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Govt. HSA Vocabulary

Mr. Clagett's LSN Government HSA Vocabulary

a form of government in which the national government holds the power unitary
a form of government in which the states hold all of the power. confederate
a form of government in which the national and state governments share power. federal
describes a government that has total control over peoples’ lives totalitarian
a government ruled by a single leader who has inherited their position from their family and has absolute power. absolute monarchy
a government ruled by a small group of people. oligarchy
a government ruled by a single leader who has achieved their position through popularity, revolution, wealth, etc. dictatorship
describes a government in which the people have few rights and little say in how the government is run. authoritarian
a system of government in which the people have power over the government. democracy
a democracy led by a president and in which the executive and legislative powers are held by separate branches. presidential democracy
a democracy in which the executive and legislative powers are both held by a group of elected officials called a parliament parliamentary democracy
an economic system where most major economic decisions are made by the government command economy
an economic system where most economic decisions are made by businesses and individuals market economy
an economic system that blends features of command economy, market economy, and traditional economy mixed economy
an economic system where economic decisions are made based on cultural traditions traditional economy
describes the fact that there are limited resources compared to unlimited human wants scarcity
the opportunity someone has to pass up when making a decision opportunity cost
the principle of government that states that the government is divided into three branches and that each has certain powers. separation of powers
the principle of government that states that there are limits on the power of the government. limited government
the principle of government that states that the government gets all of its power from the people popular sovereignty
the principle of government that states that people must agree to be governed for a government to be legitimate. consent of the governed
the principle of government which states that everyone must follow the laws including the wealthy, the powerful, and those in government. rule of law
the principle of government that states that each branch of government has limits it can place on the power of the other branches. checks and balances
the principle of government that states that the Supreme Court can decide whether or not a law or presidential action is constitutional judicial review
the principle of government in which the national and state governments share power. federalism
the plan for our federal government Constitution
a document that created our first national government; created a very weak national government leaving most political power with the state governments Articles of Confederation
the first 10 amendments to the Constitution Bill of Rights
the 1896 Supreme Court case that concluded that segregation was legal Plessy v. Ferguson
the 1954 Supreme Court case that banned segregation Brown v. Board of Education
the 1969 Supreme Court case that established student’s rights to free political expression in school so long as is doesn’t interfere with learning. Tinker v. Des Moines School District
the 1803 case that established the Supreme Court power of judicial review. Marbury v. Madison
the 1819 Supreme Court case that interpreted the "necessary and proper" clause to give Congress implied powers beyond those expressed in the Constitution and established that states could not interfere with legitimate federal laws. McCulloch v. Maryland
the 1963 Supreme Court case that established that states must provide lawyers to poor defendants Gideon v. Wainwright
the 1966 Supreme Court case that required police to inform arrested individuals of their rights before they were formally questioned. Miranda v. Arizona
the 1985 Supreme Court case in which the court said that while students have some 4th Amendment protection from searches, they do not enjoy the same level of protection as an adult or as they would outside of school. New Jersey v. T.L.O.
someone running for public office candidate
politicians that the public has elected to represent them in government elected officials
the means of communication (TV, radio, internet, newspapers, magazines) media
a group of people with a common interest that seek to influence politicians to help their cause. interest group
someone who works for an interest group lobbyist
the study of the characteristics of a population demographics
the state legislature of Maryland Maryland General Assembly
a population count taken of the United States every 10 years United States census
a president's rejection of a bill from Congress veto
the upper house of Congress where each state is equally represented by 2 senators. United States Senate
the lower house of Congress where each state is represented according to its population. United States House of Representatives
a proposed law bill
a plan on how the government will spend money budget
how the government collects and spends money. fiscal policy
the group of individuals that cast the official vote in a presidential election based on the winner of the popular vote in each of their states. Electoral College
the president’s top department heads and advisers cabinet
a presidential command that has the force of law executive order
the executive leader of a state governor
the executive leader of the county county executive
the executive leader of a town or city mayor
a federal agency that is responsible for protecting the environment. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
a federal agency that is responsible for the safety of food, medicine, and cosmetics. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
a federal agency responsible for preventing monopolies and unfair business practices like false advertising. Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
a federal agency responsible for regulating TV, radio, phone service, and other forms of communication Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
a federal agency responsible for the safety of air travel Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
a legal agreement between a plaintiff and defendant in a civil case that settles the dispute without further action by the court. out of court settlement
a legal agreement between two people or groups. contract
violating the Constitution unconstitutional
a document issued by a judge that gives police the authority to conduct a search of a specific place warrant
money deposited with a court in order to persuade it to release a suspect from jail, on the understanding that the suspect will return for trial or lose the bail (and be guilty of the crime of failure to appear). bail
a crime punishable by one year or less in jail. misdemeanor
a crime punishable by more than a year in jail. felony
a person who is being sued or has been charged with a crime. defendant
the lawyer responsible for presenting the case against someone suspected of breaking the law in a criminal trial prosecutor
a written command for a person to testify in court or turn over physical evidence (with the threat of legal punishment if the person does not). subpoena
formal accusation that a person has committed a crime. indictment
the money paid to a plaintiff by the defendant in a successful lawsuit. damages
the person or group who is suing a person or company plaintiff
the breaking of the terms of a contract breach of contract
a government measure of inflation Consumer Price Index (CPI)
the total value of all goods and services produced in a country in a single year Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
the fall in the value of money and the resulting rise in prices that is caused by an increase in the money supply inflation
the government program that provides income to retired people and people with disabilities. Social Security
fairness equity
programs meant to help the poor and disadvantaged welfare
the attempt to limit the development, production, and spread of weapons in the world. arms control
help given to a foreign country including food, supplies, money, military equipment, etc. foreign aid
weapons with the potential to cause widespread damage including nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons. weapons of mass destruction
economic punishment placed by one country on another, ex. A ban on trade, tariffs, etc. economic sanctions
acts made against civilians meant to inspire fear and promote an ideology. terrorism
a tax on goods brought into the country from a foreign country tariff
the human modification of the natural environment land use
Maryland’s state plan to limit sprawl (the development of rural areas) Smart Growth
an agreement eliminating tariffs on goods traded among Mexico, Canada, and the United States. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
a humanitarian non-profit organization that helps victims of war, famine, and natural disasters. International Red Cross
an organization intended to promote peace and improve cooperation among the nations of the world. United Nations (UN)
a group of European and North American countries pledged to defend one another from attack North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Created by: Mr. Clagett