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Embryo final - PCC

final - embryo

Angioblast arise from what? Splanchnic mesoderm
Angioblast differentiates into what? Blood island
In the early prenatal period several location are utilized for the formation of blood cells. Name these 5 locations. 1. Yolk sack 2. Body mesenchym and blodd vessels 3. Liver 4. Spleen, thymus and lymph 5. Bone marrow
What is the divisions of the dorsal aorta? 1. Pair of aortic arches 2. Heart primordia
WHat are the three parts of the primitive vascular system? 1. Vitelline 2. Umbilical 3. Cardinal
What returns blood from the yolk sac? Vitalline
What brings blood form the chorion? Umbilical
What returns blood from the body? Cardinal
The heart development starts as two thin walled endothilial tubes...what are these called? Endocardinal heart tubes
Mesenchyme around the endocardinal tubes thicken to form what? 1. Myocardium 2. Epicardium
As the heart develops, it forms into 5 divisions. These are: 1. Truncus 2. Bulbus 3. Ventricle 4. Atrium 5. Sinus
What shape does the heart tube take and why? S shaped because the bulbus and ventricle grow faster than the other parts
At what day do heart contractions begin? 22nd day
What type of circulation does the heart have once it starts beating? Ebb and flow
What is the tissue growth methode? 2 or more growing masses of tissue gowing towards each other. These devide a single chamber into 2.
What is the overgrowth methode? A septum is formed to devide the chamber. The division of the chamber into 2 is not complete.
What is the 4th week bulge from the dorsal and ventral walls of the atrioventricular canal? Atrioventricular septum
What are the four divisions of the atrial septa? Septum primium, ostium primium and ostium secundum, oval formamen
Before birth, the ___ allows most of the blood entering the right atrium from the inferior vena cava to pass to the ___. 1. Foramen ovale 2. Left atrium
Before birth, the foramen ovale allows most of the blood entering the right atrium from the inferior vena cava to pass to the left atrium. What is this called? Internal shunt
What is the percentage of people who the septum primium and the septum secundum fuse? 75%
What is the percentage of people that the septum primium and secundum do not fuse and what is this called? 25% Probe patency of the oval foramen
What is the space between the free rin of the interventricular septum and the cushion septum? Muscular interventricular septum
What do the cavum aorticum and cavum pulmonare divide into? 1. Ascending aorta 2. Pulmonary trunk
What is ectopic cordis? The heart protrudes through the sternal fissure
What is dextracardia? When the heart is located in the right hemicardia.
What is situs inversus? When your organs are on the other side of the body
Is atrial septal defect accompanied with other cardiac abnormalities? Rarely
What is atrial septal defect? Ranges from a small patent foramen to complete absence of the intratrial septum
Ventral septum defect presents a harsh ____ murmur with no ____. 1. Systolic 2. Cyanosis
Where can you hear the harsh systolic murmur in VSD? In the 3rd and 4th interspace near the left sternal border
What are the characteristics of tetralogy of fallot? 1. Pulmonary stenosis 2. Ventricular septal defect 3. Overriding aorta 4. Right ventricular hypertrophy
How does the tetralogy of fallot differenciate from the triology of fallot? The triology does not have an overriding aorta
What develops from the nervous system and the sensory epithelium of the nose, eye and ear? Ectoderm
The neural plate folds to form what? Neural groove
The elevated side of the neural groove become what? Neural folds
When the neural folds fuse together they form what? Neural tube
Ectodermal cells lying along the crest of each neural fold become what? Neural crest cells
What are the three layers of the neural tube? 1. Ependymal layer 2. Mantle layer 3. Marginal layer
In the adult, these cells appear to be cuboidal with numerous microvilli. Ependymal layer
This layer make up the gray mater of the CNS Mantle layer
What types of cells are found in the mantle layer? 1. Large neuroblast or nerve cells 2. Smaller glioblasts or glial cells
This is the fibrous mesh which develops from cells that have lost their nuclei during early development. Marginal layer
This makes up the white mater of the CNS Marginal layer
Parts of the neural tube (6) 1. Central canal 2. Dorsal sulcus 3. Ventral sulcus 4. Sulcus limitans 5. Roof plate 6. Floor plate
Nerve cells migrate into the mantle layer and become what? Apolar Neuroblasts
The apolar neuroblasts differentiate into what? Bipolar neuroblasts
In the spinal ganglia, the bipolar neuroblast grow and fuse at the origin or base forming what? A T shaped structure
Describe the position of the cord at the third month of development of the embryo Entire lenght of embryo
At 6 months, the cord location of embryo Lies at the level of first sacral vertebrae
At birth, the cord is at the level of the __ or ___ lumbar vertebrae 2nd or 3rd
In the adult, the cord lies at the lower end of the ___ lumbar vertebrae 1st
Name the three primary brain vessicle Prosencephalon, Mesencephalon, rhombencephalon
What does the prosencephalon (forebrain) divide into? Telencephalon (cerebrum) and Diencephalon
What does the rhombencephalon divide into? Metencephalon (forming the pons), Cerebellum and the myelencephalon (medulla)
The ___ occurs in the midbrain or mesencephalon level during the 4th week Cephalic flexure
The ___ appears at the junction of the myelencephalon and the spinal cord. Cervical flexure
The ___ starts round the 6th week of development at the junction of the metencephalon and myelencephalon Pontine flexure
The pituitary develops from what? 1. Rathke's pouch 2. Infundibulum
What is another word for the anterior lobe of the hypophysis? Adenohypophysis
The infundibulum gives rise to the ___ or ___ and the ___ of the hypophysis. 1. Neurohypoppysis 2. Stalk 3. Posterior lobe
Open cranium with cysts, may contain the meninges Cranium bifidum
Fluid in the cranial cavity, absence or reduction of the brain Hydrocephaly
May show mental efficiency with periodic seizures Agenisis of the corpus callosum
Single cerebrum, no division into hemispheres Holoprosencephaly
Congenital malformations may occur in ____ to ___ percent of newborns. 2 - 3
3 causes for congenital malformations 1. Genetic and chromosomal factors 2. environment factors 3. Combo of both
Any agent that can produce a congenital malformation is called what? Teratogen
Objective evidence of a disease Sign
Subjective evidence of a disease Symptom
Set of symptoms and signs which occur together Syndrome
Study of the cause of a disease Etiology
Critical periods in human developement Nervous system 3rd to 7th week
Critical periods in human developement: Cardiac 4th to 6th week
Critical periods in human developement: Ears 4th to 8th week
Critical periods in human developement: eyes 4th to 8th week
Critical periods in human developement: limbs 4th to 7th week
Critical periods in human developement: teeth 6th to 8th week
Critical periods in human developement: palate 6th to 8th week
Critical periods in human developement: external genitalia 7th to 9th week
Chromosomal disorders result from numerical abnormalities of the chromosomes. These numerical error occur during celle division due to what? Nondisjunction
In humans, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes, which include ___ pairs of ___ and 1 pair of ___. 1. 22 pairs of autosomes 2. Sex chromosomes
Normal male karyotype 46XY
Normal female karyotype 46XX
Trisomy 21: karyotype, Syndrome, CNS, craniofascial, Extremities and remarks 1. 47(21)XY 2. Downs or G syndrome 3. Mental retardation 4. Palpebral fissure 5. Simiman crease, ulnar loops, axial triradius 6. Hypotonia, poor moro reflex, flat facial profile
Trisomy of 18: karyotype, syndromes, extremities and remarks 1. 47(18)XX 2. Edwards syndrome or E syndrome 3. Flexion deformities of fingers, overlapping fingers, rocker bottom feet 4. only 10% survive past 1st year
Trisomy 13: karyotype, syndrome, CNS, Remarks 1. 47(13-15)XY 2. Pataus syndrome or D syndrome 3. Deafness seizures, holoprosencephalie, hypotonia, deafness 4. only 20% survive past 1st year
Trisomy of X: Karyotype, remarks 1. 47XXX 2. Chromatine positive with 2 barr bodies
Trisomy with Y: Karyotype, syndrome, growth and development, extremities, remarks 1. 47XXY (male) 2. Klinfelters syndrome 3. tall 4. long 5. chromatin positive
Trisomy of Y: karyotype, syndrome, growth and development, genitalia, remarks 1. 47XYY 2. Modified Klinfelders 3. Tall 4. Cryptorchism, hypoplastic scrotum, small penis, hypoplastic testies 5. Chromatin negative
Monosomy of X : karyotype, syndrome, CNS, craniofascial, genitalia, remarks 1. 45XO (female) 2. Turner's syndrome 3. Normal to defective vision and hearing 4. Short webbed neck 5. Lack of breast development, small inverted nipple 6. Chromatin negative
Addition of part of 22: karyotype, syndrome, craniofascial, abdominal 1. 46(22q+)XX 2. Cat-Eye syndrom or anal atresia syndrom 3. Inferior coloboma 4. Anal atresia, recto-vestibular fistula, recto-urethral fistula
Deletion of part of 5: Karyotype, syndrome, CNS, craniofascial, Remarks 1. 46(5p-)XX 2. Cri de chat or cry of the cat syndrome 3. Scream like a cat getting pulverized when a baby 4. Microcephaly 5. Frequent survival into adulthood (more frequent in females)
Does the fetal blood-brain barrier offer a good amount of resistance to microorganisms? No
Are infections, notably viral infection resulting fomr materanl viremia, bad for the fetus yes.
When do bacterial infections usually occur in the fetus? After the 1st trimester
Should a vaginal infection be taken lightly during pregnancy? No!
Varicella zoster: big side effect death of fetus
Hepes virus: big side effects (3) 1. Lethal 2. circulatory failure 3. Calcification of brain
Influenza (3) Abortion, premature labor, anal and esophageal atresia
Hep B (2) Fetal hepatitis and prematurity
Rubella(5) Congenital rebuella syndrome, growth retardation, deafness, cataracts, septal defect
HIV (3) Microcephaly, skeletal defects, cardiac defect
Gonorrhea Give eyedrops to the baby when born
Toxoplasma (3) Abortion, growth retardation, cerebral calcification
Drugs for which studies have not shown a risk to the fetus Catagory A
Drugs with no human studies but animal studies have no known effect Catagory B
Drug studies are inadequate in both animal and humans to show effect on the fetus Catagory C
Drugs can definetly cause harm but the benifits to the mother outweigh Catagory D
Drugs that can cause harm to the fetus with no benifit to the mother Catagory X
Morphine: effects of the fetus Skeletal defects
Ethanol: what catagory? X
Streotomycin: catagory and effect on fetus 1. D 2. Auditory nerve damage, deafness
Tetracycline: catagory and effects on fetus 1. D 2. Discoloration of teeth and deafness
Dicumarol: catagory and side effects on fetus 1. D 2. Hemorrhage and fetal death
Phenobarbital: catagory and side effect 1. D 2. Hemmorhage, vertebral defects, growth retardation
Isulin : catagory, side effects, trimester most likely for side effects to occur 1. B 2. Caudal regression syndrome 3. 1st
Cortisones: catagory, side effects, trimester most likely for side effects to occur 1. X 2. Cleft palate, other skeletal defect 3. All
Thalidomide: catagory, side effects, trimester most likely for side effects to occur 1. D (X) 2. Phocomelia, tetralogy of Fallot 3. All
Cortisone: side effects on fetus Celft palate
Estrogen: catagory and side effects Adenocarcinoma of vagina
Oral contraceptives: catagory and side effects 1. X 2. VACTERL Verbal defects Anal atresia Cardiovascular anomalies Tracheal-esophageal atresia Renal abonormalities Limb abnormalities
Influenza vacination: catagory, side effects, trimester most likely for side effects to occur 1. C 2. Abortion 3. Early
Vitamin A: catagory, side effects, trimester most likely for side effects to occur 1. X 2. Cleft palate, eye damage 3. All
Caffein: catagory, side effects, trimester most likely for side effects to occur 1.B 2. Digital defect, cleft palate 3. All
Nicotine: catagory, side effects, trimester most likely for side effects to occur 1. D 2. Growth retardation, low oxygen supply 3. All
Radiation risks for fetus 1st tri Death
Radiation risks for fetus 2nd tri Malformation of organs and such
Radiation risks for fetus 3rd tri Leukemia
Created by: LrB