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Integrumentary Vocab

Integrumentary System Chapter 5

TermDefinition
abrasion a scraping or rubbing away of skin or mucous membrane; friction
abscess a localized collection of pus in any part of the body
albino deficiency of pigment in eyes, hair and skin
alopecia partial or complete hair loss
amputation surgical removal of a body part
basal layer deepest layer of the epidermis
blackhead an open comedo
blister a small thin-walled skin lesion containing clear fluid; a vesicle
boil a localized pus-producing infection deep in a hair follicle; a furuncle
bruise a bluish-black discoloration of an area of the skin resulting from an injury
bulla large blister
carbuncle a circumscribed inflammation of the skin and deeper tissues that contains pus
cellulitis a diffuse acute infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue; localized heat, deep redness, pain and swelling
cerumen ear wax
ceruminus gland modified sweat gland that lubricates the skin of the ear canal with cerumen
cicatrix a scar
circumscribed confined to a limited space or well-defined area
collagen the protein substance that forms the glistening inelastic fibers of connective tissue
comedo lesion of acne vulgaris (closed comedo=whitehead; open=blackhead
contusion an injury to a part of the body without a break in the skin
corium the dermis; layer of skin under the epidermis
cryosurgery a noninvasive treatment that uses liquid nitrogen to freeze and destroy the tissue
curettage process of scraping material away for the purpose of removing abnormal tissue or unwanted material
cutaneous membrane the skin
cuticle a fold of skin that covers the root of the fingernail or toenail
cyanosis a condition of a bluish discoloration of the skin
cyst a closed sac or pouch in or within the skin that contains fluid, semifluid or solid material
debridement removal of debris, foreign objects and damaged or necrotic tissue from a wound
dermatitis inflammation of the skin
dermatologist physician who specializes in the treatment of diseases and disorders of the skin
dermatology the study of the skin
dermis layer of skin immediately beneath the epidermis; the corium
diaphoresis the secretion of sweat
ecchymosis a bruise
electrodesiccation a technique that uses an electrical spark to burn and destroy tissue; used for removal of surface lesions
epidermis outermost layer of skin
epidermoid cyst a cyst filled with a sebum; sebaceous cyst
epithelium the tissue that covers the internal and external surfaces of the body
erythema redness of the skin due to capillary dilation; nervous blushing
erythremia an abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells; polycythemia vera
excoriation an injury to the surface of the skin caused by trauma, such as scratching or abrasions
exfoliation peeling or sloughing off of tissue cells
fissure a cracklike sore or groove in the skin or mucous membrane
fistula an abnormal passageway between 2 tubular organs or from an organ to the body surface
furuncle a localized pus-producing infection originating deep in a hair follicle; a boil
gangrene death of tissue due to loss of adequate blood supply, invasion of bacteria and subsequent decay of enzymes
hair follicle the tiny tube within the dermis that contains the root of the hair shaft
hair root the portion of a strand of hair that is embedded in the hair follicle
hemangioma a benign tumor that consists of a mass of blood vessels and has a reddish-purple color
heparin a natural anticoagulant substance produced by the body tissues
hirsutism excessive body hair in an adult male distribution pattern, occurring in women
histiocyte macrophage; a large phagocytic cell occurring in the walls of blood vessels and loose connective tissue
hives circumscribed, slightly elevated lesions of the skin that are paler in the center than its surrounding edges
hydrocele a collection of fluid located in the area of the scrotal sac in the male
ichthyosis an inherited dermatological condition in which the skin is dry; hyperkeratotic and fissured--resembling fish scales
integument the skin
integumentary system the body system consisting of the skin, hair, nails, sweat glands and sebaceous glands
keratin a hard fibrous protein found in the epidermis, hair, nails, enamel of the teeth and horns of animals
keratolytic an agent used to break down or loosen the horny (hardened) layer of the skin
laceration tear in the skin
lanugo soft, very fine hair that covers the body of the developing fetus
lesion any visible damage to the tissues of the skin, such as a wound, sore, rash or boil.
lipedema an abnormal condition in which there is swelling/enlargement of the lower extremities
lipocyte a fat cell
lunula the crescent-shaped pale area at the base of the fingernail or toenail
macrophage a large phagocytic cell occurring in the walls of blood vessels and loose connective tissue
macule a small, flat discoloration of the skin that is neither raised nor depressed
mast cell a cell that contains heparin and histamine
melanin a black or dark pigment that contributes color to the skin and helps filter ultraviolet light
melanocytes cells responsible for producing melanin
melanoma darkly pigmented tumor
nail body the visible part of the nail
necrotizing fasciitis a rare, but serious infection caused by bacteria that can destroy skin, fat and the tissue covering the muscles within a very short time
nodule a small, circumscribed swelling protruding above the skin
oil gland one of the many small glands located in the dermis; its secretions provide oil to the hair and surrounding skin
onychomycosis any fungal infection of the nails
onychophagia the habit of biting the nails
pachyderma abnormal thickening of the skin
papule a small, solid, circumscribed elevation on the skin
paronychia inflammation of the fold of skin surrounding the fingernail; also called runaround
pediculosis infestation with lice
perspiration the clear, watery fluid produced by the sweat glands; sweat
petechia small, pinpoint hemorrhages of the skin
pimple a papule or pustule of the skin
polyp a small, stalk-like growth that protrudes upward or outward from a mucous membrane surface, resembling a mushroom stalk
pores openings of the skin through which substances such as water, salts and some fatty substances are excreted
pressure ulcer an inflammation, sore or ulcer in the skin over a bony prominence of the body
pruritus itching
purpura small, pinpoint hemorrhages
pustule a small elevation of the skin filled with pus; a small abscess
scales thin flakes of hardened epithelium shed from the epidermis
sebaceous cyst a cyst filled with sebum and epithelial debris that has formed in the duct of the sebaceous gland
seborrhea excessive secretion of sebum, resulting in excessive oiliness or dry scales
sebum the oily secretions of the sebaceous glands
skin tags a small brownish or flesh-colored outgrowth of skin occurring frequently on the neck; also known as cutaneous papilloma
squamous epithelial cells flat scale-like cells arrange in layers (strata)
stratified layered; arranged in layers
stratum a uniformly thick sheet or layer of cells
stratum basale the layer of skin where new cells are continually being reproduced, pushing out older cells
stratum corneum the outermost layer of the epidermis which continually sloughs off or flakes away; kerantinized cell layer
stretch marks linear tears in the dermis that result from overstretching from rapid growth; also known as striae
subcutaneous tissue the fatty layer of tissue located beneath the dermis
subungual hematoma a collection of blood beneath a nail bed, usually the result of an injury
sudoriferous gland a sweat gland
sweat the clear, watery fluid produced by the sweat gland; perspiration
sweat gland one of the tiny structures with the dermis that produces sweat; also known as sudoriferous gland
telangiectasia the permanent dilation of groups of superficial capillaries and venules; rosacea
ulcer a circumscribed, open sore or lesion of the skin that is accompanied by inflammation
urticaria a skin reaction with appearance of smooth, slightly elevated patches that are redder or paler than the surrounding skin; severe itchiness
vesicle a small thin-walled skin lesion containing clear fluid; a blister
vitiligo a skin disorder characterized by nonpigmented white patches of skin of varying sizes that are surrounded by skin with normal pigmentation
wheal a circumscribed, slightly elevated lesion; paler in the center than its surrounding edges; hives
whitehead a closed comedo
xanthoderma any yellow coloration of the skin
xeroderma a chronic skin condition characterized by roughness and dryness
Carcinoma Basal cell Ca, Squamous cell Ca, Malignant melanoma
Basal cell Carcinoma malignant epithelial cell tumor, most common of epithelial tissue, occurs most often on the areas exposed to the sun; not treated will invade surrounding tissue; surgical excision, curettage, cryosurgery and electrodesiccation
Squamous cell Carcinoma faster growing than basal cell, greater potential for metastasis if not treated; surgical excision
Malignant Melanoma originating from melanocytes in preexisting nevi, freckles or skin with pigment; risk factors: family history, fair complexion; extremely invasive; surgical removal, chemo and radiation therapy
Exanthematous Viral Disease Rubella (German measles) Roseola infantum Rubeola (measles) Erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) Childhood communicable infection
Herpes Zoster (Shingles) painful vesicular eruptions on the skin following along the nerve pathways of underlying spinal and cranial nerves; 10-20% population is affected; reactivation of chickenpox
Kaposi's Sarcoma vascular malignant lesion that begin as a soft purple-brown nodules or plaques on the face and oral cavity but can occur anywhere on the body; occur most often in men, there is an increased incidence in men with AIDS
Pressure Ulcer (decubitus ulcer) ulcer in skin over a bony prominence, Stage 1-4
Keloid scar
Leukoplakia thickened white patches formed on gums, inside of cheeks, bottom of mouth and tongue; can't be scraped off
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) a chronic, multisystem autoimmune disorder that can affect nearly every major organ system, causing inflammation, tissue injury, organ damage and organ dysfunction; butterfly rash
Psoriasis skin cells multiply up to 10 times faster than normal; raised, red plaques covered with white scales; typically on knees, elbows, scalp, torso, palms and soles of feet
Excisional Debridement use of scalpel to remove devitalized tissue (root operation - excision)
Nonexcisional Debridement nonoperative brushing, irrigating, scrubbing, or washing of devitalized tissue, necrosis, slough or foreign material (root operation - extraction)
Excisional Biopsy removal of the complete tumor or lesion
Incisional Biopsy removal a portion of the tumor or lesion
Punch Biopsy removal small specimen of tissue in the "cookie cutter" fashion
Shave Biopsy use scalpel or razor blade to shave lesion elevated above the skin
Fulguration a procedure to destroy and remove tissue using a high-frequency electric current applied with a needlelike electrode; using for the removal of surface lesion, called electrodesiccation
Skin Graft patch of skin that is removed by surgery from one area of the body and transplanted or attached to another area; full thickness (both epidermis and dermis) or split-thickness (epidermis with a segment of dermis)
Autograft different site on the same individual's body
Homo or Allograft same species (dog to dog)
Hetero or Xenograft animal
Created by: wallace263