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Neurophys 3 - pcc

Neurophys final

Which have gap junctions: unitary or multiunit smooth muscle? Unitary
Trur or false: Multiunit smooth muscle afferent fibers stimulate multiple muscle fobers at once False: each fiber is stimulated by a single affernet fiber
Multiunit or unitary smooth muscle possesses pace maker activity Unitary
Two type of unitary smooth muscle. Which are not associated with generation of AP? 1. Phasic 2. Tonic
Tonic or phasic unitary smooth muscle exhibits continuous contractions? Tonic
Phasic smooth muscle show ___ contractions. Where are they found? 1. Rhythmic 2. Parastalsis in GI tract
Tonic smooth muscls are found where? Blood vessels and arteries
What is muscular distrophy? Degeneration of muscle replces with adipose and connective tissue
MD is sex-linked affecting what ratio of males? 1:3500
MD is a defect of what? 1. Sarcolemma of the muscle 2. Ultimately kills the muscle
What is myesthenia gravis? 1. ACH receptor sites become damages 2. Less ACH gets into muscles 3. Weaker contractions
Smooth muscles are devoid of ___ because thich and thin filaments are not organized inot sarcomeres. What is a smooth muscle's resting state membrane potential? 1. Striation 2. -50 to -60 mV
1. Smooth muscle activated by what? 2. Skeletal muscles are activated by what only? 1. Stretching, hormones and neurotransmitters 2. Neurotransmitters
Smooth muscle exibits ___cycling of cross bridges, ___ onset of contraction~relaxtion, ___force contraction, __Percent shortening and ___energy requirement 1. Slow 2. Long 3. High 4. High 5. Low
SIngle init fibers contain what which permits fasrt spread of electricity^ Gap junctions
Where are single unit smooth fibers found? GI tract, bladder, uterus, uretur
Rhythmic or phasic contractions are due to what? 1. Ca+ channels 2. Ca+ action potentials
Tonic contraction AKA what? Continuous contraction
T or F: Multiunit smooth muscles contain gap junction False
Each fiber of a multiunit muscle acts like a what? Where are they found? 1. Single motor unit 2. Iris, ciliary muscle of eye, vas deferens
Smooth muscle has no ___ and less developped __ than skeletal and cardial muscle 1. No T-tubules 2. Less SR
Smooth muscle contains bulges of motor nerve fibers that are under nervous control called what? Vericosities
Action potential release NT from synaptic vessicles that are stored in the ___ Varicosities
Depolarization of the AP opens what kind of channels? Allows for an increase of Ca+ where? 1. Voltage gates Ca+ channels 2/ Increase in intracellular Ca+
2 other ways Ca+ can get inot the cell? 1. Ligand-gated channels 2. Inostisol triphosphate gated Ca+ channels
Increases intracellular Ca+ causes Ca+ to bind to what? This can bind how many Ca+? 1. Calmodulin protein 2. 4
The calcium-calmodulin activated what? Kinase
Activated kinase is responsible for doing what? Phosphorylates myosin
Phosphorylated myosin binds to what to form what? How many ATP used? 1. Binds to actin to form cross bridges 2. 1
Myosin is dephosphroylated by what and when? Does it let go right away? 1. Dephosphorylated by myosin light chainb phosphates when intracellular Ca+ decreases 2. Yes
What enables the myosin to remain attached without the use of excess ATP? This phenomena maintains what type of contraction? 1. Latch bridge mechanism 2. Tonic contraction
Latch-bridges make smooth muscle very __ ___. Fatigue resistant
When do the smooth muscle fibers finally relax? When SR takes back in the Ca+ via Ca+ATPase
Cardial muscles contain gap junctions called what? They are continuous whit the __ of the muscle. 1. Intercalated disks 2. Sarcolemma
Intercalated disks allow the two atria to act as a giant cell. WHat is this called? Syncytium
T-tubules in cardial muscles are located where? Z-disks
In cardiac muscles, the SR releases Ca+ where? This causes what channels to open to allow Ca+ to difuse into the muscle? 1. Sarcoplams 2. (slow) voltage gated Calcium /Na+ chanel (same as skeletal)
What id the reason for plateau phase in cadial muscle? Sustained depolarization of cadial cells caused by Ca+ entering through voltage-gated sensitive Ca+ channels
Is depol of the heart muscle directly responsible for contractions? No, contraction does not occur unless Ca+ enters the cells
Describe artherosclerosis and uniary bladder hypertrophy
Created by: LrB