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kduvall

Pharmacology

QuestionAnswer
A broad term that includes the study of drugs and their actions in the body pharmacology
The art of preparing, compounding, and dispensing drugs for medicinal use pharmacy
The science that deals with poisons-their detection and the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of conditions caused by them toxicology
Any substance used as medicine (used to diagnose, cure, mitigate, treat, or prevent disease) drug
Name four things drugs include: chemicals, plant parts or products, animal products, certain food substances
The combined effect of two drugs that is equal to the sum of the effects of each drug taken alone additive effect
An action, usually negative, that is different from the planned effect adverse or untoward effect
An untoward reaction that develops after the individual has taken a drug allergic reaction
A chemical compound that resembles another in structure but has different effects analog
The combined effect of two drugs that is less than the effect of either drug taken alone antagonism
Formation of a chemical compound by enzymes, either within an organism (in vivo) or in vitro by fragments of cells biosynthesis
A decrease in activity of cells caused by the action of a drug depression
Pertaining to the art of determining the nature of a patient's disease diagnostic
Abnormal sensitivity to a drug, or a reaction not intended idiosyncrasy
An agent of measure that relieves symptoms palliative
An effect that occurs when a drug increases or prolongs the action of another drug, the total effect being greater than the sum of the effects of each used alone potentiation
An agent or measure used to prevent disease prophylactic
An unpredictable effect that is not related to the main action of the drugs side effect
An increase in the activity of cells produced by drugs stimulation
The joint action of agents in which their combined effect is more intense or longer in duration than the sum of their individual effects synergism
Pertaining to treatment of disease therapeutic
Increasing resistance to the usual effects of an established dosage of a drug as a result of continued use tolerance
This law requires that every person who manufactures, dispenses, prescribes, or administers any controlled substance be registered annually with the Attorney General controlled substances act
This is revised annually and readily supplied to all hospitals and physicians, this reference source is probably the most widely used physicians desk reference (PDR)
Active pharmaceutical agents in a pressurized container aerosols
Powdered drugs within a gelatin container. Liquids may be placed insoft gelatin capsules capsules
Solutions containing alcohol, sugar, and water. They may or may not be aromatic and may or may not have active medicinals. Most frequently they are used as flavoring agents or solvents. elixirs
Suspensions of fat globules in water(or water globules in fat) with an emulsifying agent (e.g., Haley's MO, Petrogalar) emulsions
Alcoholic liquid extracts of a drug made by percolation so that 1 ml of the fluid extract contains 1 gm of the drug. Only vegetable-based drugs are used (e.g., glycyrrhiza fluid extract) fluid extracts
Aqueous suspensions of insoluble drugs in hydrated form. Aluminum hydroxide gel, USP, is an example gels
Mixtures of drugs with oil, soap, water, or alcohol, intended for external application with rubbing liniments
Active pharmaceutical agents that are either layered in tablet form for release over several hours or placed in pellets within a capsule. They vary in size, and disintegrate within 8-24 hours long-acting or sustained-released dosage forms
Aqueous preparations containing suspended materials intended for soothing, using local application lotions
Mixtures of drugs with a fatty base for external application, usally by rubbing ointments
Single-dose units made by mixing the powdered drug with a liquid such as a syrup and rolling it into a round or oval shape. pills
Single-dose quantities of a drug or mixture of drugs in powdered form wrapped seperately in powder papers powders
Aqueous liquid preparation containing one or more substances completely dissolved. Every solution has two parts: the solute(the dissolved substance) and the solvent(the substance, usually a liquid, in which the solute is dissolved solutions
Alcoholic solutions of volatile substances. These are also known as essences spirits
Mixtures of drugs with some firm base such as cocoa butter, which can then be molded into shape for insertion into a body orifice. suppositories
Name three of the most common type of suppositories: vaginal, rectal, urethral
Aqueous solutions of a sugar. These may or may not have medicinal substances added syrups
Single-dose units made by compressing powdered drugs in a suitable mold tablets
Alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solutions prepared from durgs tinctures
Flat, round, or rectangular preparations that are held in the mouth until dissolved troches or lozenges
Saturated solutions of volatile oils waters
Name a solution containing alcohol: elixirs
The proper amount of a medicine or agent prescribed for a given patient or condition dosage
The quantity of medicine to be taken at one time or in divided amounts within a given period of time dose
Name some factors influencing dosage: age, sex, condition of patient, psychological factors, enviornmental factors, temperature, method of administration, genetic factors, weight
An order written by a practitioner, to be filled by a pharacist, indicating the medication needed by the patient and containing all necessary directions for the pharmacist and patient prescription
The part of the prescription which gives directions to the pharmacist subscription
The part of the prescription which states the name and quantities of ingredients inscription
The part of the prescription which gives directions to the patient signatura (Sig)
The dose of a given drug may be smaller if administered: intravenously
When an individual reacts unusually to a drug, it is termed___________ idiosyncrasy
A ____________ is obtained when the drug is applied in the immediate area where its effect is desired local effect
To obtain __________________from a drug, it must first be absorbed into the blood and carried to the tissue or organ on which it acts; these drugs may be administered rectally, orally, sublingually, parenterally, or inhaled systemic effects
This administration allows the drug to be swallowed; has the disadvantage of being slower in onset of action than parenteral administration oral administration
This administration occurs when the drug is placed under the tongue, which is where is must be retained until dissolved sublingual administration
This administration is intended for direct use on the respiratory tract inhaled administration
This administration refers to all the ways in which drugs are administered with a needle; is the most efficient method of drug administration parenteral administration
Created by: kduvall20 on 2009-05-15



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