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AnthropologyFinal

Chris Kyle Anthropology

QuestionAnswer
Example of Horticulturalists: Hmong (opium trade in southeast Asia.....opium is an extremely valuable cash crop...HMONG are patrilineal),+++++++++ Yucatec Maya ("slash and burn")
Example of Agriculturalists: (sedentary, surplus leads to growth of cities and towns...sometimes at odds with Pastoralists b/c of land use Aztecs...main crop was maize
Example of Industrialists: (its predecessor is an agriculturalist society) (Current) China, (Current) U.S.A.
Example of Pastoralists (a mobile people that rely on animals)....sometimes at odds with agriculturalists b/c of land use [Nuer = Pastoralists] --Cows are a sense of prestige --Organize their lives around their animals ----Evans Pritchard describes the Nuer as being "Parasites of the Cow," yet perhaps it works the other way around too
Globalization Presentation (me) PROS: Cultural understanding, access to foreign products, nationalism (ex. Scottish) CONS: Erases local cultures, negative effect on the environment
PRESENTATION: Globalizaion (me) continued Languages are being erased and replaced by the three dominant ones: ENGLISH, HINDI, AND CHINESE
Supply Chaining The comprehensive process of moving a product from producer to customer; (just one such definition) WalMart = hyperefficient supply chain
3 parts of Economics as defined by Haines - Production of Goods - Circulation of Goods - The Nature of Work
PRESENTATION: Sexual Behavior/Punishment Punishment: A form of political control used to maintain order
PRESENTATION: Sexual Behavior/Punishment (continued) Generally universal bad sexual behavior: - Adultery - Pre-Marital Sex - Incest Punishment seeks to deter bad sexual behavior
PRESENTATION: Texting (i <3 2 txt) Texting can be considered a dialect of English, but really it is a REGISTER (used in social settings) Some believe that texting is degrading the English language based on brevity and speed
PRESENTATION: Language and Politics Pidgin: Simple language that blends 2 or more languages together that otherwise do not have a common language Creole: A pidgin that has become a country's native language
Languages: In the next 100 yrs.... 90% of languages will become extinct......there's a cost to losing them....lose window into their culture
PRESENTATION: Semiotic Anthropology (comparison of morticians and acrobats) Semiotics: Study of signs (Ferdinand de Saussure) Make the body of the deceased look more natural 2 Models: Dyadic and Triadic
2 Models of semiotics: 1st model is 1) Saussare's Model: Dyadic *Signifier = Form of sign **Signified = Concept the sign represnets ***Signifier + Signified = Sign
2 Models of semiotics: 2nd model is 2) Pierce's Model: Triadic *Representamen = Form of Sign **Interpretant = Sense made of the sign ***Object = Entity to which the sign refers ****Representamen+Interpretant+Object=Semiosis
PRESENTATION: Freeganism - Criticizes excess waste - Yet they live off the very waste they criticize - Kinship sturcture = NOT cognates (blood), just other freegans
PRESENTATION: Hip-Hop Culture - This music fosters a sense of community for Afr-Amer - Gives others a bad view of the Afr-Amer community - Rap music: misogynistic and violent lyrics - Links different generations of Afr-Amer - Comparison: Boogie Down Productions and Malcom X
PRESENTATION: American Kinship structures We = Eskimo structure Ego = Point of reference in tree Affines = related through marriage Cognates/Consaguines = by blood - Changing kinship structure...divorce leads to re-marriage and single parenting
PRESENTATION: Second Generation Immigrants in U.S.A. - 2nd generation translates for parents - 2nd generation is comfortable with English but not so much with their parent's language
PRESENTATION: Globalization (Food) Globalization is leading to abandoning of tradition which is leading to abandoning of traditional nutritious foods
PRESENTATION: Globalization (Kyle) Globalization is destroying some cultures USSR invasion of Afghanistan is related to the rise of the opium trade in Afgha
PRESENTATION: Globalization (Televangelism) - Joel Osteen's megachurch in Lakewood Texas - Messages of faith are broadcasted to the masses via radio, television, internet - Televangelism as a ritual (music, weekely, etc.) - Provides reassurance of faith, brings people toget
PRESENTATION: Racial Identity & the African Diaspora -Race is socially constructed -Identity is indefinable according to presentation on Racial Identity and African Diaspora - Franz Boas = Father of American Anthro...historical particularist -African Diaspora: movement of Africans to all parts of world
PRESENTATION: Military Anthropology (THINK APPLIED ANTHRO) - Educate military troops - Involved in policy advising - Socio-cultural understanding - Try to reduce armed conflict ----Controversial b/c: Anthropologists are armed, American Anthro Association disapproves, Changes how ppl view the anthroplogist
PRESENTATION: Agriculture vs. Society - Big Cities grow up around rivers/H20 sources - Specialized Agriculutre problems include: ---Dependence on 1 or 2 crops ---Vulnerability to mother nature -Negative of effects of tourism on environment
PRESENTATION: Scientology, Cults vs. Religion RELIGION: Cultural knowledge of the supernatural used by people to cope with problems of human existence -------Comparison b/w Lutheranism and Scientology-------Religion gives ppl reassurance and belonging...just like cults
PRESENTATION: Race, Skin-Bleaching --Does "Race" Exist? No, it is a social construct --The concept of race has changed over time and it varies from culture to culture -------2 Types of Identity: NOMINAL (defined by others) and SELF-AFFIRMED (defined by you)
PRESENTATION: KURDS / INTERNAL CONFLICT IN IRAQ Government: Political direction and control exercised over members of society - Opposing governments can't co-exist in one "state"
Giddens on: Tradition (part one) - Traditions are invented and re-invented - Aspects of Scottish identity / tradition are actually new - Addictions: Globalization leads to the deterioration of tradition, and thus the downfall of structure in life...leads to addictions
Giddens on: Tradition (part deux) - Fundamentalism is edged with violence... - Allahtollah Kholmani used aspects of globalized communication to spread the word of his fundamentalist teachings - Tradition: not based on how long they've been around, based on repetition
Giddens on: Globalization (parte uno) Skeptics (don't think much of globalization) vs. Radicals (think this is very new and revolutionary) ----Skeptics: ex. they point out that countries of the EU mainly trade with one another
Giddens on: Globalization (parte dos) ----Radicals: Point out that electronic capital flow and mass communications are completely revolutionary ---globalization leads to nationalism (ex. Scots) ---Cultural understanding -+-+-+-+-Growing gap between rich and poor = biggest problem
Giddens on: Globaliztion (parte tres) "When you recognize Nelson Mandella's face more than your neigbor's face, something has changed"
(1) APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY Military Applied Anthropology: Anthropologists: in military b/c they educate troops about the culture of those they are invading ----involved in policy making, provide cultural understanding to those who might not think well of another culture
(2) APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY k
KINSHIP TERMS ---- Affines: Related by marriage ---- Cognates/Consaguines: Related by blood ---- EXOgamy: Marry outside group ---- ENDOgamy: Marry inside group ---- Clan: Group of lineages ---- Polyandry: More than 1 husband ---- Hypergamy:Marry higher stat
(3) APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY HELP BRING ABOUT CHANGE, MILITARY ANTHROPOLOGY,............not just about the accumulation of knowledge, it has more practical purposes......MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGY.....
WHAT IS ANTHROPOLOGY? HAHAHA you thought you'd fool me, but you are wrong. I know the answer. Anthropology is the study of human culture, behavior, and biology over time.
Ethnography the use of fieldwork for descriptive study of human behavior
Culture When a group of people share kinship structures, political systems, and biological entities in an environment.
Difference between immigrants and refugees IMMIGRANT: One who moves from one country to another...duh REFUGEE: One who flees to another country to escape problems (ex. wars, famine, floods, ...ex. NUER IN MINESSOTA WORKING IN A MEAT FACTORY)
NUER GHOST MARRIAGE: Husband dies...he is replaced and bloodline is continued...kinship goes beyond pure biology...thanks kyle!
Swidden agriculture = a form of horticulture. no permanent damage to environment, need to move to new little plots of land...."slash and burn"
Reciprocity - Part of substantivist economy...GIVING CREATES A RELATIONSHIP BASED ON DEBT....Trobriand Islanders described by Malinowski in WWI.....pokala shell exchange
Structural Functionalism HUGE CLOCK (everything has a purpose)....Radcliff Brown....does not account for change, everything
Historical Particularism - Franz Boas, father/founder of American Anthropology......against EVOLUTIONISM.......how a society works is a result of our history
Evolutionism - Darwain and Lewis Henry Morgan.........simple ---> complex societies
KINSHIP -EGO = reference point on diagram --Our KINSHIP system is based off of Eskimo Kinship (emphasis on nuclear family, and defined by evolutionist Lewis Henry Morgan) ---Reside with father's family is Patrilocal
RADCLIFF BROWN STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALISM!
Race is a social creation, and so is ________. Marriage
Example Society for Hunter Gatherers/Foragers: The Netsilik Live in the arctic.......very mobile....don't carry many possessions,
Formalist vs. Substantivist economies: Formalist Formalist: Our system....people are separate from their products/transactions, rational actions fuel the free-market
Formalist vs. Substantivist economies: Substantivist Use of reciprocity...transactions bind people with debt, ex. Trobriand Islanders described by Malinowski in WWI......pokala shell exchange
Egalitarianism Think Nuer......equality among members of society
Kinship is not innate, it is socially constructed Think about Nuer Ghost marriage. This kinship bond defy's the idea of only cognatic family. It proves that others can step in and fill the role of a deceased family member
AFFLUENCE vs. ABUNDANCE.....2 ways of fulfilling wants/needs AFFLUENCE = hunter gatherers...just enough that you use what is needed, ABUNDANCE = U.S.....fulfill wants through vastly more than need
ADAPTIVE SUCCESS vs. ADAPTIVE FAILURE: adaptive success !Kung Bushmen of the Kalahari Desert: Need calories, eat high calorie mongongo nuts that are *drought resistant*....Hunter Gatherers that are always on the move
COLONIALISM exploitation of a weaker people by a stronger one. for ex. the African slave trade by Europeans
POST-COLONIALISM The emergence of a "3rd" world through the exploitation of one peoples over another (through colonialism). We see such things as Cargo Cults in Papa New Guinea and the Ghost Dance religion of Indians in Nevada pop up as a response to Colonialism
Hunter-Gatherer/Foragers !Kung Bushmen of the Kalahari Desert.....need calories....eat high calorie mongongo nuts that are ***drought resistant***.....HG's, constantly on the move, Mobile
The !Kung Bushmen - Kalahari Desert........eat drought resistant mongongo nuts (high in calories).....HG's / Foragers....mobile, always on the move
ADAPTIVE FAILURE: Easter Island ...population grew to fast...destroyed natural resources...cut down trees for canoes to overfish...no trees = no birds...over fished....cleared forests for gardens, resorted to cannibalism...FAIL
Transhumance....Nuer move seasonally with cattle
Concept of fission vs. fusion in the NETSILIK (HGs) The Netsilik, an Inuit tribe, live in a very cold environment. So, in the summer there is fission b/c people don't need each other...winter = fusion..community is important when it is that cold
A sign can be one of 3 things: a) Symbol b) Index c)Icon
Icon: [Sign] physically represents something
{{{{ LINGUISTICS }}} Phoneme: Smallest unit of sound Morpheme: Smallest unit of meaning Syntax: Sentence structure
Phoneme: Smallest unit of sound
Morpheme: Smallest unit of meaning
Pragmatics: What you means is dependent on the context in which you say it
Lexicon: Vocabulary
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis / Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis: The way you see the world is influenced by the language that you speak.........als
Industrialist society...rises out of an agricultural one.........MAJOR DEPENDENCE ON OIL the surplus from agriculturalist society helps form industrialist society
What is Anthropology? The study of human culture, behavior, and biology over time
World Systems Theory An approach to social analysis and social change.....think Wallerstein
Wallerstein....World Systems Theory Wallerstein is known for world systems theory
Dependency Theory: The development of some nations leads to the underdevelopment of others.........POOR UNDERDEVELOPED NATIONS DEPEND ON DEVELOPED ONES AND CAN'T ESCAPE THAT
Franz Boas Father of American Anthropology
tacit outside our awareness
more about the !Kung Bushmen They belittle gifts...."that cow is so skinny!" even if it is a beautiful animal
Fieldwork on Prostitution (Spradley) Some prostitutes won't wear condoms b/c of danger posed by their customers..........heavy trust of pimps.......alienation to outside world,
lexicon vocabulary
semantics meanings of what is said
Body Art (Spradley) Sometimes this is a rite of passage (get a tattoo, feet binding, etc.)
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis = Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis.........EXAMPLE: HOPI VEIW OF TIME EXAMPLE: HOPI VIEW ON TIME
HOPI: The have a different concept of time.........also think linguistic relativity hypothesis/Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis HOPI HAVE CIRCULAR SENSE OF TIME Hopi's language does not have past present future.....no concept of that.......HOPI HAVE CIRCULAR SENSE OF TIME
Cosmology the study of the universe in its totality
What is a "tubab"? A foreigner........westerner coming to Africa
Acculturation.... cultural change due to contact between societies
Syncretism The synthesis of elements of 2 or more cultures.......................example of syncretism is the "Virgin of Guadalupe"....blend of Aztec/Mexican culture and Catholic Spanish culture
Resistance to colonialism......CARGO CULTS.....and GHOST DANCE RELIGION in the U.S. (Nevada) RESISTANCE TO COLONIALISM....CARGO CULTS...WHAT IS A CARGO CULT?...salvation comes through cargo from their ancestors
Dependency Theory goes AGAINST modernization theory DEPENDENCY THEORY (3rd World is poor because it has been systematically exploited) vs. MODERNIZATION THEORY (through the changing face of technology and occupations a country brings itself to higher economic status & improved quality of life)
Illegal logging situation in Bolivia... 3 types of loggers...completely legal/government controlled ones (relatively large companies).....+illegal companies...+chainsaw gangs that go after endangered/expensive woods
MUST KNOW WORLD SYSTEMS THEORY! ----It has 4 Parts: (1)Periphery, (2)Semi-Periphuery, (3) Core, (4)External Areas - Wallerstein....but also Ferdinand Braudel (made the first attempt of it in the 1920's).
3rd World Typically defined as the group of less-developed countries that have high birth rates, widespread poverty, and low GDP per capita
Modernization Theory: The idea that a country can achieve higher economic prosperity and quality of life through the changing face of technology and occupation.
Dependency Theory: Basically, countries the 3rd world (or any LDC)
NAME TYPES OF APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY: MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, MILITARY ANTHROPOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY FOR SOCIAL CHANGE, APPLIED LINGUISTICS (crack code during wartime)
Who does development? Multinational firms, the IMF (International Monetary Fund) and World Bank
Military Anthropology - Educate troops about the culture o fthose they are invading - Employed as policy makers
Women in Eskimo society Are objects.....can be claimed, or used in order to secure alliances with trade partners
Ritual in baseball.......here there is no empirical connection between the means and the end .
Taboo is the opposite of a ritual a taboo is something you shouldn't do
What is applied anthropology? Applied Anthropology is the application of anthropological knowledge to practical uses.
Give an example of medical anthropology: Improving nutrition in Malawi through the use of goats.......................measure kids to see it they were growing...natives didn't like this...seemed like they were measuring them for coffins
Created by: QuickQuakerMN on 2009-05-06



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