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OBI Drugs Exam 3

TermDefinition
Penicillin G beta-lactam that inhibits PBP; by injection only covers anaerobes but not Gram -
Penicillin V beta-lactam that inhibits PBP; given orally covers anaerobes but not Gram -
Amoxicillin extended spectrum beta-lactam; improved Gram - coverage
Ampicillin extended spectrum beta-lactam, take around meals; improved Gram - coverage
Clavulanic acid beta-lactamase inhibitor, used in combination with other beta-lactams; extends spectrum of penicillins to include more Gram -
Cephalexin inhibits cross-linking by PBPs; good for odontogenic infects, covers Gram +, Gram - and anaerobes
Doxycycline binds to 30S ribosomal subunit to stop addition of next amino acid by prohibiting tRNA from binding; antibiotic of choice for intracellular and spirochetes
Clindamycin binds to 50S ribosomal subunit and prevents binding of next amino acid; covers Gram + and anaerobes
Azithromycin binds to 50S ribosomal subunit and stalls translocation by blocking exit tunnel; covers Gram + and intracellular bacteria, IE prophylaxis
Moxifloxacin binds to topoisomerase and fragments DNA; bactericidal, used for respiratory infections with Strep pneumonia and Mycoplasma
Metronidazole fragments DNA, narrow spectrum; anaerobic infections and C. diff
Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim deplete folate and synthesis of nucleic acids; fragments DNA, narrow spectrum, bactericidal, covers UTIs, pneumonia, community-acquired MRSA
Regular insulin translocation of GLUT4 receptors to cell surface; fast-acting, peaks in 2-4 hours
Glimepride and Nateglinide blocks ATP-dependent K channels to make more insulin; T2DM add-on therapy
Metformin lowers hepatic glucose production by lowering glucagon; T2DM first-line therapy and oral cancers
Acarbose inhibits alpha-glucosidase so carbohydrates are not absorbed by brush border in intestine; T1&2DM, lowers glucose levels after meals
Pioglitazone 'insulin sensitizer'; increases GLUT4 receptors in muscle and adipose tissue and lowers glucagon in liver -also stores FFA's via PPAR
Sitaglipin prolongs GLP-1 action to promote first phase insulin secretion during meals
Canagliflozin blocks SGLT2 in kidney to block glucose reabsorption in proximal tubule
Phenytoin selective Na-channel blocker; treats all seizures except absence, gingival overgrowth
Carbamazepine selective Na-channel blocker; treats tonic-clonic, focal, and trigeminal neuralgia
Valproic Acid Na-channel blocker, weak Ca-channel blocker; multiple seizure disorder, migraines, bipolar disorder
Ethosuximide Ca-channel blocker in thalamus; only treats absence seizures, causes bone marrow depression
Levetiracetam binds to SV2A so vesicles not released by presynaptic neurons; treats tonic-clonic and focal seizures
Pregabalin decreases expression of presynaptic Ca channels; treats focal seizures and chronic pain disorders
Paclitaxel promotes microtubule polymerization so cells are arrested in mitosis; cancer drug that is inactivated by CYP450s
Doxorubicin inhibits topoisomerase II to fragment DNA; useful for blood cancers and solid tumors but generates ROS's
Cyclophosphamide alkylates cell components to damage DNA; used for cancers and transplant rejections (CYP450)
Methotrexate inhibits DHFR to block tetrahydrofolate for nucleotide synthesis; used for cancers, arthritis, psoriasis but highly protein bound and displaced by phenytoin and sulfonamides
5-Fluorouracil inhibits RNA function and pyrimidine formation; cancer drug
Tamoxifen inhibitor and partial agonist of estrogen receptor; for ER+ breast cancers
Anastrozole inhibits aromatase that makes estradiol for ER+ breast cancers
Leuprolide resembles RnRH cousing surge in LH/FSH and decrease in testosterone; treats prostate cancer
Cisplatin cross-links and alkylates DNA; primary drug for treatment of lung cancer
Trastuzumab antibody fragment that disrupts HER-2/neu, a receptor that develops in cancers after first line therapy
Ipilimumab blocks CTLA4 to activate cytotoxic T-cells; inhibits tumor growth, melanoma but very expensive
Teriparatide N-terminal of PTH, increases osteoblast activity; high fracture-risk patients
Alondronate BP, disrupts osteoclasts; oral, for osteoporosis
Zoledronic Acid BP, disrupts osteoclasts; by injection only and more potent, for bone metastases
Denosumab mimics OPG that prevents RANKL from binding to RANK and activating osteoclasts; used for bone metastases pain and hypercalcemia
L-DOPA:carbidopa dopamine supplement, crosses BBB; treatment of Parkinson's disease
Pramipexole dopamine agonist; for mild PD or adjunctive
Entacapone COMT inhibitor, reduces degradation of L-DOPA in periphery so more can get to CNS for PD -caution with epinephrine
Selegiline irreversible MAO-B inhibitor, reduces dopamine degradation in CNS -caution with epinephrine
Olanzapine/Clozapine 2nd generation antipsychotics; alleviates positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia with fewer side effects
Chlorpromazine/Halopendol 1st generation antipsychotics; alleviates more positive symptoms with many adverse effects
Diazepam, Triazolam, Midazolam bind GABA receptor to open Cl channel and inhibit cell transmission; conscious sedation, insomnia, anxiety
Flumazenil competitive inhibitor of BDZs; reversal of BDZ sedation and overdose
Escitalopram SSRI; treats depression and anxiety
Fluoxetine SSRI with some norepinephrine reuptake inhibition; treats depression, OCD, panic disorder
Bupropion atypical antidepressant, inhibits dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake; no serotonergic effects, treats depression and nicotine withdrawal
Mirtazapine atypical antidepressant, blocks alpha-2 adrenergic, H1 histaminergics and serotonin reuptake; antidepressant without serotonergic effects
Amitryptiline TCA, blocks serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake, Na, alpha-1, H1 and M1 channels; treats depression and neuropathic pain
Cimetidine, birth control, Verapamil, Diltiazem, anti-fungals, Erythromycin, Clarithromycin inhabited BDZ metabolism
Anticonvulsants, corticosteroids, St. John's Wort induce BDZ metabolism
Created by: Alexandra Arnold Alexandra Arnold