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PSYC220

CSULB Spring 2009

QuestionAnswer
Authority is a Non-empirical method
The question "I like statistics" Yes or No is a closed-ended or open-ended question? Closed ended
If no response scale is provided for a question then this question is a ______? Open-ended question
Correlation values can range between -1 to +1 0 to +1 -1 to 0 -2 to +2 -1 to +1
What is the statistical notation for correlation? r
In a 3X3 experimental design how many independent variables are there? Two
What is manipulation? An experiment condition or variables assigned to a participant.
What is correlational research? Nonexperimental research that measures two or more variables to determine the degree of relationship between them.
In regards to an experiment, what is an assignment? It is when the experimenter pairs subjects with a condition or variable.
In regards to an experiment, what is an observation? The record of a behavior
What is observational research? The study method in which the researcher observes and records ongoing behavior but does not attempt to change it.
What is an archival research? It is a study method that examines existing situation as a means of creating and testing a hypothesis.
What is a case study? Exploratory study of an existing situation as a means of creating and testing a hypothesis.
What is a survey? Assessing public opinion or individual characteristics by the use of questionnaire and sampling methods.
What is hermeutics? The principles of interpretation of a text's meaning. Looks more at interpretation than causation.
What is a naturalistic observation? Observational research of subjects in their natural environment carried out to disturb the subjects as little as possible.
what is unobtrusive research? Just another term for naturalistic observation.
What is nonreactive research? Another term for naturalistic observation. Emphasizing that the subjects are unaware that they are being studied.
What is a physical trace? It is an unobtrusive measure of behavior that uses physical evidence.
What is a loboratory observation? A type of observation that occurs in the laboratory rather than in the field.
What is a participant-observer research? It is observational research in which the observer participates in a group to record behavior.
What is archival data? Factual information in existing records.
What does empirical data mean? Facts derived from experience
What does population refer to? All members of some group
What are the three essential limitations? 1) Science must be agnostic 2) Science must be culturally relative 3) Science is always tentative
What are three practical limitations on science? 1) Scientists work on problems that seem capable of having a solution 2) Cost of research 3) Existing methods needed to carry out experiments
What is the main responsibility of scientists? To educate the public
What are the two influences that cause bias science? 1) Conservative 2) Liberal
The responsibility of scientist is to… Research should be beneficial to society
Science flourishes in an atmosphere of free speech or research in popular problems. Free speech
What does the word data refer to? Fact
What does empirical refer to? Based on experience
How are empirical data obtained? By experiments or observation
Science is conservative because 1) It depends on financial support from society 2) There is political pressure from the federal government
Science is liberal because 1) Rest on observation rather than authority 2) Challenges political and religious orthodoxies 3) Promotes change
Which type of validity is based on the range of behavior represented by the theoretical concept being tested? Content validity
What is a simple random sample? A group chosen from an entire population such that every member of the population has an equal and independent chance of being selected for the sample.
What is stratified random sample? A random sample in which two or more sub samples are represented according to some pre determined proportion, generally in the same proportion as they exist in the population.
What is a cluster sample? A group selected by using clusters or groupings from a larger population.
What is a multistage sampling? A form of cluster sampling in which clusters are further broken down by taking samples from each cluster
Random sampling has a particular scientific meaning, or a non-particular scientific meaning? Particular scientific meaning.
The sampling frame is what? The population that is available and actually sampled.
What is each individual called in a sampling frame? An element.
Simple random samples are feasible only with relatively small populations. True or False? True
A sophisticated form of cluster sampling is also known as ________ sampling. Multistage
What is face validity? A test should appear to test what it is supposed to test
If you wanted to reflect the correct proportions of a variable (ex. Gender) of a population, what form of sampling would you use? Stratified random sampling.
What causes systematic error? A constant bias
What is a one- group posttest-only design? Research design that measures the behavior of a single group of subjects after they are given a treatment.
The response that is not associated with the independent variable is known as _____. Error variance
Cluster samples are commonly used with large surveys. True or False? True
What is randomized-response method? A survey technique that encourages honesty by introducing a random variable that makes it impossible to identify whether an answer is true of a particular individual.
The randomized- response method can reduce which bias? Social desirability bias.
________ actually measures the constructs they are designed to measure, but no others. Construct Validity
A valid test of intelligence should correlate highly with other intelligence tests is an example of what type of validity? Criterion validity
How many types of measurement errors are there? And what are they called? Two. Systematic error and random error.
Research design that measures the behavior of a single group of subjects after they are given a treatment. true
What are the two types of criterion validity? Concurrent validity and predictive validity
What is program evaluation? Set of techniques for determining the effectiveness of a social service program.
What are stakeholders? People in an organization who stand to gain or lose by any change in it.
What is summative evaluation? An evaluation of the quality of a project, often after it is completed.
What is formative evaluation? An evaluation of ways to improve a project while it is ongoing.
What is meta-analysis? A set of methods for combining the results of many studies.
What should you identify in planning an evaluation? Stakeholders, Arrange preliminary meetings, decide whether an evaluation should be done, examine the literature, determine the mythology and present a written proposal.
What are some sources of resistance to program evaluation? Fear that the program would be terminated, fear of losing control of the program, fear that information would be abused, belief that the evaluation was pointless
What techniques are used in a program evaluation? True experiments, archival research, with emphasis on quasi experiments and nonexperimental methods.
When we document what is statistically common, what do we contribute to? The definition of what is normal
What is science? A social enterprise, subject to all the types of human bias.
What is systematic error? The measurement error that is associated with consistent bias.
When a person retakes an SAT of GRE this is an example of which type of reliability? Test-retest reliability
What is the definition of test-retest reliability? The degree to which the same test score would be obtained on another occasion.
When various items on a test are measures of the same thing this is called ______. Internal consistency
What is a quasi experiment? Research procedure in which the scientist must select subjects for different conditions from preexisting groups.
An example of internal consistency in which reliability is determined when the items on a test are divided into two sets as if they were two separate tests is called _____. Split half reliability
What is a Nonequivalent control group? A group of subjects that is not randomly selected from the same population as the experimental group.
Why are quasi experiments called ex post facto? Experiment is conducted after the groups have been formed.
What is a nonequivalent-control-group design? Research design having both an experimental and a control group wherein subjects are not randomly assigned to groups
What is a cross-sectional study? A study that tests different age groups at the same time.
The word cohort means? A group that has something in common.
What is difference between cross-sectional and longitudinal study? Cross sectional study tests different groups, while longitudinal study test same individuals in a single cohort over the course of time.
What is a secular trend? A change that takes place in the general population over time.
A cross-sequential design is what? A design which is used to separate developmental, cohort and secular trends.
What is time lag effect? The effect resulting from comparing subjects of the same age at different times, in a cross sequential design.
What is a repeated treatment design? Design where treatment is withdrawn and then presented a second time.
What are the 4 types of validity? Internal, construct, external, statistical
What is Internal validity? The extent to which a study provides evidence of cause and effect relationship between the IV and DV
What does Confounding mean? Error that occurs when the effects of two variables in an experiment cannot be separated, resulting in a confused interpretation of results.
What is a subject variable? A difference between subjects that cannot be controlled but can only be selected.
What is construct validity? Extent to which the results support the theory behind the research.
What is External validity? How well the findings of an experiment generalize to other situations or populations.
What is Statistical validity? Extent to which data are shown to be the result of cause-effect relationships rather than by accident
What are some threats to Internal validity? History, Maturation, Effects of Testing, Regression effect, Selection, and Mortality.
How does History threaten Internal validity? Any events outside of the laboratory or study can influence a result.
How does maturation play a role in threatening Internal validity? Maturation is a source of error in an experiment related to the amount of time between measurements.
How can effects of testing threaten Internal validity? The participants may become sophisticated about the testing procedure or may learn how to take tests so that their later behavior is changed by the earlier experience
How does the Regression Effect threaten Internal validity? The regression effect is the tendency of subjects with extreme scores on a first measure to score closer to the mean on a second test (measure).
What is Random Error and how can it threaten Internal validity? Random error is that part of the value of a variable that can be attributed to chance.
In regards to threats to Internal validity, what is Selection? Basically, any bias in selecting participants to the different groups in an experiment can undermine Internal validity.
In regards to threats to Internal validity, what is Mortality? The dropping out of some subjects before an experiment is completed, causing a threat to Internal validity.
What are 2 threats to Construct validity? Good-Subject tendency and Evaluation apprehension.
What is Good-Subject tendency and how can it threaten Construct validity? The tendency of experimental participants to act according to what they think the experimenter wants.
What is Evaluation Apprehension and how can it threaten Construct validity? The tendency of experimental participants to alter their behavior to appear as socially desirable as possible.
What are some threats to External validity? Subjects may not generalize to other populations.
What is the definition of power? The probability that a statistical test will find a significant difference actual exists in the population.
Definition of Clinical significance The practical importance of a results
Definition of Baseline The measure of behavior before treatment that establishes a reference point for evaluating the effective treatment.
Definition of A-B design Single participant research design that consists of a baseline followed by a treatment. Also called a comparison design.
Definition of A-B-A design Research design that includes a baseline period, a treatment period, and a subsequent withdrawal of treatment.
Definition of A-B-A-B design An ABA design with treatment repeated after the withdrawal phase also called a replication design.
Advantages of single subject design Focusing on individual performanceFocusing on the big effectsAvoid ethical practical problemsFlexibility in design
Disadvantages to single subject design Some effects are small relative to the amount of variability in the situationStatistical procedures for analyzing single subject data are not as well developedSome experimental effects are by definition between subject effects
What are the basic control strategies for single subject research Obtaining a stable baselineComparison (AB design) Withdrawal of treatment (ABA design)Repeating treatment (ABAB design)
What are the two ways a researcher can increase the probability of finding a significant result Increasing the size of the effectIncreasing the size of the sample
What does empirical mean? Based on experience.
Tor F-Is authority an empirical way of knowing? False, it is non-empirical.
What is logic? Logic is an important way of helping us know about behavior.
What is intuition? This is a spontaneous perception or judgment not based on reasoned mental steps.
What is common sense? This is practical intelligence shared by a large group of people steps.
What are two basic limitations of common sense? The first is that common sense differs due to time, place, attitudes, and experience. The second is that the only criterion for judging the truth of common sense is whether or not it works.
What is counterintuitive? It is something that goes against common sense.
The four steps of the scientific method consist of... 1. Defining the problem 2. Forming a hypothesis 3. Collecting data 4. Drawing conclusions
Define science. A way of obtaining knowledge by means of objective observations.
T or F- Science is empirical True.
T or F-Science is not objective False, it is objective.
T or F-When something is discovered in science it cannot be changed False, science is self-correcting so always finding new data.
Fill in: ____________ is progressive, tentative, and parsimonious. Science.
T or F-Science never claims to have the whole truth on any question because new information may make current knowledge obsolete at any time. True.
Tor F- Psychology is a science essentially like any other science True.
Define realism. The philosophy that objects perceived have an existence outside the mind.
What is rationality? A view that reasoning is the basis for solving problems.
Define regularity. A belief that phenomena exist in recurring patterns that conform with universal laws.
What is discoverability? The belief that it is possible to learn solutions to questions posed.
Define determinism. The doctrine that all events happen because of preceding causes.
What is a law? A statement that certain events are regularly associated with each other in an orderly way.
Fill in. _________ plays a diminished role in science compared with other social institutions. Authority
What is the ultimate goal of science? The development of a theory to explain lawful relationships that exist in particular field.
Why is a nonequivalent control group is considered a quasi experiment? The subjects were not randomly assigned to groups.
One of the most powerful control techniques is to have each participant experience every condition of the experiment (True/False) This is an example of what type of group experiment?? True/ Within-Subjects Control group Experiment
What does Manifest Content mean? Objectively measurable content of a text.
Principle characteristic of case studies is that…. They examine individual instances, or cases, of some phenomenon.
This type of research uses physical evidence of behavior. Physical trace research
Theory development and testing are more flexible in archival research and _______ research Observational
Observational and case study researchers must be ________ in making field notes but often need to be _______in what they record. Systematic, Selective
Type of content as interpreted by a researcher. Latent content
What is a Pilot Study Tentative, small-scale study done to pretest and modify study design and procedures.
Before data analysis is begun, and to protect the researcher from temptation to fudge data to make them fit the hypothesis, original data sheets should be…? Delivered to an adviser or locked up after the data have been transferred to a tabular form.
A protocol is…? List of all the steps that a subject goes through in a study.
How many times did Donald Cressey (1971) abandon his hypothesis before he found that his final hypothesis covered all the cases he could find? Four, 4
Why does latent content analysis run the risk of being less reliable than manifest content analysis? Because it is inherently subjective.
Having the subject as their own controls in a control method is common in what areas of psychology? Sensation and perception
To determine to use a within subjects design it should contain these three criteria 1. Using subjects as their own controls is logically possible2. Participating in all conditions of the experiment will not destroy the knowledge of the subject.3. Serious contrast effects between conditions will not be present.
Term? The allocation of subjects to conditions is random when each subject has an equal and independent chance of being assigned to every condition. This process is called.. Random assignment or random allocation
Term? All potential confounding variables associated with the group members can be ruled out except when they become associated with the conditions by chance when using.. Random assignment or random allocation
If the subjects are not assigned to conditions randomly, the statistical tests are valid. True/False False. …tests are not valid.
When the subjects differ among themselves on an independent variable known or suspected to affect the dependent variable of interest, (what??) ___?___ might be necessary. Matching will be necessary
Nuisance variables (a condition in an experiment that cannot easily be removed) that cannot easily be removed from the experiment may be controlled by making them (what type??)_____?_____ variables in the experiment Independent
When you have used matching control procedure to match your subjects there is no need to randomly allocate the members of the pairs to conditions. True/False False…you must still randomly allocate the members of the pairs to conditions.
What is a variable? Aspect of a testing condition that can change or take on
What is a dependent variable? A measure of the subjects behavior that reflects the independent variables effects
What is frequency A number of times that a behavior is performed
What is rate? The number of times that a behavior is preformed relative to time
What is duration? The amount of time that a behavior lasts.
What is latency? The amount of time between an instruction and when the behavior is actually performed
What is topography? The shape or style of the behavior
What is focus? The intensity or strength of a behavior.
What is locus? Where the behavior occurs in the environment.
What is an independent variable? The condition manipulated or selected by the experimenter to determine its effect on behavior.
What are the three threats to external validity? Other subjects, other times, other settings.
How do other subjects threaten external validity? Mainly younger participants are involved in research, which may not generalize to the population.
How do time differences threaten external validity? There are differences in the past and the future of what may be acceptable or scientifically proven.
How do other settings threaten external validity? Results in studies can vary depending on the location which the research was conducted. Ex: Lab vs. Home
What is a one-group pretest-posttest design? A research design that measures the behavior of a single group of subjects both before and after treatment.
What are the two threats to statistical validity? Incorrect use of statistics and the problem of power (too small of an IV).
What is the threat to validity In a one –group pretest-posttest design A researcher can’t determine what caused the changes from the pretest to treatment to posttest
What are role demands of participants? The participants' expectations of what an experiment requires them to do.
What are two ways to minimize experimental bias? Have a "blind" condition and standardize experiments as much as possible.
What is a multiple baseline design? A research design that introduces experimental manipulation at different times for different behaviors to see if behavior change coincides with manipulation.
What is changing criterion design? A research design that introduces successively more stringent criteria for reinforcement to see if behavior change coincides with the changing criteria.
What kind of experimental design is an effective way of demonstrating that the manipulation caused the behavior change? The multiple baseline design.
What experiment design can be used across participants, across settings, or across behaviors? The multiple baseline design.
What experimental design is useful when the behavior change is irreversible? The Changing criterion design.
What type of research often employs single participant designs? Psychophysical.
If a researcher is trying to determine if rewarding a child with mental retardation for doing certain personal tasks is effective what experimental design would they use? The multiple baseline design.
A child is unable to sit still in class. The teacher rewards the child for sitting still for 5 minutes until performance is stable, then the criterion may be set at 10 minutes, then later 15and so forth. What experimental design is this? Changing criterion design.
Are changing criterion and multiple baseline designs forms of operant conditioning? Yes.
Because science rests on observation rather than authority, and challenges political and religious orthodoxies it is considered? liberal
Psychology is considered the ____ science? Youngest
A symbol, such as *, that is entered in a cell that has no data. Missing data code
Data points that are highly improbable, although not impossible. Extreme scores in a data set. Outliers
Empty cells in a data matrix. Missing data
Data points that fall outside the defined range for that variable of data. Data that can be entered by mistake. Invalid data
Can factorial experiments be conducted within or between subjects? Both
Can a mixed factorial have at least one within subject or one between subject? Both
A record, usually a table that specifies the variables of a study, the columns they occupy in the data file, and their possible values. Coding Guide
Can a variable have more than one condition? Yes
A study that has one between-subjects variable and one within-subjects variable is called . . .? A mixed factorial design
Which design uses all combinations of two or more independent variables? Factorial design
Which of the following are interactions: antagonistic, synergistic or a ceiling effect? All
What is an abstract? The abstract is a brief summary of the paper and includes elements from the introduction, method, results, and discussion sections.
In a factorial experiment what is the main effect of one variable? It’s the effect of that variable averaged over all the other levels of the other variable.
Who is Sam? Sam i am.
Which factorial design requires the fewest subjects to achieve a particular degree of power? Within-subjects factorial design
A type of graph based on median and percentiles rather than mean and standard deviation Box-and-Whisker Plot
Which factorial design has the most subjects to achieve a particular degree of power? Between-subjects factorial design.
What is debriefing? the process of informing subjects after the session of the experiments true purpose to increase their understanding and to remove possible harmful effects of deception.
Transcribing data from individual data sheets to a summary form; reducing data. Data reduction
Vertical lines in a graph that indicate plus or minus 1 standard deviation of the data or, less frequently, the standard error of the mean. Error Bars
What is the goal of an introduction? The introduction states the general problem the paper deals with, discusses the relevant literature, and states what the paper will contribute to the understanding of the problem.
What is the goal of a methods section? The methods section tells what you did in the experiment in such a way that another person can evaluate the validity of the conclusions of the study and can repeat it in all essentials.
What is the goal of the results section? The results section describes the results and their statistical analysis. Graphs and tables are discussed here.
What is the goal of the discussion section? The discussion section interprets the results and relates them to the literature. It states the contributions that the study makes to the understanding of the problem posed in the introduction.
Why is documentation important? Documentation is used in a paper to give credit to the work of other authors, to show the larger framework in which your ideas belong.
What is a reference list? The reference list contains an entry for each work cited in the text and no others.
Mathematical means of comparing subjects on paper when they cannot be equated as they exist in fact Statistical Control
Statistical control in the broad sense is synonymous to? Inferential Statistics
Repeating an experiment to see if the results will be the same Replication
The two types of replication that are commonly distinguished are? Direct and Systematic
The simplest experiment that will a convincing and clear hypothesis? Elegant Experiment
When selecting participants, a researcher must take into account? Ethical and Practical Consideration
The number of subjects to be used depends on? The size of the effect and Anticipated Variability of the data
The power of the experiment increases proportionally with? The square root of the number of subjects
Confound variables varies with? Independent Variables
What kind of observation is consent not necessary? Naturalistic observation
What is invisible college? Informal communication network of people having common scientific interests.
What is discourse community? A group of people who share common goals, a public forum, common knowledge, and a specialized language
What is an argument? A set of reasons in support of a proposition.
What is a thesis? The proposition that is supported by an argument.
Since some science is based on financial support, it is considered? conservative
The major support for science is from? The government
What is a greater source of bias than the government? Private funding
Private industry supports how much of all research in the U.S.? 60%
“Science is agnostic” is an? Essential limitation
“Science is incomplete” True of False True
Kohlberg’s theory has been criticized for being a conservative theory. True of False False. It has been criticized for being a liberal, middle-class, secular, humanistic morality.
_____ Psychology dates from about 1960. Cognitive
___ Psychology hardly existed before World War II. Social
What three words capture the essence of good report writing? Clarity, brevity, and felicity.
What is a secondary citation? Documentation of an idea from one work that is reported in another one.
What do psychology journals follow for detailed matters of style? The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
What should authors avoid in their writing? Sexism and ethnic bias.
What is the importance of the title? To convey the main idea of the paper in a few words.
How should the authors be listed in your paper? In the order of importance of their contributions.
What is an open-ended question? One that the respondents answer in their own words
What is a closed-ended question? One that limits the respondents to certain questions
What is mutually exclusive? Categories defined so that membership in one rules out all possibilities “non graduates” would ensuremembership in another
Categories defined so that all possible cases will fall into one of them is called… Exhaustive; for example “undergraduates” and “graduates” do not cover an exhaustive sample
What is social desirability? A characteristic of certain responses that causes people to choose that response even if it does not represent their true tendency or opinion
“Do you believe in killing unborn babies?” is an example of what type of question? A biased question
What is a verification key? A collection of items on a questionnaire designed to detect dishonest answers
What is acquiescience? The tendency to agree with a statement on a questionnaire, regardless of its content
The categories “undergraduate” and “graduate” are __________ because you cannot be both at the same time. Mutually exclusive
What is a visual analogue scale? A question that asks for a response by marking a line between the minimum or maximum value for the statement
What is a likert scale? A question that asks for a rating of the extent of agreement or disagreement with a statement; a rating scale
What is a response rate? In survey research, the percentage of individuals in the sample who return the completed survey
What is a haphazard sample? Population subgroup for whose selection the researcher uses hit-or-miss methods
What is a purposive sample? A nonrandom sample that is chosen for some characteristic that is possesses
What is a convenience sample? A nonrandom sample that is chosen for practical reasons
What is a random sample? A sample in which every member of the population has an equal and independent chance of being selected
What is a sampling frame? A population as it is defined for the purposes of selecting subjects for a study
What is an element? An individual member of a sampling frame
What is a systematic sample? A probability sample that is not randomly selected
Which type of question reveals the reasoning behind their answers? Open-ended question
The first question to ask when designing a questionnaire/survey is the same as for any research: what is that question? What do I expect to accomplish?
Which types of questions are easier to code and analyze? Closed-ended questions
Why is this item ambiguous: “College students should receive grades in their courses because this prepares them for the competitive world outside of college?” It is double-barreled: it contains both an opinion about grading and a reason for grading
Which type of bias will participants respond “yes” to both “I like fish” and “I don’t like fish”? Acquiescence
Which scale allows respondents to indicate their degree of agreement or disagreement with a particular position? Visual analogue scale
To balance people’s natural tendency to agree with any item, an experimenter might also include a question that _________________ Presents the matter the other side of the argument; for example: women should be allowed to decide for “themselves whether to continue a pregnancy” and “abortions should be restricted by law”
A graph in which the abscissa (x-axis) represents time Time Series Graph
What is a table? A display of data in a matrix format
What is a graph? A representation of data by spatial relationships in a diagram.
What is a frequency distribution? A graph that shows the number of scores that fall into specific bins, or divisions of the variable.
What are the characteristics of a histogram? A histogram is a frequency distribution in which the frequencies are represented by contiguous bars.
What is a frequency polygon? A frequency distribution in which the frequencies are connected by straight lines.
What does a normal curve look like? It is bell shaped.
What does skewed mean? It’s a distribution that is not symmetrical.
A frequency distribution that shows the number of scores that fall at or below a certain score is a _____________ Cumulative Frequency Distribution
What does a scattergram look like? A graph showing the responses of a number of individuals on two variables; visual display of correlational data.
Define median split. A division of the subjects in a study into two groups of equal size on the basis of one of the variables
A graphical representation using lines to show relationships between quantitative variables is a ____________. Line graph
A graphical representation of categorical data in which the heights of separated bars, or columns, show the relationships between variables is a _____________ graph. Bar
What are levels? The different values of an independent variable
What is a subject variable? A difference between subjects that cannot be controlled but can only be selected.
What is a confounded variable? One whose effect cannot be separated from the supposed independent variable.
What is a quantitative variable? One that varies in amount.
What is a categorical variable? One that varies in kind.
What is a continuous variable? One that falls along a continuum and is not limited to a certain number of values.
What is a discrete variable? One that falls into separate bins with no intermediate values possible.
What are apparent limits? The point indicated by a number.
What are real limits? The interval defined by the number plus or minus half the distance to the next number
What is measurement? The process of assigning numbers to events or objects according to rules
What is a nominal scale? A measure that simply divides objects or events into categories according to their similarities or differences.
What is an ordinal scale? The measure that both assigns objects or events a name and arranges them in order of their magnitude.
What is an interval scale? A measure in which the differences between numbers are meaningful; includes both nominal and ordinal information.
True or false: Do psychologists try to minimize pain of animal subjects in research? True
What do animal rights refer to? Idea that animals have the same kind of rights as people, including legal rights.
Is the notion of animal rights generally accepted? No
What does animal welfare refer to? Generally accepted term for concerns about the care and use of animals.
What is speciesism? Term used by those who claim it is unethical to treat animals differently than human, particularly in research.
Research and teaching are responsible for what percent of animal killings by humans? Less than 1%
What percent of animals in research are rats and mice? More than 90%
True or false: About 94% of animal research involves no use of pain true
True or false: Has animal research led to an improvement in the welfare of animals? true
What is the general position of researchers on animal research? It is permissible to cause a certain amount of suffering to a few animals to reduce the suffering of many millions of people.
What was the research importance of the case of the silver spring monkeys? To help stroke victims cope with loss of sensory information.
Do institutions doing animal research have animal care committees that oversee the operation of animal facilities? Yes.
Should there be documentation showing that the participant gave informed consent? Yes.
What concept do psychologists support; animal rights or animal welfare? Animal welfare.
What is a ratio scale? A measure having a meaningful zero point as well as all of the nominal, ordinal, and interval properties.
What is reliability? The property of consistency of a measure that gives the same result on different occasions
What is validity? (of a measurement) The property of a measure that tests what it is supposed to test.
Gender, weight, eye color, age and IQ are examples of what? Subject variables
Tattoos, death, age, diseases, and geographical locations are examples of what? Confounded variables
Defining a carrot as a vegetable is what type of scale of measurement? Nominal
Placing 2nd in a race is what type of scale of measurement? Ordinal
Using a likert scale on a survey is what type of scale of measurement? Interval
Age in years, income, number of times married and weight are examples of what type of scale of measurement? Ratio
What does the APA ethics code represents? The consensus of the psychology profession about what is considered acceptable practice.
What does IRB stand for? Institutional Review Board.
What is the purpose of informed consent? To insure that the participant is taking part volunteer and is aware of what is about to happen.
What should be included in an informed consent? Any risks or adverse effects. Include information about factors that might affect the willingness to participate
How does the APA ethics code differ from the medical view of informed consent? Saying the participants need to be informed only the aspects of the research that might be expected to influence their decision to participate.
Is the participant required to continue in the experiment? No, the participant has the freedom to refuse to participate or to withdraw at anytime without penalty.
What is the APA ethics code requirement on deception? the participant who has been deceived must be provided with a sufficient explanation of the deception after the experiment is completed.
True or False: All psychological research should be guided by the APA ethics code. True
What is the conflict that the decision to conduct research often presents? (two values) 1. The commitment to expanding knowledge. 2. Potential cost to research participants.
There should be some _________ showing that the participant gave informed consent to participate. documentation
It is impossible to avoid all risk to research participants, but what should researchers consider when conducting an experiment? Whether people would willing to put themselves in such a situation.
When can the Latin square technique be used? When it is not possible to control for order and sequence effects within subjects.
Within-subjects control of order and sequence effects may be achieved by what? Randomization, block randomization, or reverse counterbalancing.
In one factor experiments, the levels of the variables are sometimes called _______ or ______. Treatments or conditions.
Factors have at least ___ levels. Two.
What is the most important difference between a true experiment and a quasi experiment? In a true experiment the subjects are assigned to conditions. In quasi experiments the subjects are selected for conditions from previously existing groups.
This is a type of experiment in which the investigator lacks the degree of control over the conditions that is possible in a true experiment? Quasi experiment
What research design involves more than two conditions? Multiple-conditions design
What simple research design involves only two conditions? Two-conditions design.
What is the Latin square technique? a control procedure in which each subject experiences each condition in a different order from other subjects.
The method of control in which conditions are presented in order the first time and then in reverse order is called _________________. Reverse counterbalancing
What is a true experiment? It is a research procedure in which the scientist has complete control over all aspects.
What is an independent variable of an experiment? Factor
A _____ is a particular value of an independent variable. Level
What is a condition? A group or treatment in an experiment
What is another word for condition? Treatment
_______ effects are those that result from the (ordinal) position in which the condition appears in an experiment, regardless of the specific condition that is experienced. Order
Sequence effects are changes in a subject’s performance resulting from what? Interactions among the conditions themselves.
What is counterbalancing? Controlling for order and sequence effects by arranging that subjects experience the various conditions in different orders.
A useful variation on randomizing to control for order and sequence effects is ______________? Block randomization
The method of control in which conditions are presented in order the first time and then in reverse order is called _________________. Reverse counterbalancing
Research design that involves all combinations or at least two or more independent variables (12.1 – 2 X 2 X 2 Factorial)Factorial Design Factorial Design
In a factorial experiment, the effect of one independent variable, averaged over all levels of another independent variable Main effect
When the effect of one independent variable depends on the level of another independent variable. Look at Table(s) (12.2 – 12.4). Interaction
Interaction in which the two independent variables tend to reverse each other’s effects. Figure (12.7) Antagonistic Interaction
An interaction in which the two independent variables reinforce each other’s effects. Figures 12.8-12.9 Synergistic Interaction
Interaction in which one variable has a smaller effect when paired with a higher levels of a second variable. Figure 12.10-12.11 Ceiling-effect Interaction
True or False: Main effect means the principle effect of a variable? False
In 3 X 2 X 4 study, how many factors are there? Three
In a 2 X 2 X 2 study, how many levels and conditions? 6 levels and 8 conditions
A condition is? The different possible combinations of an Independent Variable
What is a reason for conducting a factorial design? To rule out whether one variable is affecting another.
What do factorial designs allow one to study? Interactions
Why is graphical information preferred when studying interaction? With graphical representation it is easier to see whether the curves are parallel
True or False: It is impossible to have an interaction when neither independent variable has a main effect. False
A factorial design with two variables each having two values or levels is what kind of design? Two-by-two design (2x2)
How many combinations of variables does a 2x2 design contain? Four combinations of variables
True or False: a 2x3 factorial experiment has two levels of one variable and three levels of another variable. True
What factorial design is most common among experimenters? A two or 3 factor design with two to six levels.
True of False: It is desirable to have many factors and levels in a factorial design. False
The averaging of data for columns of the same condition Column means
The averaging of data across the rows of the same condition Row means
To find out whether fuzziness, color, or noisiness was responsible for a child’s attraction to a toy, what factorial design would be used? 2x2x2
You are studying whether attractiveness or facial expression have effect on judged guiltiness. How many combinations of conditions would you have? Four
If two independent variables show a main effect but the variables do not show an interaction. What can be said about the variables? They do not effect each other
True or False: A factorial design utilizes every combination of two or more independent variables, each with two levels. True
When is a factorial design conducted? To study the joint effect of two or more independent variables.
True or False: A factorial design may be used to save time by studying many conditions. True
True or False: the main effect of one variable is the effect of that variable averaged over all levels of the other variables. True
True or False: A factorial design may be used when searching for possible interactions between the independent variables. True
When a graph of a factorial experiment has non parallel lines what does it mean? There is an interaction between the variables
True or False: The main effect of an interaction is impenetrable False, the nature of the interaction must be taken into account
When does an interaction exist between two independent variables? When one independent variable has a different effect on the dependent variable when it is combined with one level of another independent variable and then another level.
True or False: A factorial design may be used when ruling out one rival hypothesis. False, more than one rival hypothesis
What is a widely used method of gathering scientific data and is used to determine how people feel about a particular issue? A survey
What is a major function of surveys? Dispel myths
What helps determine whether or not a person is lying or trying to make themselves look better on a survey? Verification key
When participants have the tendency to agree with any statement on the survey, which bias is this called? Acquiescence
When a scale looks like this Agree---------------------Disagree and the participants can choose their degree of agreement or disagreement, what is it called? Visual analogue scale
When a scale looks like this Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Disagree, what is it called? Likert scale
If a survey’s first question asks if you drink for one question and if the answer is no, you skip to question 9, this is called? Branching items
Why do researchers need to sequence the items on a survey? It reduces bias; for example, if the survey is about drinking, the researcher needs to ask whether or not they drink first in order to see if the survey will be relevant to them or not
What are the four different modes of administering surveys? Face-to-face, written, computerized, and by telephone
What are the advantages of a face-to-face survey? Interviewers can motivate the respondents to answer questions carefully, guarantee order of questions, can notice when respondents misunderstand a question
What are the disadvantages of a face-to-face survey? Respondents can say what they think the interviewers want to hear
What is the main advantage of written questionnaires? Low cost
What is the main problem of written questionnaires? Response rate; usually drop-off and mail administration can have as low of response rates as less than 50%
Which sample would favor a group of people more than others? Haphazard sample; for example in the election of Landon vs. Roosevelt, researchers called people and found they predicted Landon would win. They did not consider that not everyone could have the luxury of a telephone. Roosevelt won by a landslide
Which sample would only survey the presidents of leading colleges? Purposive sample
When professors use students from introductory psychology classes, what type of sample is this called? Convenience sample
Which sample allows the researcher to apply various statistics? Probability samples
The population that you will work with for your particular study is called? The sampling frame
What sample is achieved by choosing every nth person from a list? Systematic sample
Created by: bloke100 on 2009-04-26



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