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10:Organic Chemistry

HELUS Phys. Sc.: Chemistry of Life

___ is the total mass of all living matter on Earth, which is made up mostly of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus. Biomass
Living ___ get these elements from their environments. organisms
All of the elements essential to life flow through food ___ that are part of natural cycles. webs
The carbon ___ describes how carbon moves from the atmosphere into plants (where it isused to provide energy), into animals that eat plants, and into the environment as waste from animals. cycle
Carbon is released into the atmosphere when ___ ___ burn, releasing carbon that was part of ancient organisms. fossil fuels
In the nitrogen cycle, nitrogen-fixing ___ convert nitrogen from Earth’s atmosphere into nitrogen compounds plants can use. The nitrogen that plants use is passed on through the food web to plant consumers and on to other consumers. bacteria
___ processes break down rocks containing phosphorus. Plants then ___ and use phosphorus, which is in turn passed on to ___. Natural, absorb, consumers
In addition to the elements that make up living tissue, living organisms cannot survive without the compound ___. water
The ___ properties of water allow blood to flow and carry substances through the body. The liquid portion of blood, called ___, is 90 percent water. fluid, plasma
Water requires more ___ than other liquids to change temperature, which protects livingorganisms from temperature changes. heat
Solid water is less ___ than liquid water. Ice, therefore, floats on liquid water and provides a protective layer for organisms in the water. dense
Water is a polar molecule, which makes it an excellent ___ for other polar moleculesnecessary for living organisms. solvent
A ___ ___ is a molecule that has a positive end and a negative end because of anunequal sharing of electrons between its molecules. polar molecule
A ___ ___ is a molecule that shares electrons equally and does not haveoppositely charged ends. nonpolar molecule
Weak attractions between water molecules, called ___ ___, give water many uniqueproperties. hydrogen bonds
An ___ ___ is one of a large group of compounds that always contain carbon. organic compound
Most of the compounds in ___ ___ are organic compounds, but not all ___ compounds are organic compounds. living cells, carbon
Able to form ___ covalent bonds, carbon can form short chains, long chains, branchedchains, and ___. four, rings
Carbon is unusual because it can form ___ and triple covalent bonds. double
Molecules that contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms are called ___. hydrocarbons
Because carbon can form ___ with other atoms, it can form long chains. bonds
A ___ ___ is a compound that contains only single covalent bonds betweencarbon atoms. saturated hydrocarbon
An ___ ___ is a compound that contains at least one double or triplecovalent bond between carbon atoms. unsaturated hydrocarbon
A ___ ___ is a group of atoms that replaces a hydrogen atom in organic compounds. functional group
A functional group changes the properties of an organic compound from the original___ on which it is based. hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon substituted with a ___ functional group is called an alcohol. hydroxyl
A hydroxyl group consists of one ___ atom covalently bonded with one ___ atom. oxygen, hydrogen
Nonpolar hydrocarbons do not ___ in water, but by adding a hydroxyl group, watersoluble compounds are formed. dissolve
A ___ group is a functional group that consists of one carbon atom, two oxygen atoms, and one hydrogen atom. The carbon forms a double covalent bond with one of the oxygenatoms. carboxyl
Substituted hydrocarbons with a carboxyl functional group are called ___ acids. carboxylic
___ is a carboxylic acid, as is lactic acid. Aspirin
An ___ group is a functional group made up of one nitrogen atom and two hydrogenatoms. The nitrogen atom bonds with a carbon atom from a hydrocarbon to form a substituted hydrocarbon. amino
Substituted hydrocarbons with the amino functional group are called ___. amines
Many amines, such as ___ and thiamine, end with the suffix -amine. histamine
Substituted hydrocarbons with both an ___ functional group and a ___ functionalgroup are called amino acids. amino, carboxylic
An ___ ___ is a member of a class of organic compounds that are the basic buildingblocks of proteins. amino acid
___ common amino acids are used in your body to create different protein molecules.Human cells can create ___ of the 20 common amino acids, but you must get the other ninecommon amino acids from the foods you eat. Twenty, 11
___ can be used to understand the shapes of molecules. Models
The three-dimensional shapes of molecules help explain the ___ of the compounds that consist of those molecules. properties
A ___ is a large molecule formed from repeated combinations of smaller moleculescalled monomers. polymer
A ___ is a small molecule that forms a link in a polymer chain and can be made tocombine with itself repeatedly. monomer
___ ___, made by living organisms, contain carbon. Natural polymers
Natural ___ can also contain hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and phosphorus. polymers
___ ___ are human-made polymer compounds that are not found in nature. Synthetic polymers
A large organic molecule found in living organisms is called a ___. biomolecule
A ___ ___ is a biomolecule that is found in all plant and animal cells and can encode information. nucleic acid
___ and ___ are nucleic acids that store the genetic information and buildinginstructions for an organism. DNA, RNA
The monomers of DNA and RNA are called ___. All nucleotides contain the same___ group. Each ___ also contains a five-carbon sugar and a base called a nitrogen group; these two groups vary among nucleotides. nucleotides, phosphate, nucleotide
___ are biological compounds, including fats and oils, that are not soluble in water and that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Lipids
Because lipids are made of ___ molecules, they are not soluble in water. nonpolar
___ ___ have only single bonds between carbon atoms and are solids at roomtemperature. Saturated fats
___ ___ have at least one double bond between carbon atoms and are liquids atroom temperature. Unsaturated fats
A ___ is an organic compound used by cells to store and release energy. carbohydrate
___ carbohydrates are natural polymers made from sugar monomers. Complex
A ___ is an organic polymer made of amino acid monomers. protein
___ ___ are made of an amino group, a carboxyl group, and another group called aside chain or R-group. Amino acids
The instructions for building proteins from amino acids are stored in the ___ of a cell. DNA
Besides ___ molecules, living organisms also contain minerals. carbon
Minerals are ___, such as sodium (Na) or potassium (K). elements
Created by: jnosik