disease Phagocyte deficiency
Cherry-red spot on macula Tay-Sachs, Niemann-Pick disease, central retinal artery occlusion
Cheyne-Stokes respirations Central apnea in CHF and ↑ intracranial pressure
“Chocolate cysts” Endometriosis (frequently involves both ovaries)
Chronic atrophic gastritis Predisposition to gastric carcinoma
Chvostek’s sign Hypocalcemia (facial muscle spasm upon tapping)
Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina DES exposure in utero
Clue cells Gardnerella vaginitis
Codman’s triangle on x-ray Osteosarcoma
Cold agglutinins Mycoplasma pneumoniae, infectious mononucleosis
Cold intolerance Hypothyroidism
Condylomata lata 2° syphilis
Continuous machinery murmur Patent ductus arteriosus
Cori’s disease Debranching enzyme deficiency
Cotton-wool spots Chronic hypertension
Cough, conjunctivitis, coryza + fever Measles
Councilman bodies Toxic or viral hepatitis
Cowdry type A bodies Herpesvirus
Crescents in Bowman’s capsule Rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis
Crigler-Najjar syndrome Congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia
Curling’s ulcer Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns
Currant-jelly sputum Klebsiella
Curschmann’s spirals Bronchial asthma (whorled mucous plugs)
Cushing’s ulcer Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury
D-dimers DIC
Depigmentation of neurons in substantia nigra Parkinson’s disease (basal ganglia disorder––rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia)
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea Pellagra (niacin, vitamin B3 deficiency)
Diabetes insipidus + exophthalmos + lesions of skull Hand-Schüller-Christian disease
Dog or cat bite Pasteurella multocida
Donovan bodies Granuloma inguinale
Dressler’s syndrome Post-MI fibrinous pericarditis
Dubin-Johnson syndrome Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver)
Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy Deleted dystrophin gene (X-linked recessive)
Eburnation Osteoarthritis (polished, ivory-like appearance of bone)
Edwards’ syndrome Trisomy 18 associated with rocker-bottom feet, low-set ears, heart disease
Eisenmenger’s complex Late cyanosis shunt (uncorrected L → R shunt becomes R → L shunt)
Elastic skin Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
Erb-Duchenne palsy Superior trunk (C5–C6) brachial plexus injury (“waiter’s tip”)
Erythema chronicum migrans Lyme disease
Fanconi’s syndrome Proximal tubular reabsorption defect
“Fat, female, forty, and fertile” Acute cholecystitis
Fatty liver Alcoholism
Ferruginous bodies Asbestosis
Gardner’s syndrome Colon polyps with osteomas and soft tissue tumors
Gaucher’s disease Glucocerebrosidase deficiency
Ghon focus 1° TB
Gilbert’s syndrome Benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia
Glanzmann’s thrombasthenia Defect in platelet aggregation
Goodpasture’s syndrome Autoantibodies against alveolar and glomerular basement membrane proteins
Gowers’ maneuver Duchenne’s (use of patient’s arms to help legs pick self off the floor)
Guillain-Barré syndrome Idiopathic polyneuritis
“Hair-on-end” (crew-cut) β-thalassemia, sickle cell anemia (extramedullary hematopoiesis)
appearance on x-ray
Hand-Schüller-Christian disease Chronic progressive histiocytosis
HbF Thalassemia major
HbS Sickle cell anemia
hCG elevated Choriocarcinoma, hydatidiform mole (occurs with and without embryo)
Heberden’s nodes Osteoarthritis (DIP swelling 2° to osteophytes)
Heinz bodies G6PD deficiency
Henoch-Schönlein purpura Hypersensitivity vasculitis associated with hemorrhagic urticaria and URIs
Heterophil antibodies Infectious mononucleosis (EBV)
High-output cardiac failure Wet beriberi (thiamine, vitamin B1 deficiency)
(dilated cardiomyopathy)
HLA-B27 Reiter’s syndrome, ankylosing spondylitis
HLA-DR3 or -DR4 Diabetes mellitus type 1 (caused by autoimmune destruction of β cells)
Horner’s syndrome Ptosis, miosis, and anhidrosis
Howell-Jolly bodies Splenectomy (or nonfunctional spleen)
Huntington’s disease Caudate degeneration (autosomal dominant)
Hyperphagia + hypersexuality + hyperorality + hyperdocility Klüver-Bucy syndrome (amygdala)
Hyperpigmentation of skin 1° adrenal insufficiency (Addison’s disease)
Hypersegmented neutrophils Macrocytic anemia
Hypertension + hypokalemia Conn’s syndrome
Hypochromic microcytosis Iron deficiency anemia, lead poisoning
Increased α-fetoprotein in amniotic fluid/maternal serum Anencephaly, spina bifida (neural tube defects)
Increased uric acid levels Gout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, myeloproliferative disorders, loop and thiazide diuretics
Intussusception Adenovirus (causes hyperplasia of Peyer’s patches)
Janeway lesions Endocarditis
Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction Syphilis––overaggressive treatment of an asymptomatic patient that causes symptoms due to rapid lysis
Job’s syndrome Neutrophil chemotaxis abnormality
Kaposi’s sarcoma AIDS in MSM (men who have sex with men)
Kartagener’s syndrome Dynein defect
Kayser-Fleischer rings Wilson’s disease
Keratin pearls Squamous cell carcinoma
Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules Diabetic nephropathy
Klüver-Bucy syndrome Bilateral amygdala lesions
Koilocytes HPV
Koplik spots Measles
Krukenberg tumor Gastric adenocarcinoma with ovarian metastases
Kussmaul hyperpnea Diabetic ketoacidosis
Lens dislocation + aortic dissection + joint hyperflexibility Marfan’s syndrome (fibrillin deficit)
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome HGPRT deficiency
Lewy bodies Parkinson’s disease
Libman-Sacks disease Endocarditis associated with SLE
Lines of Zahn Arterial thrombus
Lisch nodules Neurofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen’s disease)
Low serum ceruloplasmin Wilson’s disease
Lucid interval Epidural hematoma
“Lumpy-bumpy” appearance of Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
glomeruli on immunofluorescence
Lytic bone lesions on x-ray Multiple myeloma
Mallory bodies Alcoholic liver disease
Mallory-Weiss syndrome Esophagogastric lacerations
McArdle’s disease Muscle phosphorylase deficiency
McBurney’s sign Appendicitis
MLF syndrome (INO) Multiple sclerosis
Monoclonal antibody spike Multiple myeloma (called the M protein; usually IgG or IgA), MGUS (monoclonal
gammopathy of undetermined significance), Waldenström’s (M protein = IgM)
Myxedema Hypothyroidism
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and Wegener’s and Goodpasture’s (hemoptysis and glomerular disease)
necrotizing glomerulonephritis
Needle-shaped, negatively Gout
birefringent crystals
Negri bodies Rabies
Nephritis + cataracts + hearing loss Alport’s syndrome
Neurofibrillary tangles Alzheimer’s disease
Niemann-Pick disease Sphingomyelinase deficiency
No lactation postpartum Sheehan’s syndrome (pituitary infarction)
Nutmeg liver CHF
Occupational exposure to asbestos Malignant mesothelioma
“Orphan Annie” nuclei Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid
Osler’s nodes Endocarditis
Owl’s eye CMV
Painless jaundice Pancreatic cancer (head)
Palpable purpura on legs and buttocks Henoch-Schönlein purpura
Pancoast’s tumor Bronchogenic apical tumor associated with Horner’s syndrome
Pannus Rheumatoid arthritis
Parkinson’s disease Nigrostriatal dopamine depletion
Periosteal elevation on x-ray Pyogenic osteomyelitis
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome Benign polyposis
“Pink puffer” Emphysema (centroacinar [smoking], panacinar [α1-antitrypsin deficiency])
“Smudge cell” CLL
“Strawberry tongue” Scarlet fever
“Tram-track” appearance on LM Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
“Wire loop” appearance on LM Lupus nephropathy
“Worst headache of my life” Berry aneurysm––associated with adult polycystic kidney disease
Philadelphia chromosome (bcr-abl ) CML (may sometimes be associated with AML)
Pick bodies Pick’s disease
Pick’s disease Progressive dementia, similar to Alzheimer’s
Plummer-Vinson syndrome Esophageal webs with iron deficiency anemia
Podagra Gout (MP joint of hallux)
Podocyte fusion Minimal change disease
Polyneuropathy preceded by GI or respiratory infection Guillain-Barré syndrome
Polyneuropathy, cardiac pathology, and edema Dry beriberi (thiamine, vitamin B1 deficiency)
Pompe’s disease Lysosomal glucosidase deficiency associated with cardiomegaly
Port-wine stain Hemangioma
Positive anterior “drawer sign” Anterior cruciate ligament injury
Pott’s disease Vertebral tuberculosis
Pseudopalisade tumor cell arrangement Glioblastoma multiforme
Pseudorosettes Ewing’s sarcoma
Ptosis, miosis, anhidrosis Horner’s syndrome (Pancoast’s tumor)
Rash on palms and soles 2° syphilis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Raynaud’s syndrome Recurrent vasospasm in extremities
RBC casts in urine Acute glomerulonephritis
Recurrent pulmonary Pseudomonas and S. aureus infections Cystic fibrosis
Red urine in the morning Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
Reed-Sternberg cells Hodgkin’s lymphoma
Reid index (increased) Chronic bronchitis
Reinke crystals Leydig cell tumor
Reiter’s syndrome Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis
Renal cell carcinoma + cavernous hemangiomas + adenomas von Hippel–Lindau disease
Renal epithelial casts in urine Acute toxic/viral nephrosis
Rhomboid crystals, positively birefringent Pseudogout
Rib notching Coarctation of aorta
Roth’s spots in retina Endocarditis
Rotor’s syndrome Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia
Rouleaux formation (RBCs) Multiple myeloma
S3 Left-to-right shunt (VSD, PDA, ASD), mitral regurgitation, LV failure (CHF)
S4 Aortic stenosis, hypertrophic subaortic stenosis
Schiller-Duval bodies Yolk sac tumor
Senile plaques Alzheimer’s disease
Sézary syndrome Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
Sheehan’s syndrome Postpartum pituitary necrosis
Shwartzman reaction Neisseria meningitidis
Signet-ring cells Gastric carcinoma
Simian crease Down syndrome
Sipple’s syndrome MEN type IIa
Sjögren’s syndrome Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Skip lesions Crohn’s
Slapped cheeks Erythema infectiosum (fifth disease)
Smith antigen SLE
Soap bubble on x-ray Giant cell tumor of bone
Spike and dome on EM Membranous glomerulonephritis
Spitz nevus Benign juvenile melanoma
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails Endocarditis
Starry-sky pattern Burkitt’s lymphoma
Streaky ovaries Turner’s syndrome
String sign on x-ray Crohn’s disease
Subepithelial humps on EM Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
Suboccipital lymphadenopathy Rubella
Sulfur granules Actinomyces israelii
Swollen gums, bruising, poor wound healing, anemia Scurvy (ascorbic acid, vitamin C deficiency)––vitamin C is necessary for hydroxylation of proline and lysine in collagen synthesis
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo) Aortic valve stenosis
t(14;18) Follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 activation)
t(8;14) Burkitt’s lymphoma (c-myc activation)
t(9;22) Philadelphia chromosome, CML (bcr-abl hybrid)
Tabes dorsalis 3° syphilis
Tendon xanthomas (classically Achilles) Familial hypercholesterolemia
Thumb sign on lateral x-ray Epiglottitis (Haemophilus influenzae)
Thyroidization of kidney Chronic bacterial pyelonephritis
Tophi Gout
Trousseau’s sign Visceral cancer, pancreatic adenocarcinoma (migratory thrombophlebitis), hypocalcemia (carpal spasm)
Virchow’s node Left supraclavicular node enlargement from metastatic carcinoma of the stomach
Virchow’s triad Pulmonary embolism (triad = blood stasis, endothelial damage, hypercoagulation)
von Recklinghausen’s disease Neurofibromatosis with café-au-lait spots
von Recklinghausen’s disease of bone Osteitis fibrosa cystica (“brown tumor”)
Wallenberg’s syndrome PICA thrombosis
Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome Adrenal hemorrhage associated with meningococcemia
Waxy casts Chronic end-stage renal disease
WBC casts in urine Acute pyelonephritis
WBCs in urine Acute cystitis
Wermer’s syndrome MEN type I
Whipple’s disease Malabsorption syndrome caused by Tropheryma whippelii
Wilson’s disease Hepatolenticular degeneration
Xanthochromia (CSF) Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Xerostomia + arthritis + keratoconjunctivitis sicca Sjögren’s syndrome
Zenker’s diverticulum Upper GI diverticulum
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome Gastrin-secreting tumor associated with ulcers
Created by: megankirch