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Introduction to Instruction Planning and Presentation

Absolute grading standard Student grades given relative to performance against an established criterion—for example, 90% to 100%, A; 80% to 89%, B; 70% to 79%, C; and 60% to 69%, D.
Accountability Holding schools and teachers responsible for what is taught and what students learn.
Accreditation Procedure for verifying school programs and course quality and uniformity
Active learning Learning by doing with students engaged in reading, writing, discussing, and problem solving.
Advance organizer An introductory statement, before instruction begins, that provides a structure for new information that is to be presented.
Affective domain Learning domain in Benjamin Bloom's Taxonomy concerned with values, attitudes, feelings, and emotions.
Assertive discipline A classroom management approach developed by Lee and Marlene Canter that stresses the need for and rights of teachers to communicate classroom needs and requirements in clear, firm, nonhostile terms and that stresses the rights of students to learn.
Assessment Process of collecting a full range of information about students and classrooms for the purpose of making educational decisions.
Assistive technology (AT) Special tools designed to assist individuals who have special needs.
Attitudes Mind-sets toward a person, place, or thing.
Authentic assessment An assessment procedure that has students demonstrate their ability to perform a particular task in a real-life situation.
Authentic methods Student-centered instruction with a wide range of participatory activities.
Behavior modification Shaping behavior by altering the consequences, outcomes, or rewards that follow the behavior.
Block scheduling An instructional delivery pattern that divides school time into instructional blocks ranging from 20 to 110 minutes.
Body language Physical mannerisms that communicate and can be used to prompt students to stay attentive and on task—such as physical proximity, eye contact, body position, facial expressions, and tone of voice.
Brainstorming Instructional technique in which small groups of students generate ideas, solutions, or comments relative to an assigned topic. All answers, are accepted as possibilities.
Buzz group Instructional technique in which a small work group is formed for a short duration to share opinions, viewpoints, or reactions.
Checklist List of criteria or characteristics against which a performance or an end product is to be judged.
Classroom management Process of organizing and conducting the business of the classroom to keep it relatively free of behavior problems.
Closure Activity used for pulling a lesson together so concepts make sense and bringing it to a logical conclusion.
Cognitive domain Learning domain in Benjamin Bloom's Taxonomy that focuses on information, thinking, and reasoning ability.
Cognitive set Predisposition to act or behave in a certain way.
Cognitive style The means by which individuals process and think about what they learn.
Communication The process by which information and feelings are shared by people through an exchange of verbal and nonverbal messages.
Competitive evaluation Evaluation that forces students to compete with each other
Computer-based instruction (CBI) Use of computers for presenting instructional information, asking questions, and interacting with students. Individualized instruction administered by a computer.
Concept attainment Strategy designed to teach concepts through the presentation of examples and nonexamples.
Constructivist approach Approach to learning that emphasizes that individuals actively construct knowledge and understanding
Contingency contract Grading system in which a formal, written agreement between students and a teacher is drawn up as to what students will do to receive a specified reward
Convergent questions Questions that allow for only a few right responses.
Cooperative learning Instructional technique in which students of mixed abilities work together as a team on an assigned task. Interdependence and support for all members of the group is stressed
Course planning Broadest and most general type of instruction planning, usually divided into a sequence of units of study.
Creative thinking Process of assembling information to develop a whole new understanding of a concept or idea. Four stages generally associated with creative thought are preparation, incubation, illumination, and verification
Creativity Capacity for producing imaginative, original products, or ways of solving problems
Criterion-referenced test Testing in which interpretations are made by comparing a student's score against a predetermined standard
Critical thinking Analyzing complex situations critically, using standards of objectivity and consistency, and arriving at tentative conclusions.
Cumulative record File that holds information collected on students over a period of school years
Curriculum Systematic plan of instruction for a school system. The learning, intended and unintended, that takes place under the sponsorship of the school
Curriculum integration Form of teaching and learning that draws upon the knowledge and skills of a variety of discipline areas as they become necessary in problem solving
Daily lesson plan A detailed outline used to structure instructional activities for a single day and to help with the flow of the instruction
Decision making Thinking that asks students to choose the best response from several options
Deductive thinking Thinking that asks students to consider given generalizations and provide supporting data
Demonstration Instructional method in which the teacher or some other designated individual stands before a class; shows something; and tells what is happening or what has happened, or asks students to discuss what has happened
Desist approach Method of classroom management that gives the teacher full responsibility for regulating the classroom.
Diagnostic evaluation Evaluation administered prior to instruction to assess students’ knowledge and abilities so that appropriate instruction can be provided
Differentiated instruction A teaching theory based on the premise that instructional approaches should vary and be adapted in relation to individual and diverse students in the classroom
Direct teaching A structured, teacher-centered approach that is characterized by teacher direction and control, higher teacher expectations for students’ progress, maximizing time students spend on academic tasks, and efforts by the teacher to keep negative affect to a m
Discipline Dealing with the prevention of classroom misbehavior, as well as reacting to consequences of disruptive actions.
Discovery learning Instructional method that focuses on intentional learning through supervised problem solving according to the scientific method. Students are encouraged to learn concepts and principles through their own exploration
Discussion Instructional method in which students exchange and share ideas relative to an assigned topic. Can take the form of either a small-group or whole-group activity.
Divergent questions Questions that allow for many right responses
Drill Fixation of specific associations for automatic recall
Empathic listening Listening with feeling. An attempt to experience what a speaker is experiencing or feeling and responding to those feelings
Empirical questions Questions that require students to integrate or analyze remembered or given information and supply a single, correct predictable answer
English as a second language (ESL) English language training for students whose first language is not English. Training is designed to help participants learn English reading, writing, listening, and speaking skills
English language learners (ELL) Learners who are beginning to learn English as a new language or have already gained some proficiency in English.
Evaluation Process of obtaining available information about students and using it to ascertain the degree of change in students’ performance.
Evaluative questions Questions that require that a judgment be made or a value be put on something
Exposition teaching Teaching method in which some authority—teacher, textbook, film, or microcomputer—presents information without overt interaction taking place between the authority and the students
Exposition with interaction teaching Authority-presented instruction followed by questioning that ascertains whether information has been comprehended.
Factual questions Questions that require the recall of information through the mental processes of recognition and rote memory.
Focusing questions Questions used to direct students’ attention to a lesson or to the content of a lesson
Formal curriculum School learning experiences that are intentional
Formative evaluation Use of evaluation information for supplying feedback to students before or during the learning process and for promoting learning.
Gifted and talented (G/T) students Learners with exceptional general intellect, specific academic ability, creative productive thinking, leadership ability, or visual and performing arts talents
Goals Broad statements of instructional intent that describe the general purpose of instruction
Graphic organizers Pictorial or graphical ways to organize written or oral information
Halting time Teacher's pause in talking, used for giving students time to think about presented materials and directions
Hearing Transmission of eardrum vibration caused by sound impulses to the brain
Heuristic approach Active, reflective teaching methods that involve students in problem solving and comprise modes of discovery, inquiry (including Richard Suchman inquiry), and simulations and games
I-messages Teacher messages that tell students how the teacher feels about problem situations and implicitly ask for corrected behavior
Incentive systems Systems that offer preferred activities or items for motivational purposes or for keeping students on task.
Independent study Instructional method in which students are involved in activities carried out with little or no guidance
Individualized instruction Instructional method in which instruction is tailored to interests, needs, and abilities of individual students
Inductive thinking Thinking that asks students to make generalizations based on knowledge of specific examples and details
Informational objectives Statements of instructional intent that are an abbreviation of instructional objectives with only the performance and product specified
Infusion approach Method of teaching thinking skills in which desired skill is used in conjunction with and incorporated into regular curriculum
Inner discipline Ability to control one's own behavior and make responsible decisions
Inquiry Instructional method that focuses on the flexible yet systematic process of problem solving
Inquiry demonstration Instructional method in which students are asked only to observe in silence
Instructional approach Method of classroom management based on the premise that well-planned and well-implemented instruction will prevent most classroom problems
Instructional objective Narrow four-component statement of learning intent. The components are the performance, a product, the conditions, and the criterion
Instructional strategy The global plan for teaching a particular lesson consisting of the methodology to be used and the sequence of steps to be followed for implementing the lesson activities
Instructional units A series of interrelated lessons focused upon common goals
Learning style The set of cognitive, affective, and physiological behaviors through which an individual learns most effectively; determined by a combination of hereditary and environmental influences
Lecture Teacher presents information with no overt interaction with students
Lecture recitation Instructional technique in which the teacher makes a clear presentation, followed by student responses centered on the ideas that were presented by the teacher.
Lesson procedure Sequence of steps designed to lead students to the acquisition of the desired learning
Limited English proficient (LEP) A designation for students with limited ability to understand, read, speak, or write English whose first or primary language isn't English
Limits Accepted and nonaccepted actions in the classroom
Listening Active process of assigning meaning to what is heard, or the brain giving meaning to impulses transmitted from the eardrum to the brain.
Listening Larry L. Barker defines four components of listening as hearing, attending, understanding, and remembering. Listening styles can be one-way, two-way, or empathic
Mastery learning Diagnostic-corrective-enrichment instructional model in which students work on objectives until mastery is achieved. It is based on the assumption that every student is capable of achieving most of the course objectives if given the time and appropriate e
Measurement Assignment of numerical values to objects, events, performances, or products to indicate the degree to which they possess the characteristics being measured
Mental Operation system Four-category question model composed of factual, empirical, productive, and evaluative questions
Metacognition Cognition about cognition, or “knowing about knowing.”
Metaverbal component Underlying, or hidden, message that cannot be directly attributed to the meaning of the words or how they are spoken
Methodology Planned patterned behaviors that are definite steps through which the teacher influences learning
Microteaching Technique of practicing teaching skills and processes in scaled-down and simulated situations
Middle schools Schools designed to meet unique needs of preadolescents, usually for Grades 5 or 6 through 7 or 8
Minimum competency tests Exit tests designed to ascertain whether students have achieved basic levels of performance in basic skill areas—such as reading, writing, and computation—before they can graduate or continue to the next level
Modeling Person demonstrating or acting as he or she wants others to act and communicating examples of the values, ideas, and behaviors to be acquired by students
Motivation Influences of needs, desires, and drives on the intensity and direction of behaviors
Multiple intelligences A proposition by Howard Gardner asserting that traditional measures of intelligence are limited and that individuals possess different types of intelligences.
Multiple intelligences These intelligences are spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, linguistic, logical-mathematical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic intelligences
Negative reinforcement Strengthening the likelihood of a behavior or event by the removal of an unpleasant stimulus
Noncompetitive evaluation Evaluation that does not force students to compete with each other
Nonverbal communication Nonlingustic communication or the sending of messages without the use of words. Comprises facial language; body language (kinesics); use of the voice; and use of space, motion, and time
Nonverbal reinforcement Use of physical action as a positive consequence to strengthen behavior or event
Normal curve Bell-shaped distribution. Mathematical construct divided into equal segments that reflect the natural distribution of all sorts of things in nature
Norm-referenced test Test interpretation made by comparing a student's score with that of a norm group (a large representative sample) to obtain meaning
Objective Anticipated result or product of instruction. Unambiguous statement of instructional intent
Overlapping Engaging in or supervising several activities simultaneously
Panels Instructional technique in which five to eight students prepare and discuss a topic in front of a class. Also known as a roundtable.
Percentage grading system Percentage correct is recorded for each assignment, and an average is calculated to determine a final grade
Percentile score Derived score on a distribution of scores below which a given percentage of raw scores falls
Performance assessment Assessment in which students demonstrate the behaviors to be measured
PL 94–142 Federal law requiring provision of special education services to eligible students
Point grading system Student work is allocated points and grades are assigned according to an established grade range
Portfolio Systematic, organized collection of evidence (e.g., projects, written work, and video demonstrations of skills) that documents growth and development and that represents progress made toward reaching specified goals and objectives
Positive reinforcement Strengthening the likelihood of occurrence of a behavior or an event by presenting a desired stimulus
Posttest evaluation Evaluation completed after instruction to determine the extent of student learning
Practice Repeating of specified tasks or skills for the purpose of improvement
Probing questions Questions that follow a student response and require the student to think and respond more thoroughly than in the initial response
Problem solving Instructional technique that focuses on the intentional elimination of uncertainty or doubt through direct experiences and under supervision
Productive questions Broad, open-ended questions with many correct responses that require students to use their imagination, think creatively, and produce something unique
Prompting questions Questions that include the use of hints to aid students in answering or in correcting an initial response
Psychomotor domain Learning domain concerned with muscular abilities and skills on a continuum ranging from the simple to the complex.
Punishment Application of a negative stimulus or removal of a positive stimulus as a result of inappropriate behavior
Qualified reinforcement Differential reinforcement of acceptable parts of student actions or attempts
Questionnaire Lists of written statements regarding attitudes, feelings, and opinions to which the reader must respond
Rating scale Scale of values, arranged in order of quality, describing someone or something being evaluated
Reality therapy William Glasser's personality theory of therapy in which individuals are helped to become responsible and able to satisfy their needs in the real world
Redirecting Asking different individuals to respond to a question in light of, or to add new insight to, the previous responses
Reflective teaching Teacher as an informed and thoughtful decision maker, who analyzes past experiences in planning and teaching and in promoting thinking about the nature of teaching and learning
Reinforcement Theory that says the consequences of an action strengthen or weaken the likelihood of the behavior or event. Rewarding of desired actions
Reinforcer Anything found pleasurable by individuals
Relative grading standard Student's grades given relative to performance of other students. Grading on the curve
Reliability Extent to which individual responses are measured consistently. The coefficient of stability of scores
Responsibility State of being accountable or answerable for one's actions. Ability to meet obligations or to act without direct guidance
Reward mechanism A formal system of reinforcement
Ripple effect Spread of behaviors from one individual to others through imitation
Role-playing Instructional technique designed to let students assume the role(s) of individuals in a recreation of an event or situation
Round robin brainstorming Group techniques used to generate answers to a question with many answers. A question is posed to groups of students. Following some “think time,” members of the group share responses with one another round robin style
Rubric A scoring guide that helps establish uniformity in an evaluation of a student
Scaffold Teachers assist students’ acquisition of new concepts through modeling, discussion, and structured lessons
Schema theory A theory that learners have internal, cognitive frameworks into which they fit new knowledge, concepts, and experiences
Self-discipline approach Method of classroom management built on the premise that students can be trusted to evaluate and change their actions so their behaviors are beneficial and appropriate to the self and to the class as a whole
Self-fulfilling prophecy Phenomenon in which believing that something will happen causes it to occur
Separate approach View suggested by Reuven Feuerstein that students need special, focused instruction on thinking skills
Set induction Something a teacher does at the outset of a lesson to get students’ undivided attention, arouse their interest, and establish a conceptual framework
Simulation Instructional technique in which students are involved in models of artificial situations and/or events designed to provide no-risk experiences for students. Also referred to as educational games
Socratic method Instructional method in which a questioning-and-interaction sequence is used to draw information out of students
Standard deviation Extent to which scores are spread out around the mean
Standard scores Scores based on individuals’ variance from the mean expressed in standard deviations
Standardized test Commercially developed test that samples behavior under uniform procedures
Student-centered curriculum Activity curriculum that focuses on student needs and interests
Student work sample Collection of students’ work over a period of time that offers credible evidence of student learning and teacher effectiveness
Subject-centered curriculum School curriculum patterns wherein subjects are separated into distinct courses of study
Suchman inquiry Inquiry approach developed by Richard Suchman whereby students are presented and asked to explain discrepant events
Task group Instructional technique in which a group of four to eight students is formed to solve a problem or complete a project
Teacher effectiveness training (TET) Self-discipline approach to classroom management conceived by Thomas Gordon that stresses establishment of positive working relationships between teachers and students. Key is based on who owns the problem when one develops—teacher or student
Teacher-made tests Evaluative instruments developed and scored by a teacher for classroom assessment
Teacher-student planning Participatory process that directly involves students in instructional planning
Teacher testing Requirement, usually legislatively mandated, that teachers pass a test prior to certification
Team-pair-solo Technique used for problem solving that is a combination of team and individual activity format
Team planning Coordination of teachers’ instructional approaches among disciplines
Technology learning centers Centers or stations designed to develop student technology skills and/or technology concepts.
Textbook recitation Instructional method in which students are assigned content to read and study in a textbook and are then questioned on what has been read and studied
Thematic unit Unit of instruction planned by a team of teachers that is organized for interdisciplinary/cross-curricular teaching over a block of time
Think-pair-share Technique used for student to answer a question or complete a problem-solving activity
Thinking Withholding judgment to use past knowledge and experience in finding new information, concepts, or conclusions
Transfer Ability to use classroom-acquired information outside the classroom or in different subjects
Three-minute review Group formed for three minutes to complete a clarification activity
Unit plan Plan that links goals and objectives, content, activities, resources and materials, and evaluation for a particular unit of study for a course.
Usability Suitability of a measurement device to collect desired data
Validity Ability of a test to measure what it purports to measure
Verbal reinforcement Presentation of positive comments to strengthen student behavior or event
Vicarious motivation Strengthening of behavior because of desire to receive consequences received by others who exhibit that behavior
Virtual field trips Guided exploration through the Internet to local or distant locations
Wait time Time needed for students to consider their responses to questions.
Weekly plan Condensed version of a week's daily lesson plans, written on a short form provided by the school
Weighted grading system Assignments are given a letter grade, and all grades are weighted in determining the final grade
Withitness Ability of a teacher to be aware of what is going on in all parts of the classroom and the ability to communicate this awareness
Zone of proximal development (ZPD) A concept attributed to Lev Vygotsky that represents the area between a learner's actual developmental level and his or her level of potential development with outside assistance
Wait time Wait time 1 is the initial time a teacher waits following a question before calling for the response.
Wait time Wait time 2 is the total time a teacher waits for all students to respond to the same question or for students to respond to each other's responses to a question
Created by: tiffplayswow