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Physiology Unit 4

17mech of breathing,18gas exchg/transport,19kidneys 20 fluid/elec balance

4 functions of the respiratory system exchange gases, regulate pH, protect pathogens/irritants, vocalization
upper respiratory system mouth, nasal cavity, larynx, pharynx
lower respiratory system trachea, primary bronchioles, alveloi
inspiratory muscles external intercostals, sternocleidomastoids, scalenes
expiratory muscles internal intercostals, abdominals
processes of external respiration 3exchanges-air between lungs & atm, O2& CO2 lungs and blood,gases blood & cells Transport O2 & CO2 by blood
Oxygen molecule from air to lung mouth, nose, pharynx, larynx,trachea, primary bronchi, branching bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
functions of pleural fluid allow membranes to slide across each other, holds lungs tight against thoracic wall
Alveolar type I cells exchange gases
Alveolar type II cells secrete surfactant
Boyle's Law breathing decrease volume=increase pressure
Law of Laplace Larger Alveoli have Lower pressure
Dalton's Law EGAD-exchange of gas is dalton's
respiratory system created volume change diaphram contracts, volume up, relaxes, volume down
The maximum volume of air that can be forcibly expired after normal expiration expiratory reserve volume
The maximum volume of air that can be forcibly ispired after normal inspiration inspiratory reserve volume
The volume of air that remains in the respiratory system afer a forced expiration residual volume
The volume of air moved during normal quiet breathing tidal volume
Vital capacity(VC) air moved in/out per min IRV+ERV+TV
Total lung capacity(TLC)vol air in lungs after max inhalation IRV+TV+ERV+RV
Functional residual capacity(FRC) vol air left after tidal exhalation ERV+RV
Inspiratory capacity(IC) vol inhaled after tidal expiration IRV+TV
components to conditioning air before reaches alveoli warm air, add moisture, filter foreign mat.
physical properties of lungs compliance(stretch)elasticity(recoil)surface tension(pressure w/in alveoli)
Air moves from high to low pressure
forced expiration muscles internal intercostals, abs
function of surfactant prevents surface tension from collapsing alveoli
bronchoconstriction decreased diameter & increased resistance
bronchodialation increased diameter & decreased resistance
parameters that regulate diameter of bronchiles paracrines, nervous system control, hormones
CO2 & epi bronchodialation
histamine & parasympathetic NS bronchoconstriction
receptor epi binds to in brochioles B2
total pulmonary ventilation volume of air moved into & out of lungs/min
alveolar ventilation volume of air reaching alveoli/min
anatomic dead space volume of air that does NOT reach alveoli
Ventilation-perfusion matching in lungs local regulation of airflow & blood flow changing diameter of arterioles & bronchioles
bronchiole diameter as CO2 increases bronchodialation
pulmonary arteriole diameter as O2 decreases contstrict
apnea cessation of breathing
dyspnea difficulty breathing
factors that influend diffusion of gases between alveoli & blood surface areas of alveoli, diffusion distance, membrance thickness, [c] gradient of gas
O2 transported to the blood 98% bound to Hb, 2% in plasma
structure of Hb 4 globular protein + 1 heme
chemical element essential for Hb synthesis Fe
hypoxia too little O2
hypercapnia too much CO2
categories of problems from hypoxia inadequate O2 to alveoli, prob O2 exchange between alveoli & pulm caps, inadequate transport O2 in blood
Alveolar PO2 low because of high altitude or hypoventilation
relationship between altitude and PO2 increase in altitude, decrease in PO2
anemic hypoxia Hb with low O2(blood loss, anemia, CO poisoning)
ischemic hypoxia reduction in blood flow (heart failure,shock)
histotoxic hypoxia failure of cells to use O2 properly(cyanide poisoning)
oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve gives % Hb sites that have bound O2 at diff PO2 loading and unloading of O2x=resting cell y= % O2 sat of Hb
causes shift to left on oxyhemoglobin curve O2 not bound to Hb-O2 increased affinity of Hb for O2
causes shift to right on oxyhemoglobin curve increase in CO2-decreased affinity of Hb for O2
3 ways CO2 transported in blood HCO3, dissolved CO2(plasma, carbaminohemoglobin(binds to)
equation in which CO2 converted into HCO3 Co2 + H2O yields H2Co3 yeilds H + HCO3
enzyme that catalyzes CO2 conversion carbonic anhydrase(CA)
chloride shift CO2 diffuses into RBC ain in Cl ion inside blood, shifts rxn right RBC become more + HCO3 diffuses into blood
where reverse chloride shift occurs alveoli
relationship between CO2 and pH levels in blood CO2 increases pH decreases-inverse relationship
respiratory acidosis increased CO2 retention-accum of carbonic acid & drop in pH
respiratory alkalosis too little CO2 increase in pH (hyperventilate)
central chemoreceptors medulla-CO2, PO2, pH- increases ventilation
peripheal chemoreceptors carotid/aortic bodies-PO2, pH, PCO2-increase ventilation
respiratory center located in medulla and pons (CNS)
central chemoreceptors respond to increased PCO2 increase PCO2=decreased pH of CSF receptors in medulla send messages to respiratory center medulla send signal via motor neurons to resp nucleus and ventilation increases
functions of kidneys regulate extracellular fluid volume & BP, reg somolarity, mainain ion balance, homeostatic reg of pH, excrete wasited, produce hormones
structures of urinary system in sequence kids, ureters, bladder, urethra
3 filtration barriers cross move from plasma into Bowman's cap glomeruli consists of fenestrated caps, basal lamina, podocytes
forces promote glomerular filtration hydrostatic of glomerus
forces oppose glomerular filtration colloid pressure, hydrostatic fluid pressure inside Bowman's cap
GCF Glomerular Filtration Rate - 125mL/min or 180L/day
cortical nephrons almost completely contained w/in cortex
juxtamedullary nephrons long loops of H dip down into medulla, vasta recta here
renal corpuscle combo of glomerulus and Bowman's cap
renal portal system afferent art to glomeruli to efferent art to peritubular caps
average amount of urine leaves body per day 1-2L min 400 mL
filtration fraction % of total plasma volume that is filtered into nephron
factors that influence GFR most net filtration pressure, filtration coefficient
relationship between BP and GFR BP up GFR up
mechanisms that goven autoregulation of GFR myogenic response, tubloglomerular feedback, hormones & automoatic hormones
myogenic response maintain constant GFR at local level
hormones that influence arteriolar resistance Angiotensin II, prostoglandin
NS that innvervates afferent arteriole sympathetic
ion that plays key role in bulk reabsorption proximal tubule Na+
transepithelial transport substances cross both apical and basolateral membrane
paracellular pathway substances pass through th junction between two adjacent cells
properites of mediated transport saturation, competition, specificity
below saturation, the rate of transport is propotional to [substrate]
The rated of trasnport at saturation is also know as transport maximum
For a particular substance, plasma concentration at which that substrate first appears in the urine is known as the renal threshold
does filtration exhibit saturation NO
glucose in the urine glycosuria
renal excretion formula filtration - reabsorption + secretion
In renal secretion, molecules move from the ___ to the ____ EC fluid, nephron
renal clearance rate at which a solute disappears from the body by excretion on metabolism
micturition urination
NS involved in micturition reflex Parasymp-contracts bladder, somatic moroe-controls external sphincter
2 sphincters in micturition internal, external
electolytes that must be regulated by body Na, K, Ca, H, HCO3
Ascending L of H permeability to H2O & NaCl permeable to NaCl and K+, impermeable to H2O
Descending L of H permeability to H2O & NaCl only H2O absorbed
ion primary determinant of ECF volume Na+
ion primary determinant of pH H--makes more acidic
Vasopressin net result=h2O reabsorp acts in collecting duct
What causes vasopressin to be released from post. pit decreased BP or increased ECF osmolarity
countercurrent multiplier arrangement of L of H that concentrates solute in renal medulla.
addition of NaCl raises osmolarity triggers vasopressin & thirst
vasa recta surrounds loop and removes H2O and NaCl is recycled
effects of angiotensin II beyond stimulating aldosterone secretion affects BP, vasoconstrictor, stimulates thirst,increases symp activity to heart & bv
ANP Atrial Natriuretic Peptide produced in atria of heart
stimulus for ANP secretion and effects stretch of atria stimulates and it enhances Na+ and H2O loss
hyperkalemia too much K+
hypokalemia too little K+
what happens when K concentrations are out of balance cardiac arrhythmias
how does body compensate for decrease in BP(dehydration) baroreceptors increase by vasoconstriction increase HR, increase contraction of heart, vasopressin released decreases BP
mechanisms body uses to cope with pH changes 1st-buffers 2nd-ventilation 3rd renal regulation of H+ and HCO3
how kidneys alter pH acidosis-secrete H+ and reabsorb HCO3 alkadosis-reabsorb H+ and secrete HCO3
mechanisms activated when blood osmolarity increases(dehydration) hypo stimulates vasopressin reabsorbtion of H2O(collecting duct) to blood conserve H2O and thirst initiated
Created by: wolfie4356