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Western Civ Test

Earliest Inhabitants of the Americas, Age of Exploration & Discovery, Explora...

TermDefinition
Vikings The first explorers
Leif Erikson The main explorer for the vikings
Ferdinand Magellan (circumnavigation) First to go around the world
Bartolomeu Dias and Vasco da Gama Portugal explorers. Found the Indies
Christopher Columbus 1451-1506/Born in Geneva. Tries to find Western route to Indies but finds America. Brings back gold and natives. Led voyage of Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria in 1492/4 Trans-Atlantic trips
King Ferdinand II and Queen Isabella I King & Queen of Spain. They give Columbus permission to sail to find the Indies. Gave provisions and boats to Columbus
King John II King of Portugal. Met with Columbus - asked to fund Columbus' mission and said no/detained Columbus when he came back from exploration for aiding enemies of Portugal
Amerigo Vespucci Sailed for Spain and Portugal. Knew Columbus was wrong in that he discovered the New World and not the Indies. First one to call America a New World.
Giovanni da Verrazzano French explorer/Discovered the New York harbor and helped establish the New France/1524 explore east coast of North America/France claim for land in the world"New France"
Vazquez de Coronado Explorer. Discovered the Grand Canyon & explored the South West of America/Looking for Cities of Gold
Hernando de Soto Spanish Explorer/1538 expedition to explore the Southern US/Discovered the Mississippi River in 1541
Ponce de Leon Spanish Explorer/Explores West Indies 1513 - Discovered Florida
Jacques Cartier French explorer/Expedition to find Northwest passage/Finds St Lawrence River/Finds Quebec and Montreal but no colony set up bc too cold/Searched for gold and diamonds and didn't find any
Samuel de Champlain French explorer/Established first small colony in Quebec/fur trading and economic relations with natives/explore interior of Canada - trading posts
Henry Hudson English explorer/Looks for NW passage to Indies/Finds Hudson River/Dutch let him seek NW passage
John Cabot Late 1400s came up with idea of sailing West to Indies w/o Columbus/1497 - Discovery new found land Canada but thought he was in Asia/Importance was that the English finds short route across the Atlantic
Sir Humphrey Gilbert Also looking for new passage. No colony?
Queen Elizabeth I Queen of England. She tells Sir Walter Raleigh to find a new colony/Virginia was named after her
King James I King of Scotland and Stewart King of England /Chartered Jamestown colony
Sir Walter Raleigh English Explorer/Queen Elizabeth tells him to find a colony/didn't find anything?
Sir Richard Grenville Started the colony Roanoke Island and returns to England for supplies Then in 1586 returns and no inhabitants remained.
Virginia Dare First person born in the English Colonies
Powhatans Natives that were in the New World before the English/In Jamestown, Virginia the colonists had good relations with them with some violence/then in 1609 they stopped assisting English and wanted them to starve.
John Smith Came to New World and the Jamestown, Virginia colony was more successful and was focused on the Powhatan Indians trade and survival/said"those that do not work shall not eat"/The chief Powhatan took him to put hi to death
Pocahontas Saves John Smith from the Chief Powhatan by throwing her body of him to protect him/Marries John Rolfe
John Rolfe Marries Pocahontas which caused peace between the Powhatans and the English.
Pilgrims/Separatists From the Church of England in 1600 the Separatists were banned in England. They believe England is to close to Roman Catholic - they wanted a pure church and it was very Protestant/Calvinist- they were an anti-anglican church & called themselves saints
Governor William Bradford Main leader for the Separatists
Wampanoags Indian tribes in Provincetown, Massachusetts/stole corn
Squanto
Massasoit
1000 Leif Erikson "discovers" New Foundland/L'Anse aux Meadows
1492 Columbus "discovers" New World (actually San Salvador Island in Bahamas)
1494 Treaty of Tordesillas
1541 "Discovery" of the Mississippi River
1565 Settlement of St. Augustine Founded
1585 Roanoke Island colony founded
1607 Jamestown colony founded
1610 Settlement of Santa Fe founded
1620 lands of Provincetown, Massachsetts
1620 Plymouth Colony founded
1624 New Amsterdam founded
1624 Virginia becomes an English royal colony
Pangea and plate tectonics
Bering Land Bridge/ Beringia theory
Pacific coastal route theory
Connection between sea levels and climate/ice ages
L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland
Clovis, New Mexico
Monte Verde, Chile
Scandinavia
Portugal Turned down Columbus/Led by King John II/Detained Columbus for aiding enemies of this country
Spain Funded Columbus/Led by Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand II/
Brazil
Netherlands/Holland Pilgrims were persecuted ind England and they fled here but generally had bad jobs
Cape Horn (South America)
Cape of Good Hope (Africa)
East Indies French
Bahamas and Hispaniola
Treaty of Tordesillas 1494?/Pope Alexander IV/Settled territories for Spain and Portugal
New Spain
Columbian Exchange Millions of years ago-1 continent then they drifted apart/diff species of animals&plants develop&evolved on diff continents/process reverses itself w/Columbus & transatlantic exploration & settlement/led to huge popul growth/environmental damage/disease
St. Augustine, Florida Ponce de Leon?/1565 - Oldest permanent settlement in US/Formed by Pedro/Trying to stop French settlement
Fountain of Youth Miracle Spring/Ponce de Leon?
Mississippi River Discovered in 1541 by Hernando de Soto
Spanish missions Civilize and Christianize the natives/1st mission was near San Angelo in 1623/Many others developed later - including the Alamo in San Antonio, Austin
Sante Fe, New Mexico 1598 - Capital of Spanish New Mexico/Franciscan monk - converted natives to Christianity/Is the oldest permanent settlement West of Mississippi River
Dutch West India Company Dutch Netherlands? - looking for western route to Indies - not interested in colonies but economic ties/Explored NYC area - great natural harbor for an economic center
New York Harbor and New Amsterdam in 1624 - an economic colony for New Amsterdam bought from Manhattan Indians for $24/expands land holdings and make wars with natives.
New France Frances claim for land in the New World
St. Lawrence River Jacques Cartier found
Quebec Jacques Cartier found but no colony set up bc too cold/Then De Champlain comes in 1608 and established a colony there.
Fur trading economic relations with natives
Northwest Passage English explorer Henry Hudson looking for this/Dutch let him seek this
Hudson Bay and Hudson River NYC area/English explorer Henry Hudson found this while looking for NW Passage to Indies/Asia
Virginia Company of London 1606 - 1607 new english colony in Jamestown, VA under this company which was a private investment corporation interested in gold & silver & a western route to Indies.
Virginia Named after Queen Elizabeth I/First Permanent Colony in US/Tobacco grew well in this state
Roanoke Island colony 1st English Colony in US 1585/Northside of island they built a fort/Grew tobacco&potatoes/had natives that appeared friendly/Greenville started colony-returns to England f/supplies- comes back in 1586 & no inhabitants remained/carved into a tree croatoan
Jamestown colony and James River 1st Permanent English Colony/Under a new charter under the Virginia Company of London/Priorities were gold & silver & Western Route to Indies & to create a permanent colony/105 origianal colonists/established settlement at mouth of James River
Tobacco Grown by English settlers/made them money/grew well in Virginia/"gold" imported back to England
Virginia Company of Plymouth Corporation chartered by Queen Elizabeth I/Make money & create colonies for England/between 34th parallel N & 41st parallel N/joint stock corporation so people can buy shares
Popham colony 1097 - Virginia Company/Looking for more northern settlement/Beyond border of Virginia/Abandoned after the first winter
Cape Cod/Provincetown, Massachusetts Pilgrims initially arrived here first on November 11, 1620/problem for them bc it was at 42 degrees N which was outside of Virginia Company territory so they would have to establish their own rules for governance here
Plymouth colony Pilgrims/Separatist landed in the New World for freedom of religion & to live as Englishmen
Mayflower Compact governing doctrine for Pilgrims/First purpose - order & preserve life, second - just and equal laws/For the general good must agree to obey these laws
Thanksgiving
Created by: bgpalmers