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WGU Mod. 4 H&Fitness

WGU Health and fitness

The constituents of food that sustain us physiologically: proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water.
These are the substance in food needed to support life functions. Nutrients
What provides energy that the body needs. Nutrients
This is the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water one degree Celsius. A kilocalorie (Calorie)
This is the minimum amount of energy required by the body to maintain essential body functions (e.g., to maintain a normal body temperature, muscle tone, respiration) when at rest. Basal metabolism
The three categories of nutrients provide for caloric energy is: carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
What is second to oxygen in importance to body functioning. Water
A person can survive longer without _____ than without _____; there can be no life without _____. food/water; water
What transports nutrients to and waste products from the cells and what helps regulate body temperature. Water
What is lost through exhaled air. Water
Recommended daily intake is the equivalent of _______ glasses of water. six to eight
Much of water intake is gained from what. solid foods
About ___ different nutrients are needed to maintain health. 50
No food contains all the nutrients needed, not even _____, which is highly regarded in our society. milk
Best way for a person to get all the essential nutrients without overeating is to choose food with ______. high nutrient density
This is combinations of two monosaccharides. Disaccharide
This is the polysaccharide form in which glucose is stored in the liver. Glycogen
What is inorganic, indestructible elements that aid physiological processes. Minerals
calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, sodium, chlorie, and magnesium are what? The major minerals needed by the body
What mineral = milk, cheese, sardines, salmon, green vegetables. Calcium
What mineral = milk, cheese, lean meat Phosphorus
What mineral = oranges, bananas, dried fruits. Potassium
What mineral = eggs, poultry, fish Sulfur
What mineral = table salt, beef, eggs, cheese Sodium
What mineral = table salt, meat Chloride
What mineral = green vegetables, whole grains Magnesium
After organic compounds have been oxidized, what remain to form actual body parts. minerals
Calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus are components of what? the bones and teeth
What contribute to the osmotic pressure of body fluids and to the maintenance of neutrality—the acid-base balance of the blood and body tissues. Minerals
Daily recommended intake is 2,400 milligrams (mg) Sodium
2,400 mg of what = 6grams of salt = one level teaspoon of salt sodium
What plays an essential role in the regulation of fluids and blood pressure. Sodium
What deficiency causes anemia and is a major health problem. Iron
Deficiency of what causes chronic fatigue, sensitivity to cold, edginess, depression, sleeplessness, susceptibility to colds and infections, and functional impairments in work performance, behavior, and intellectual development. Iron
Deficiency of what mostly occurs in infants, adolescent males, and females in childbearing years. Iron
What essential organic compounds that promote growth and reproduction and help maintain life and health and prevent disease. vitamins
What are classified as either fat-soluble or water-soluble? vitamins
These vitamins dissolve in fat and are found in the fatty parts of food and body tissues. Fat Soluble
What are stored in the body until needed? Fat Soluble vitamins
A, D, E, and K are transported by lipids through the body and are considered what kind of vitamins? Fat Soluble
What promotes growth and health of body tissues and enhances vision by helping the retina function properly. Vitamin A
What is essential for calcium absorption and thus is needed to prevent and cure rickets, a deficiency disease in which bones fail to harden. Vitamin D
What is an activator in certain enzyme reactions, and it protects vitamins A and C from being used up too quickly. Vitamin E
What is essential for the synthesis of prothrombin, a substance needed for normal blood coagulation. Vitamin K
What vitamins dissolve in water and are associated with the watery parts of food and body tissues. Water soluble vitamins
These vitamins are not stored in the body. Water soluble
What vitamin excess is excreted in the urine. Water soluble
The B vitamins and Vitamin C are what kind of vitamins? Water soluble
What vitamin helps body systems combat stress and maintain energy reserves. The B-complex group
What vitamin is necessary for carbohydrate metabolism B1-thiamin
What vitamin helps body cells use oxygen, promotes tissue repair, and helps the nervous system function properly B2-riboflavin
What vitamin is essential to growth B3-niacin
What vitamin helps increase vitality and influences glandular functions B5-pantothenic acid
What vitamin is necessary for healthy teeth and gums and maintain normal body cholesterol and aids in the production of antibodies B6-pyridoxine
What vitamin works in conjunction with folic acid and iron to build normal blood cells. B12-cobalamin
What vitamin prevent pernicious anemia, folic acid aids in the proper growth and reproduction of blood cells and contributes to healthy skin, and biotin is necessary for the proper use fats carbohydrates and protein and helps produce antibodies. B12-cobalamin
What vitamin is vital in preventing scurvy, in the formation and maintenance of collagen, in the normal metabolism of some amino acids, and in the function of the adrenal glands. Vitamin C
Substances believed to protect active people from oxidative stress and resultant tissue damage at the cellular level. Antioxidants
These are substances that eliminate free radicals and thus, protect our body from harm. Antioxidants
These play a vital role in preventing heart disease and certain types of cancer. Antioxidants
These act as scavengers by binding to free radicals, thus preventing them from causing damage. Antioxidants
This protection includes a variety of enzymes that destroy free radicals, as well as food components, such as ... the antioxidant vitamins C and E and beta-carotene (a precursor of vitamin A).
Eating foods that boost _____ defenses minimize free radical damages. antioxidant
What is found in fruits and vegetables Vitamin C
What is found in carrots, cantaloupe, dark green leafy vegetable, and vegetable-based soups Beta-carotene
What is found in vegetable oils, wheat germ, nuts, and green leafy vegetables. Vitamin E
To establish this is to select foods each day from the types identified from the MyPyramid. a balance diet
Stay within your daily calorie needs, be physical active for at least 30 minutes most days of the week, about 60 minutes a day of physical activity may be needed to ... prevent weight gain
for this, at least 60 to 90 minutes a day of physical activity may be required sustaining weight loss
One size doesn't fit all My Pyramid Plan
Reminds consumers to make healthy food choices and be active every day. My Pyramid Plan
Daily physical activity is recommended My Pyramid Plan
Moderation My Pyramid Plan
Wider base stands for food with little or no solid fats or added sugars. My Pyramid Plan
Narrow top area stands for foods containing more added sugars and solid fats. My Pyramid Plan
The more active you are the more foods can fit into your diet My Pyramid Plan
Proportionality of each food group My Pyramid Plan
The widths suggest how much food a person should choose from each group. My Pyramid Plan
Widths are not exact proportions. My Pyramid Plan
5 food groups and oils. My Pyramid Plan
Small steps can improve diet and lifestyle each day. My Pyramid Plan
Eat 6 oz. everyday- 6 to 11 servings-make half your this whole; Grains
Whole this products contain more fiber, vitamins, and minerals than refined products. Grain
Eat 2 ½ cups every day-3 to 5 servings daily with least 1 which provides vitamin A-vary your this Vegetables
These are usually good sources of vitamin A and C, carbohydrates and fiber. Fruits & Vegetables
. Dark green, leafy vegetables such as spinach, kale, collard greens, mustard greens, and broccoli are high in _____. calcium and vitamins A and C
Orange vegetables like carrots, squash, and sweet potatoes also high in this. vitamin A
Eat 2 cups every day-2 to 4 servings daily at least 1 which provides vitamin C Fruits
Get 3 cups everyday; for kids aged 2 to 8, it’s 2 cups- 2 to 3 servings Milk
Does low fat milk and cheese have the same amount of vitamins and minerals as whole fat milk and cheese? Yes
Eat 5 ½ oz. every day-2 to 3 servings daily which is 3 ounces Meat & Beans
How should you cook your meat? Bake it, broil it, or grill it.
Choose more of what kind of proteins? fish, beans, peas, nuts, and seeds
Meat, poultry, fish, and eggs also dried beans and peas are high in what? protein and iron
This on the food package influences the number of calories and all the nutrient amounts listed on the top part of the label. The size of the serving
This provide a measure of how much energy you get from a serving of this food. Calories
These are based on the Daily Value recommendations for key nutrients but only for a 2000 calorie daily diet. The % Daily Values (% DVs)
the nutrients that Americans eat a lot of are fat, cholesterol, and sodium may increase your risk of what chronic diseases? heart disease, some cancers, or high blood pressure
Basic nutrients that supply the body with the energy needed to sustain normal activity. Carbohydrates
The metabolism of glucose, component of this, is the most significant source of energy. Carbohydrates
4 calories are produced per gram of these. Carbohydrates & Proteins
If the lack of this in a diet, then proteins and fat are metabolized to produce needed energy. Carbohydrates
This is the only energy source used by brain cells and acts as the most common energy source. Glucose (Carbohydrates)
This must be constantly replenished in the blood, either by eating or by breaking down glycogen that is stored in the liver and muscles. Carbohydrates
60% of what should be comprised in a child’s total caloric intake. Carbohydrates
The essential constituents of nearly all body cells. Proteins
The key elements of antibodies, enzymes, and hormones. Proteins
Necessary for the development and repair of bone, muscle, skin, and blood. Proteins
These are essential nutrients. Proteins
No organism can live and almost no biological process can take place, without these. Proteins
These are presented in every cell, in enzymes, and in body secretions. Proteins
These help build new cells and tissues in growing children. Proteins
These repair damaged tissues; maintain tissues that are already built. Proteins
These play a role in the manufacture of blood, enzymes, hormones, and human milk. Proteins
Antibodies, which combat infection, are synthesized from these in response to infectious agents. Proteins
10 to 12% of this should be the total caloric intake for a child or adult. Proteins
Most children require about 60 grams of this daily. protein
Milk and meat products including poultry are excellent sources of this. protein
Corn is deficient in the amino acids isoleucine and lysine, so it is often eaten with beans (which lack the tryptophan and methionine found in corn)these are eaten together why? A vegetarian diet must have enough protein to support normal growth and development.
wheat is deficient in lysine, so it may be combinded with beans for nutritional completeness. These are eaten together why? A vegetarian diet must have enough protein to support normal growth and development.
Cereal grains, vegetables and fruits contain vegetable protein, which must be augmented by other protein sources, as in tortillas and beans combined. A vegetarian diet must have enough protein to support normal growth and development.
Peanut protein is combined with wheat, oat, corn, rice, or coconut. A vegetarian diet must have enough protein to support normal growth and development.
Soy protein is combined with corn, wheat, rye, or sesame. A vegetarian diet must have enough protein to support normal growth and development.
Non-meat sources of protein include what? soybeans, dried beans, nuts, and dairy products.
Proteins that are lacking one or more of the essential amino acids is called? Incomplete protein
This is a smaller structure made up by protein molecules. Amino acids
How many amino acids are termed essential in adult? 8 amino acids
How many amino acids are termed essential in infants? 9 amino acids
These are the building blocks necessary for performing many body functions. amino acids
Which amino acids are synthesized by the body? Nonessential
Which amino acids must be provided by the diet? essential
These are required for good health. Lipids
These are organic compounds that do not readily dissolve in water Lipids
Triglycerides (neutral fats), phospholipids, steroids, are types of what? Lipids
These provides much of the stored energy of the body. Lipids (triglycerides)
These insulate body organs against changes in environment temperature due to fat deposits. Lipids
These protect the organs and underlying tissues by acting as a shock absorber. Lipids
These serve as carriers for absorption of the fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) Lipids
These have roles in such key functions as regulating blood pressure and gastrointestinal motility, and the lipoprotein. Lipoid substances
LDL Bad cholesterol
HDL Good cholesterol
These fatty acids are mostly found in foods of animal origin such as animal fat, beef, butter, chicken eggs, and whole milk. Saturated
These fatty acids are mostly found in foods of plant origin, including vegetable oils (corn, olive, soybean, peanut, and safflower oils) and some seafood. Unsaturated
Olive and canola oils are particularly high in _____ fats. monounsaturated
Vegetable oils (not including olive and canola), nuts, and high-fat fish are sources of _____ fats. polyunsaturated
This is a generic term for non-digestible carbohydrates (including cellulose, lignin, and pectin) and found in plants. Dietary Fiber
This is beneficial to promote normal laxation (bowel movements). Fiber
This may help reduce heart disease, some cancers (colon cancer), obesity, hemorrhoids, and diverticular disease. Fiber
Recommended daily intake is 20 to 30 grams with an upper limit of 35 g per day for what? Fiber
What is the recommended daily intake for children? age + 5 grams
All the cholesterol the body needs is made by the what? liver
What is used to build cell membranes and brain and other nervous tissue. Cholesterol
This helps the body produce steroid hormones needed for the regulation of blood sugar, salt and water balance, production of bile acids needed for digestion and reproduction. Cholesterol
High levels of these in the diet are linked to heart disease and certain cancers, along with atherosclerosis. saturated fat and cholesterol
9 calories per ___ gram fat
No more than 30% of ___ should comprise of the total calories consumed. fat
Implies that the individual is not getting enough nutrients. Under nutrition
This can occur even if the person is consuming more than enough calories. Under nutrition
When one is _____,the available proteins and carbohydrates are depleted, and the body begins to burn fat reserves. undernourished
The available proteins and carbohydrates are depleted, and the body begins to burn fat reserves. This process is? ketosis
This may cause blood sugar imbalances, lower basal metabolic rate, produce dehydration, provoke heart irregularity, inhibit growth, delay maturation, limit physical activity, and interfere with learning. Under nutrition
This is an imbalance of proper nutrients. Malnutrition
An inaccurate perception of one’s own nutritional state. Anorexia Nervosa
A person with this is hungry, but denies the hunger because of an irrational fear of becoming fat. Anorexia Nervosa
self starvation Anorexia Nervosa
food preoccupation and rituals Anorexia Nervosa
compulsive exercising Anorexia Nervosa
often an absence of menstrual cycles Anorexia Nervosa
May also use large quantities of laxatives Anorexia Nervosa
Most common cause of death in a long-time this is a low level of potassium in the blood, which can cause an irregular heartbeat. Anorexia Nervosa
cause of death in a long-time this are starvation, infections, dehydration due to over use of laxatives, and suicide due to depression. Anorexia Nervosa
These people are typically compulsive, perfectionist, and very competitive. Anorexia Nervosa
recurring periods of binge eating, then purge Bulimia
Warning signs: disappearance of large amounts of food in short amount of time Bulimia
Warning signs: unusual swelling of cheeks or jaw area Bulimia
Warning signs: frequent trips to the bathroom after eating Bulimia
Warning signs: rigid exercise regimen Bulimia
Warning signs: calluses on the back of hands and knuckles from self-induced vomiting Bulimia
Warning signs: discoloration or staining of the teeth Bulimia
Warning signs: creation of complex lifestyle schedules or rituals Bulimia
Warning signs: withdrawal from usual friends and activities Bulimia
Health signs:Electrolyte imbalance is caused by dehydration and loss of potassium and sodium from the body as a result of purging behaviors. Bulimia
Health signs:Inflammation and possible rupture of the esophagus from frequent vomiting. Bulimia
Health signs:Tooth decay and staining from stomach acids released during frequent vomiting. Bulimia
Health signs:Chronic irregular bowl movement and constipation as a result of laxative abuse. Bulimia
Health signs:Gastric rupture is an uncommon but possible side effect Bulimia
Organic compounds carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
Inorganic compounds minerals
Created by: ldepaepe